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Nausea and vomiting [keywords]
- Third-line docetaxel chemotherapy for recurrent and metastatic gastric cancer. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Intern Med 2013 May; 28(3):314-21.
BACKGROUNDAIMS: To determine the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel as a third-line therapy for patients with relapsed gastric cancer who have undergone modified oxaliplatin-fluorouracil (m-FOLFOX)-4 and modified irinotecan-fluorouracil (m-FOLFIRI) regimens.We analyzed 33 patients who had been histologically diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the stomach and who had progressed after m-FOLFOX-4 and m-FOLFIRI regimens. Patients were treated with cycles of 75 mg/m(2) docetaxel on day 1 every 3 weeks.The median age of the patients was 56.0 years (range, 31.0 to 74.0), and 73% of the patients (24/33) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. All patients were evaluated in terms of tumor response: five (15%), nine (27%), and 19 (58%) patients experienced a partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease, respectively. The median time to progression was 2.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 2.58), and overall survival was 4.7 months (95% CI, 3.20 to 6.20), from the start of the docetaxel regimen. Assessing patients' toxicity profiles, the median number of cycles was 2.0 (range, 1.0 to 12.0). The major hematologic toxicities included grade 3 to 4 neutropenia (19/33, 58%), grade 3 to 4 thrombocytopenia (2/33, 6%), and grade 3 to 4 anemia (5/33, 15%). Neutropenic fever developed in three patients (3/33, 9%). The nonhematological toxicities were nausea and vomiting (10/33, 30%), abdominal pain (4/33, 12%), skin rash (1/33, 3%), and fluid retention (3/33, 9%).Docetaxel is a feasible third-line therapy regimen for patients with advanced gastric cancer after m-FOLFIRI and m-FOLFOX-4 regimens.
- A comprehensive multimodal pain treatment reduces opioid consumption after multilevel spine surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Spine J 2013 May 17.
PURPOSE:Major spine surgery with multilevel instrumentation is followed by large amount of opioid consumption, significant pain and difficult mobilization in a population of predominantly chronic pain patients. This case-control study investigated if a standardized comprehensive pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) treatment protocol would improve pain treatment in this population.
METHODS:A new regimen with acetaminophen, NSAIDs, gabapentin, S-ketamine, dexamethasone, ondansetron and epidural local anesthetic infusion or patient controlled analgesia with morphine, was introduced in a post-intervention group of 41 consecutive patients undergoing multilevel (median 10) instrumented spinal fusions and compared with 44 patients in a pre-intervention group.
RESULTS:Compared to patients in the pre-intervention group, patients treated according to the new protocol consumed less opioid on postoperative day (POD) 1 (P = 0.024) and 2 (P = 0.048), they were mobilized earlier from bed (P = 0.003) and ambulation was earlier both with and without a walking frame (P = 0.027 and P = 0.027, respectively). Finally, patients following the new protocol experienced low intensities of nausea, sedation and dizziness on POD 1-6.
CONCLUSIONS:In this study of patients scheduled for multilevel spine surgery, it was demonstrated that compared to a historic group of patients receiving usual care, a comprehensive and standardized multimodal pain and PONV protocol significantly reduced opioid consumption, improved postoperative mobilization and presented concomitant low levels of nausea, sedation and dizziness.
- Effect of Perioperative Intravenous Lidocaine Administration on Pain, Opioid Consumption, and Quality of Life after Complex Spine Surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anesthesiology 2013 May 15.
BACKGROUND::The authors tested the primary hypothesis that perioperative IV lidocaine administration during spine surgery (and in the postanesthesia care unit for no more than 8 h) decreases pain and/or opioid requirements in the initial 48 postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes included major complications, postoperative nausea and vomiting, duration of hospitalization, and quality of life.
METHODS::One hundred sixteen adults having complex spine surgery were randomly assigned to perioperative IV lidocaine (2 mg·kg·h) or placebo during surgery and in the post-anesthesia care unit. Pain was evaluated with a verbal response scale. Quality of life at 1 and 3 months was assessed using the Acute Short-form (SF) 12 health survey. The authors initially evaluated multivariable bidirectional noninferiority on both outcomes; superiority on either outcome was then evaluated only if noninferiority was established.
RESULTS::Adjusted mean pain scores were 4.4 (4.2-4.7) points on the verbal response scale for lidocaine and 5.3 (5.0-5.5) points for placebo (P < 0.001). Adjusted mean morphine equivalents were 55 (36-84) mg for lidocaine and 74 (49-111) mg for placebo (P = 0.12). Postoperative nausea and vomiting and the duration of hospitalization did not differ significantly. Patients given lidocaine had slightly fewer 30-day complications than patients given placebo (odds ratio [95% CI] of 0.91 [0.84-1.00]; P = 0.049). Patients given lidocaine had significantly greater SF-12 physical composite scores than placebo at 1 (38 [31-47] vs. 33 [27-42]; P = 0.002) and 3 (39 [31-49] vs. 34 [28-44]; P = 0.04) months, postoperatively.
CONCLUSION:: IV lidocaine significantly improves postoperative pain after complex spine surgery.
