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Nail disorders, miscellaneous [keywords]
- Toxic effects of multiple anticancer drugs on skin. [Journal Article]
- Pak J Pharm Sci 2010 Jan; 23(1):7-14.
In this study, cutaneous toxicities associated with the administration of chemotherapy in combination are discussed. Rapidly growing cells are the targets of chemotherapy, so the skin, hair follicles, and nail matrix are frequently affected by chemotherapy. Chemotherapy skin reactions are more likely toxic than allergic reactions. There are numerous chemotherapy-induced cutaneous reactions that have been described in the literature. In addition to a variety of miscellaneous reactions, 19 major cutaneous reactions were discussed in current study. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical spectrum of all cutaneous toxicities over two years in hospitalized and ambulatory patients in the Department of Pediatric oncology and to establish probable relationship between the reaction and suspected anticancer protocol with the help of WHO (World Health Organization) Common Toxicity Criteria by Grade. The data on the cutaneous toxicities were analyzed by percentile and ranking method. The minimal (0.8%) cutaneous adverse effects monitored during the study were Petechiae, photosensitivity, pruritus, urticaria, wound-infection, erythema multiforme, hand-foot skin reaction, injection site reaction, dry skin. Alopecia was the single most common (64.3%) adverse effect observed during the study, where as the pigmentary changes were the second most common (18.2%) adverse effect monitored. While these side effects are generally not life threatening, they can be a source of significant distress to patients, especially alopecia.
- Mucocutaneous side effects of antineoplastic chemotherapy. [Journal Article, Review]
- Expert Opin Drug Saf 2004 Nov; 3(6):579-87.
All structures of the skin may be affected by side effects of antineoplastic chemotherapy. The most commonly described effects concern skin adnexes, especially hair with alopecia. Nails are also frequently involved. Eccrine sweat or sebaceous gland involvement is more rarely reported. Mucous membranes, particularly in the mouth, are frequently altered by several mechanisms; direct cytotoxicity, infection, and a decrease in polymorphonuclear or platelet counts. Among cutaneous side effects, hyperpigmentation is very common and may have different clinical patterns; generalised, figurated, or localised. Acral erythema is another cutaneous side effect that is relatively specific to chemotherapy and is often dose-related. Some cutaneous side effects are related to an interaction between chemotherapy and radiation, particularly phototoxicity, recall phenomenon, and radiation enhancement. Miscellaneous, less frequent, side effects are described; sclerodermiform dermatitis, Raynaud's phenomenon, and hypersensitivity syndrome. In some cases, cutaneous side effects are relatively specific to one type of drug. Capillary leak syndrome is most often related to taxanes. Hydroxyurea is responsible for some peculiar cutaneous side effects (ulcerations, pseudo-dermatomyositis), perhaps due to long-term administration of the drug. Although mucocutaneous side effects of chemotherapy are frequent and sometimes severe, interruption of the culprit drug is rarely mandatory. However, adaptation of the dosage or prevention of some of these side effects remains necessary. Antineoplastic chemotherapies are widely used in many therapeutic protocols and may be responsible for numerous mucocutaneous side effects, either specific or more unusual. In rare cases, the severity of these side effects may require interruption of therapy. They may involve skin adnexes, mucous membranes or the skin itself. This review discusses cytotoxic antineoplastic drugs only, not cytokines, monoclonal antibodies or transduction factors used in the treatment of cancer.
- Evaluation and initial management of miscellaneous pediatric surgical problems. [Journal Article, Review]
- Pediatr Ann 2001 Dec; 30(12):752-9.
- Onychomycosis: predisposed populations and some predictors of suboptimal response to oral antifungal agents. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Dermatol 1999 Dec; 9(8):633-8.
The population groups predisposed to onychomycosis and factors associated with a poor response to antifungal therapy may be subdivided into (a) genetic, (b) environmental, (c) systemic conditions, (d) local nail characteristics, and (e) other miscellaneous items. By paying attention to the scenarios that may lead to a suboptimal response to the therapy and a higher probability of relapse of the onychomycosis, it may be possible to improve the overall cost-effectiveness of treatments for onychomycosis. Besides attempting to achieve a cure when treating onychomycosis it is important to take steps to prevent reinfection with fungal organisms.
