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Midcycle spotting [keywords]
- Menstrual bleeding patterns among regularly menstruating women. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural]
- Am J Epidemiol 2012 Mar 15; 175(6):536-45.
Menstrual bleeding patterns are considered relevant indicators of reproductive health, though few studies have evaluated patterns among regularly menstruating premenopausal women. The authors evaluated self-reported bleeding patterns, incidence of spotting, and associations with reproductive hormones among 201 women in the BioCycle Study (2005-2007) with 2 consecutive cycles. Bleeding patterns were assessed by using daily questionnaires and pictograms. Marginal structural models were used to evaluate associations between endogenous hormone concentrations and subsequent total reported blood loss and bleeding length by weighted linear mixed-effects models and weighted parametric survival analysis models. Women bled for a median of 5 days (standard deviation: 1.5) during menstruation, with heavier bleeding during the first 3 days. Only 4.8% of women experienced midcycle bleeding. Increased levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (β = 0.20, 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.27) and progesterone (β = 0.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.09) throughout the cycle were associated with heavier menstrual bleeding, and higher follicle-stimulating hormone levels were associated with longer menses. Bleeding duration and volume were reduced after anovulatory compared with ovulatory cycles (geometric mean blood loss: 29.6 vs. 47.2 mL; P = 0.07). Study findings suggest that detailed characterizations of bleeding patterns may provide more insight than previously thought as noninvasive markers for endocrine status in a given cycle.
- [Religious (Halachic) infertility]. [English Abstract, Historical Article, Journal Article]
- Harefuah 2009 Apr; 148(4):271-4.
Reproductive concepts and practices among observant Orthodox Jews may Lead to Halachic subfertility in a significant portion of couples. According to Halachah [the Jewish code of law) sexual activity may not take place during the time a woman menstruates (Niddah) as well as for a full week thereafter (7 days of cleanliness). Coitus is allowed to resume after the woman has immersed herself in a ritual bath (mikvah). In the case of unexpected spotting or bleeding (Zavah), the woman should consult a rabbi and a doctor to determine the origin of the blood. Uterine bleeding entails that intercourse is forbidden for a minimum of 5 initial days plus 7 days thereafter. In practice, any minute bleeding or spotting, regardless of timing during the menstrual cycle, renders the woman ritually impure and invokes the stringencies of Niddah rulings. Even a physiologic occurrence such as midcycle ovulatory bleeding or spotting renders the woman Zavah and prohibits sexual intercourse at the optimal time for conception. The inability to conceive in this halachically mandated time period is not due to a biologic fault but rather to social, cultural and religious norms as defined by the rabbinate. Medically lengthening the pre-ovulatory phase is a common practice, as shortening the count of days of ritual impurity is often seen as nonnegotiable. Ethical issues concerning the role of the physician and the safety of such treatments are discussed.
- An empathetic look at overweight. [Journal Article]
- CCL Family Found 1993 Nov-Dec; 20(3):3, 5.
- Menometrorrhagia in an oral contraceptive user. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- J Fam Pract 1993 Feb; 36(2):229-31.
Endometrial carcinoma is the most frequent malignancy of the female reproductive tract, and irregular vaginal bleeding is the most common presenting symptom. Endometrial carcinoma is found most commonly among postmenopausal women and is associated with obesity, nulliparity, and anovulation. Oral contraceptive (OC) use and tobacco smoking have been reported to protect against endometrial carcinoma. Irregular vaginal bleeding is a common side effect of OC therapy. We report the case of an obese, premenopausal nulliparous woman with normal menses who developed menometrorrhagia and was then found to have endometrial carcinoma despite her youth and her use of both tobacco and combination OC.
- Cycle control with triphasic norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol, a new oral contraceptive agent. [Clinical Trial, Journal Article, Multicenter Study]
- Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl 1992.:22-6.
