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Neurology AND Movement disorders [keywords]
- Functional Neurological Symptom Disorders in a Pediatric Emergency Room: Diagnostic Accuracy, Features, and Outcome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Neurol 2014 Aug; 51(2):233-238.
In children, functional neurological symptom disorders are frequently the basis for presentation for emergency care. Pediatric epidemiological and outcome data remain scarce.Assess diagnostic accuracy of trainee's first impression in our pediatric emergency room; describe manner of presentation, demographic data, socioeconomic impact, and clinical outcomes, including parental satisfaction.(1) More than 1 year, psychiatry consultations for neurology patients with a functional neurological symptom disorder were retrospectively reviewed. (2) For 3 months, all children whose emergency room presentation suggested the diagnosis were prospectively collected. (3) Three to six months after prospective collection, families completed a structured telephone interview on outcome measures.Twenty-seven patients were retrospectively assessed; 31 patients were prospectively collected. Trainees' accurately predicted the diagnosis in 93% (retrospective) and 94% (prospective) cohorts. Mixed presentations were most common (usually sensory-motor changes, e.g. weakness and/or paresthesias). Associated stressors were mundane and ubiquitous, rarely severe. Families were substantially affected, reporting mean symptom duration 7.4 (standard error of the mean ± 1.33) weeks, missing 22.4 (standard error of the mean ± 5.47) days of school, and 8.3 (standard error of the mean ± 2.88) of parental workdays (prospective cohort). At follow-up, 78% were symptom free. Parental dissatisfaction was rare, attributed to poor rapport and/or insufficient information conveyed.Trainees' clinical impression was accurate in predicting a later diagnosis of functional neurological symptom disorder. Extraordinary life stressors are not required to trigger the disorder in children. Although prognosis is favorable, families incur substantial economic burden and negative educational impact. Improving recognition and appropriately communicating the diagnosis may speed access to treatment and potentially reduce the disability and cost of this disorder.
- Controlling Parkinson's Disease With Adaptive Deep Brain Stimulation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vis Exp 2014; (89)
Adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) has the potential to improve the treatment of Parkinson's disease by optimizing stimulation in real time according to fluctuating disease and medication state. In the present realization of adaptive DBS we record and stimulate from the DBS electrodes implanted in the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease in the early post-operative period. Local field potentials are analogue filtered between 3 and 47 Hz before being passed to a data acquisition unit where they are digitally filtered again around the patient specific beta peak, rectified and smoothed to give an online reading of the beta amplitude. A threshold for beta amplitude is set heuristically, which, if crossed, passes a trigger signal to the stimulator. The stimulator then ramps up stimulation to a pre-determined clinically effective voltage over 250 msec and continues to stimulate until the beta amplitude again falls down below threshold. Stimulation continues in this manner with brief episodes of ramped DBS during periods of heightened beta power. Clinical efficacy is assessed after a minimum period of stabilization (5 min) through the unblinded and blinded video assessment of motor function using a selection of scores from the Unified Parkinson's Rating Scale (UPDRS). Recent work has demonstrated a reduction in power consumption with aDBS as well as an improvement in clinical scores compared to conventional DBS. Chronic aDBS could now be trialed in Parkinsonism.
- An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of botulinum toxin-antibodies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mov Disord 2014 Jul 29.
Antibodies against botulinum neurotoxin (BNT-AB) can be detected by the mouse protection assay (MPA), the hemidiaphragm assay (HDA), and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Both MPA and HDA require sacrifice of experimental animals, and they are technically delicate and labor intensive. We introduce a specially developed ELISA for detection of BNT-A-AB and evaluate it against the HDA.Thirty serum samples were tested by HDA and by the new ELISA. Results were compared, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to optimize ELISA parameter constellation to obtain either maximal overall accuracy, maximal test sensitivity, or maximal test specificity. When the ELISA is optimized for sensitivity, a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 55% can be reached. When it is optimized for specificity, a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 90% can be obtained.We present an ELISA for BNT-AB detection that can be-for the first time-customized for special purposes. Adjusted for optimal sensitivity, it reaches the best sensitivity of all BNT-AB tests available.Using the new ELISA together with the HDA as a confirmation test allows testing for BNT-AB in large numbers of patients receiving BT drugs in an economical, fast, and more animal-friendly way. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- Exploration of the neural correlates of cerebral palsy for sensorimotor BCI control. [Journal Article]
- Front Neuroeng 2014.:20.