- Dexamethasone for the prevention of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and other complications after thyroid surgery: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013 May 1; 139(5):471-8.
IMPORTANCE Recurrent laryngeal nerve dysfunction and hypoparathyroidism are well-recognized, important complications of thyroid surgery. The duration of convalescence after noncomplicated thyroid operation may depend on several factors, of which pain and fatigue are the most important. Nausea and vomiting occur mainly on the day of operation. Glucocorticoids are well known for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulating and antiemetic effects. However, there is little information in the literature on the use of steroids in thyroid surgery, and the information that is available is conflicting.
OBJECTIVETo investigate whether preoperative dexamethasone could improve surgical outcome in patients undergoing thyroid surgery. DESIGN A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. A 30-day follow-up for morbidity was performed in all cases. SETTING All patients were hospitalized in a public hospital. PARTICIPANTS From June 2008 through August 2011, 328 patients were randomized to receive either intravenous dexamethasone, 8 mg, administered 90 minutes before skin incision, or saline solution (placebo). INTERVENTIONS Intravenous dexamethasone, 8 mg. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end points were temporary or permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Transient and definitive hypoparathyroidism, pain and fatigue scores, nausea, and the number of vomiting episodes were also registered. Preoperatively and at several times during the first 24 postoperative hours, we measured C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and interleukin 1β levels.
RESULTSIn the dexamethasone group, the rate of temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (4.9%) was significantly lower compared with the placebo group (8.4%) (P = .04). Also, postoperative transient biochemical hypoparathyroidism occurred more frequently in the placebo group (37.0%) than in the dexamethasone group (12.8%). Dexamethasone use significantly reduced postoperative levels of C-reactive protein (P = .01) and interleukin 6 and interleukin 1β (P = .02), fatigue (P = .01), and overall pain during the first 24 postoperative hours (P = .04), as well as the total analgesic (ketorolac tromethamine) requirement (P = .04). Dexamethasone use also reduced nausea and vomiting on the day of operation (P = .045).
CONCLUSIONSAND RELEVANCE Preoperative administration of dexamethasone, 8 mg, reduced postoperative temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism rates and reduced pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting after thyroid surgery. However, these data require further analysis in randomized prospective studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:NCT01690806.
- Phase II Study of Pemetrexed as Second or Third Line Combined Chemotherapy in Patients with Colorectal Cancer. [Journal Article]
- Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013; 14(3):2019-22.
Purpose:To investigate the safety and efficacy of pemetrexed combined with chemotherapy as second or third line in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients and
Methods:This trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pemetrexed given to patients with recurrent or metastatic colorectal carcinoma who previously received 5-FU-based chemotherapy. All patients were required to have a histological diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma with measurable metastatic disease and prior chemotherapy. Patients received pemetrexed at a dose of 500 mg/m2 by 10 minute infusion on day 1, repeated every 21 days. Doses were modified depending on nadir counts. Combined chemotherapy included Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan and cis-platinum.
Results:Thirty patients were enrolled and twenty-nine were evaluable for response. One patient did not have repeat radiological testing to determine response because he went off study after only one cycle of treatment for economic reasons. For 29 evaluable patients, 1 partial response, 6 stable disease and 22 progressive disease were recorded. Response rate was 3.45% (1/29). All responses occurred in patients receiving a starting dose of pemetrexed 500 mg/m2. Median time to progression for all eligible patients was 2.5 months. The most common toxicities experienced were mild to moderate fever, hepatic damage, myelosuppression, nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rash.
Conclusion:Pemetrexed at 500 mg/m2 given every three weeks combined with chemotherapy is associated with moderate response and good tolerability in patients with stage IV CRC.
- Incarcerated Morgagni hernia in an octogenarian with incidental right-sided colonic malignancy. [Journal Article]
- Med Arh 2013; 67(1):73-4.
We present an incarcerated Morgagni hernia in an octogenarian with incidental right-sided colonic malignancy who was admitted to clinic due to abdominal pain and symptoms of intestinal obstruction. An 85-old male patient had a history of constipation, abdominal distension, pain, vomiting, nausea and radiographic features of bowel obstruction and mediastinal mass in right lower chest. Under suspicion of acute intestinal obstruction due to transverse colon herniation in thorax through Morgagni foramen, emergent laparotomy was performed. Morgagni foramen was located on the right-sided anterior diaphragm and Morgagni hernia which contained of incarcerated transverse colon, greater omentum and 70 cm small bowel after releasing the adhesions was gently reduced. In the same time right-sided colon malignancy was found. Morgagni foramen measuring 7 cm in diameter was sutured first and decompressive bypass ileocolic anastomosis was created. The role of emergent surgery, even in advanced age, is emphasized.
- Aquaporin-4 antibody-positive cases beyond current diagnostic criteria for NMO spectrum disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2013 May 15.
OBJECTIVES:To analyze aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive patients who do not fulfill the current diagnostic criteria of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD).
METHODS:We used a cell-based assay (CBA) with AQP4-transfected cells to detect AQP4 antibody in 298 consecutive patients with inflammatory CNS disorders seen at Tohoku University Hospital from 2007 to 2012. The patients were diagnosed as NMO, NMOSD, multiple sclerosis, or others using the respective current diagnostic criteria. The seropositive samples by CBA were also tested using a commercial ELISA.