- [A descriptive study of pediatric dermatologic diseases diagnosed at the Manises Health Center over 1 year]. [Comparative Study, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Aten Primaria 1998 Mar 31; 21(5):297-301.
To determine the frequency and types of paediatric dermatological pathologies diagnosed at a Primary Care Centre, and the referrals for them to specialists.Descriptive study.Primary Care Paediatrics clinic at the Manises Health Centre, Valencia.Children under 14 attending the clinic during 1995.The diagnostic groups were: skin infections, Dermatitis-Eczema, Urticaria-Erythema, Zoonosis, hair and nail disorders, pigmentation disorders and miscellaneous. Age groups were: under one, from 1 to 4, from 5 to 9 and from 10 to 13. Referrals were to the Specialist Centre and to the hospital. There were 1309 first dermatological consultations (5.91% if all paediatric consultations). 38.20% were for skin infections; 25.67% for Dermatitis; 17.11% for Urticarias; 8.33% for Zoonosis; 4.89% for disorders of hair and nail; 1.83% for pigmentation disorders; and the remaining 3.97% miscellaneous. 160 (12.22%) were referred to specialists.There is a great deal of dermatological pathology in non-hospital paediatric clinics. Over 90% of this pathology is in one of the first five groups above.
- Noninfectious skin disorders. [Newspaper Article]
- J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care 1995 Dec; 1(11):20-31.
- Miscellaneous nail presentations. [Journal Article, Review]
- Clin Podiatr Med Surg 1995 Apr; 12(2):327-46.
A variety of individual nail dystrophies that are not categorized easily in other articles are reviewed. Onychoatrophia, anonychia, onychorrhexis, leukonychia, Beau's lines, onycholysis, onychomadesis, onychoschizia, haplonychia, longitudinal melanonychia, and ventral pterygium are included and pictured clinically. Their clinical description, etiology, associated conditions, differential diagnoses, and treatments are discussed and tabulated.
- Significance of nail changes in leprosy: a clinical review of 357 cases. [Journal Article, Review]
- Semin Dermatol 1991 Mar; 10(1):77-81.
Leprosy can cause many nail changes, which have been observed in up to 64% of infected patients. The manifestations of leprosy (clinical, bacteriologic, and histological) are profoundly affected by the patient's immunological status, which also determines the prognosis. Nail changes in leprosy can be caused by neuropathy and trauma, vascular impairment, infections, and miscellaneous changes. Often more than one factor will be important. Paradoxically, nail changes in tuberculoid and lepromatous patients are similar, despite wide differences in pathology. This may be because etiological factors common to both are implicated. Factors only associated with lepromatous disease are invasion of the bones of terminal phalanges by lepromatous granulomas and endarteritis occurring during type 2 lepra reactions. Otherwise, the only difference from tuberculoid leprosy is the time of onset and the symmetry of lesions. Lepromatous patients develop nail changes late in the course of disease. The presentation is usually bilaterally symmetrical. However, these changes are not specific to leprosy, and may be observed in other peripheral neuropathies.
- Complications of the perionychium. [Journal Article]
- Hand Clin 1986 May; 2(2):407-27.
The anatomy and physiology of the perionychium are reviewed and complications secondary to trauma, to miscellaneous problems (such as neuroma, infections, and cysts), and to tumors are discussed.
- Nail changes caused by systemic drugs or ingestants. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Clin 1985 Jul; 3(3):491-500.
Systemic drugs or ingestants may affect the nails. Changes vary from asymptomatic growth rate changes and pigmentation abnormalities to nail shedding and permanent deformity. The former two changes are most common. Presented are changes in nails caused by antibiotics, cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, poisons and ingestants, antimalarial drugs, and miscellaneous drugs.