Effective cycle control was demonstrated based on two multicenter, 2-year studies of the triphasic oral contraceptive (OC) agent containing the new progestin norgestimate. The estrogen in this OC is ethinyl estradiol. These open-label Phase III studies were conducted in the United States by 33 investigators at 33 sites who treated a total of 1,783 subjects, healthy women 17 to 38 years of age with menstrual cycle characteristics considered to be within the normal range. The norgestimate/ethinyl estradiol preparation was taken for up to 24 cycles. Follow-up information was collected 3 to 4 months post-treatment. Bleeding pattern analyses were based on 27,970 valid cycles. Normal cyclic bleeding patterns were experienced by most of the women during the study; only minimal and statistically and clinically insignificant variations in menstrual flow, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual tension occurred. There was a low incidence of failed withdrawal bleeding in single cycles (less than 1.0% after cycle 6). There were no cases of amenorrhea, defined as two consecutive cycles of missed withdrawal flow. The incidence of breakthrough bleeding or spotting was highest during the initial treatment cycles and diminished with continued use of the formulation. The mean incidence of breakthrough bleeding was 2.36% in cycles 13 to 24. Apart from somewhat higher initial percentages among women new to oral contraception, the pattern of midcycle bleeding or spotting was similar to that of all women studied. Effective long-term cycle control was demonstrated in women who used this OC agent.
- Levonorgestrel subdermal implants (Norplant) for long-term contraception. [Journal Article]
- MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 1991 Jul-Aug; 16(4):232.
- A biphasic basal body temperature record during pregnancy. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Acta Eur Fertil 1989 Nov-Dec; 20(6):371-2.
A case of biphasic temperature record is reported during the course of an ectopic pregnancy. Possible implications of this phenomenon may improve our understanding of the role of ovum transmigration and the endocrinological interaction of pregnancy with hormonal control of ovulation.
- The use of periodic abstinence for family planning. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S., Review]
- Clin Obstet Gynecol 1989 Jun; 32(2):387-402.
- Dysfunctional uterine bleeding. [Journal Article, Review]
- Prim Care 1988 Sep; 15(3):561-74.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is classified by the character of the menstrual cycle: ovulatory or anovulatory. Anovulation can occur at any age and is physiologic in the first year or two after menarche and for several years before menopause. Anovulatory cycles are characteristically irregular and marked by prolonged episodes of bleeding unassociated with signs or symptoms of ovulation. Specific causes of anovulation such as hyperprolactinemia, thyroid disease, androgen excess, anorexia, obesity, and excess exercise can be treated specifically; otherwise, therapy depends upon patient goals. Cycle regulation can be affected by monthly courses of progestin, such as medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera), 10 mg daily for 10 days each month. Contraception and cycle regulation can both be accomplished with oral contraceptives. Fertility, on the other hand, will require ovulation induction. Ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding most prevalent in parous women between the ages of 20 and 40 is associated with regular cycle intervals and premenstrual molimina. Midcycle and perimenstrual spotting can often be treated with observation only, but depending upon patient and/or physician concerns, periodic hormonal suppression is effective. The management of menorrhagia should include the following: (1) exclusion of pathology in the genital tract; (2) reduction in activity during days of heavy flow; (3) the avoidance of aspirin in the week before and on days of flow; (4) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; (5) cycle suppression--oral contraceptives, danazol (Danocrine), depo-progestin; (6) luteal phase progestin; and (7) surgical intervention.
- The triphasics: insights for effective clinical use. [Journal Article]
- Nurse Pract 1987 Feb; 12(2):17-8, 23, 26-8.
Three triphasic oral contraceptive preparations are currently being widely used in the United States. These are Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 (Ortho Pharmaceutical), Tri-Norinyl (Syntex) and Triphasil (Wyeth). The hormone manipulation in these formulations more closely mimics the normal menstrual cycle and decreases the total amount of hormone delivered. These drugs were formulated to decrease menstrual irregularities and nuisance side effects and increase menstrual control, while maintaining efficacy and safety. This article describes these products, their mechanisms of action, efficacy and selected areas of concern for clinical practice in relation to side effects, safety and menstrual control. Findings and suggestions related to the therapeutic administration, patient use, counseling and management of these newer oral contraceptives will assist the nurse practitioner in providing optimum care to the consumer.