Cerebral palsy (CP) includes a broad range of disorders, which can result in impairment of posture and movement control. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been proposed as assistive devices for individuals with CP. Better understanding of the neural processing underlying motor control in affected individuals could lead to more targeted BCI rehabilitation and treatment options. We have explored well-known neural correlates of movement, including event-related desynchronization (ERD), phase synchrony, and a recently-introduced measure of phase dynamics, in participants with CP and healthy control participants. Although present, significantly less ERD and phase locking were found in the group with CP. Additionally, inter-group differences in phase dynamics were also significant. Taken together these findings suggest that users with CP exhibit lower levels of motor cortex activation during motor imagery, as reflected in lower levels of ongoing mu suppression and less functional connectivity. These differences indicate that development of BCIs for individuals with CP may pose additional challenges beyond those faced in providing BCIs to healthy individuals.
- Three Phenotypes of Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Antibody Encephalitis in Children: Prevalence of Symptoms and Prognosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Neurol 2014 May 29.
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody encephalitis is becoming an increasingly recognized cause of encephalopathy in cases previously presumed to be viral encephalitis. Various manifestations of this disease include altered mental status, behavioral changes, seizures, and movement disorders. We have noted three distinct subtypes of this disease which appear to have differential responses to immunotherapies and differences in prognosis.We report a case series of eight patients observed at our children's hospital from 2009 through 2013 who appear to clearly fall into one of our three clinical categories. To find comparable articles reflecting this classification, we then performed a MEDLINE search of all articles involving the subject heading "anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis" or just the keyword phrase "NMDA encephalitis," and we found 162 articles to review. Twenty-two articles were eliminated for being basic science in focus, and we were able to review 105 of the remaining articles, most of which were case reports or case series, although a few were larger reviews. For the sake of our review, we defined type 1 or "classic" anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis as having a duration of <60 days and being characterized predominantly by a catatonic or stuporous state, type 2 or psychiatric-predominant anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis as having no noteworthy catatonic or stuporous state in addition to the presence of predominantly behavioral and psychiatric symptoms, and type 3 or catatonia-predominant anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis as having a duration of ≥60 days in a predominantly catatonic or stuporous state.We note that the poorest responders, even to aggressive immunotherapies, are the patients with catatonia-persistent type anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis, which has, as its hallmark, prolonged periods of severe encephalopathy. Patients with predominantly psychiatric symptoms, which we call the psychiatric-predominant anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis, have had excellent responses to plasma exchange or other immunotherapies and appear to have the least residual deficits at follow-up. Patients with fairly equal representations of periods of altered mental status, behavioral problems, and movement disorders appear to have an intermediate prognosis and likely require early aggressive immunotherapy.In our case series, we discuss representative examples of these clinical subtypes and their associated outcomes, and we suggest that tracking these subtypes in future cases of anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis might lead to better understanding and better risk stratification with regard to immunotherapy decisions.
- New evidence for gait abnormalities among Parkinson's disease patients who suffer from freezing of gait: insights using a body-fixed sensor worn for 3 days. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neural Transm 2014 Jul 29.
Previous studies conducted in laboratory settings suggest that the gait pattern in between freezing of gait (FOG) episodes is abnormal among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who suffer from FOG (i.e., "freezers"), compared to those who do not (i.e., "non-freezers"). We evaluated whether long-term recordings also reveal gait alterations in freezers and if these features were related to freezing severity and its impact on daily function. 72 patients with PD wore a 3-D accelerometer for 3 days. Acceleration-derived gait features included quantity (e.g., the amount of walking) and quality measures (e.g., gait variability). The New FOG-Questionnaire evaluated the subject's perceptions of FOG severity and its impact. Age, gender, and disease duration were similar (p > 0.19) in the 28 freezers and 44 non-freezers. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups, while freezers walked with higher gait variability (i.e., larger anterior-posterior power spectral density width; p = 0.003) and lower gait consistency (i.e., lower vertical stride regularity; p = 0.007). Group differences were observed when comparing the typical (i.e., median), best, and worst performance among the multiple walking bouts measured. Vertical and medio-lateral gait consistency were associated with the impact of FOG on daily living (r < -0.39, p < 0.044). The present findings demonstrate that freezers have altered gait variability and consistency during spontaneous community ambulation, even during optimal performance, and that these measures are associated with the impact of FOG on daily function. Long-term recordings may provide new insights into PD and augment the monitoring of FOG and its response to therapy.
- Neuroimaging essentials in essential tremor: A systematic review. [Journal Article, Review]
- Neuroimage Clin 2014.:217-31.