RESULTS:Seventy-two patients were AQP4 antibody positive. Among them, 18.1% (13/72) did not meet the NMO or NMOSD criteria (7 with monophasic optic neuritis, 2 with attacks restricted to the brainstem, and 4 with myelitis with less than 3 vertebral segments) and 84.6% (11/13) of these had only a single attack. The ELISA results were negative in 38.4% (5/13) of those patients, and they had lower antibody titers by CBA than patients with NMO/NMOSD. Although these patients had a shorter follow-up and few attacks, they shared some clinical features with NMO/NMOSD patients such as onset age, female predominance, presence of other autoantibodies, severe optic neuritis attacks, centrally located spinal cord lesions, persisting hiccups, and nausea or vomiting episodes.
CONCLUSIONS:AQP4 antibody-positive patients with single or recurrent attacks of optic neuritis, myelitis, or brain/brainstem disease not fulfilling the current criteria of NMO or NMOSD may not be uncommon, and they should also be included in the NMO spectrum.
- Tetrandrine combined with gemcitabine and Cisplatin for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer improve efficacy. [Journal Article]
- Int J Biomed Sci 2012 Mar; 8(1):28-35.
Lung cancer has the highest morbidity and mortality of any malignant tumor. To improve efficacy and reduce toxicity in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is important to integrate traditional and conventional medicine. Two hundred and forty patients with advanced NSCLC were randomized to tetrandrine plus GP or GP only. We infused gemcitabine on days 1 and 8; cisplatin on day 1. The tetrandrine group received continuous i.v. infusion for 10 days, with treatment repeated every 21 days. After 2 consecutive treatment cycles, we used RECIST criteria to evaluate short-term efficacy. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed according to Karnofsky score (KPS) and body weight change. We used NCI CTC 3.0 to evaluate treatment toxicity. The short-term objective response rate was 36.1% in the tetrandrine group and 24.3% in the controls (P=0.057). The short-term disease control rate was 63.9% in the tetrandrine group and 52.3% in the controls (P=0.081). The 1-year survival rates were 45.7% and 31.3%, respectively (P=0.059). KPS scores improved by 49.1% and 32.4%, respectively (P=0.012). Body weight increased by 28.7% in the tetrandrine group and 16.2% in the controls (P=0.027). The incidence of grade 2-4 leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea, and vomiting in the tetrandrine group was 38.0%, 19.4%, 46.3%, and 16.7%, respectively; the control group figures were 53.2%, 34.2%, 63.0% and 27.9% (P<0.05). Tetrandrine may improve short-term efficacy and survival in patients with advanced NSCLC. Tetrandrine may also mitigate adverse reactions to chemotherapy and improve QOL for patients with NSCLC.
- Minor ailments in pregnancy are not a minor concern for pregnant women: a morbidity assessment survey in rural sri lanka. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e64214.
Although maternal mortality has become a major focus on global public health agenda, maternal morbidity is a neglected area of research. The purpose of this paper is to present the burden of acute maternal illness during pregnancy.A cross sectional study was carried out in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. Pregnant women residing in the Anuradhapura district with a gestational age more than 24 weeks through 36 weeks were recruited to the study using a two-stage cluster sampling technique. All pregnant women who consented participated in a detailed interview using a structured questionnaire. Self reported episodes of acute illness during pregnancy were the main outcome measures. Secondary outcomes were utilization of medical services and frequency of hospitalizations.Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) was experienced by 325 (69.7%) of the 466 pregnant women studied. Other common symptoms were backache (152, 32.6%), dizziness (112, 24.0%) and heartburn/regurgitation (107, 23.0%). Of the 421 pregnant women who reported ill health conditions 260 (61.8%) women sought medical treatment for these illnesses. Total number of episodes that needed treatment seeking were 373. Hospitalizations were reported by 83 (17.8%) pregnant women and the total number of hospitalizations was 109. The leading cause of hospitalization was NVP which accounted for 43.1% of total admissions and 49.1% of total days spent in hospitals.Minor maternal ill health conditions affecting day-to-day life have a major burden on pregnancy period. Evidence based management guidelines and health promotion strategies are needed to control and prevent these conditions, in order to provide comprehensive, good quality maternal health care.
- Cetirizine-associated delusions and depression in an 18-year-old woman. [Journal Article]
- Clin Neuropharmacol 2013 May-Jun; 36(3):96-7.
Cetirizine is a second-generation H1 histamine receptor antagonist that is commonly used for symptomatic relief of hay fever and other allergies and can be combined with pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, a decongestant. The most common adverse effects include headache, nausea, nasopharyngitis, vomiting, and coughing.To report on an adolescent 18-year-old woman who developed delusional thinking and depression after starting treatment with cetirizine.We report on an adolescent 18-year-old woman who developed delusional thinking and depression after starting treatment with cetirizine. Once cetirizine was discontinued, the patient returned to her clinical baseline.Physicians need to be aware of the potential psychiatric adverse effects associated with cetirizine.