Essential tremor is regarded to be a disease of the central nervous system. Neuroimaging is a rapidly growing field with potential benefits to both diagnostics and research. The exact role of imaging techniques with respect to essential tremor in research and clinical practice is not clear. A systematic review of the different imaging techniques in essential tremor is lacking in the literature.WE PERFORMED A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE SEARCH COMBINING THE TERMS ESSENTIAL TREMOR AND FAMILIAL TREMOR WITH THE FOLLOWING KEYWORDS: imaging, MRI, VBM, DWI, fMRI, PET and SPECT, both in abbreviated form as well as in full form. We summarize and discuss the quality and the external validity of each study and place the results in the context of existing knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of essential tremor.A total of 48 neuroimaging studies met our search criteria, roughly divided into 19 structural and 29 functional and metabolic studies. The quality of the studies varied, especially concerning inclusion criteria. Functional imaging studies indicated cerebellar hyperactivity during rest and during tremor. The studies also pointed to the involvement of the thalamus, the inferior olive and the red nucleus. Structural studies showed less consistent results.Neuroimaging techniques in essential tremor give insight into the pathophysiology of essential tremor indicating the involvement of the cerebellum as the most consistent finding. GABAergic dysfunction might be a major premise in the pathophysiological hypotheses. Inconsistencies between studies can be partly explained by the inclusion of heterogeneous patient groups. Improvement of scientific research requires more stringent inclusion criteria and application of advanced analysis techniques. Also, the use of multimodal neuroimaging techniques is a promising development in movement disorders research. Currently, the role of imaging techniques in essential tremor in daily clinical practice is limited.
- Subjectively perceived personality and mood changes associated with subthalamic stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychol Med 2014 May 12.:1-13.
Clinical and ethical implications of personality and mood changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) are under debate. Although subjectively perceived personality changes are often mentioned by patients and caregivers, few empirical studies concerning these changes exist. Therefore, we analysed subjectively perceived personality and mood changes in STN-DBS PD patients.In this prospective study of the ELSA-DBS group, 27 PD patients were assessed preoperatively and 1 year after STN-DBS surgery. Two categories, personality and mood changes, were analysed with semi-structured interviews. Patients were grouped into personality change yes/no, as well as positive/negative mood change groups. Caregivers were additionally interviewed about patients' personality changes. Characteristics of each group were assessed with standard neurological and psychiatric measurements. Predictors for changes were analysed.Personality changes were perceived by six of 27 (22%) patients and by 10 of 23 caregivers (44%). The preoperative hypomania trait was a significant predictor for personality change perceived by patients. Of 21 patients, 12 (57%) perceived mood as positively changed. Higher apathy and anxiety ratings were found in the negative change group.Our results show that a high proportion of PD patients and caregivers perceived personality changes under STN-DBS, emphasizing the relevance of this topic. Mood changed in positive and negative directions. Standard measurement scales failed to adequately reflect personality or mood changes subjectively perceived by patients. A more individualized preoperative screening and preparation for patients and caregivers, as well as postoperative support, could therefore be useful.
- Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis: diagnosis, optimal management, and challenges. [Journal Article, Review]
- Ther Clin Risk Manag 2014.:517-25.
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDA-R) encephalitis is a new autoimmune disorder, often paraneoplastic in nature, presenting with complex neuropsychiatric symptoms. Diagnosed serologically, this disorder is often responsive to immunosuppressant treatment. The objective of this review is to educate clinicians on the challenges of diagnosis and management of this disorder.A review of the relevant literature on clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and recommended management was conducted using a PubMed search. Examination of the results identified articles published between 2007 and 2014.The literature highlights the importance of recognizing early common signs and symptoms, which include hallucinations, seizures, altered mental status, and movement disorders, often in the absence of fever. Although the presence of blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid autoantibodies confirms diagnosis, approximately 15% of patients have only positive cerebrospinal fluid titers. Antibody detection should prompt a search for an underlying teratoma or other underlying neoplasm and the initiation of first-line immunosuppressant therapy: intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, or plasmapheresis, or a combination thereof. Second-line treatment with rituximab or cyclophosphamide should be implemented if no improvement is noted after 10 days. Complications can include behavioral problems (eg, aggression and insomnia), hypoventilation, catatonia, and autonomic instability. Those patients who can be managed outside an intensive care unit and whose tumors are identified and removed typically have better rates of remission and functional outcomes.There is an increasing need for clinicians of different specialties, including psychiatrists, neurologists, oncologists, neurooncologists, immunologists, and intensivists to become familiar with this disorder and its potential complications. Remission can be optimized with prompt detection and aggressive, collaborative treatment within a multidisciplinary team.
- In a Rush to Decide: Deep Brain Stimulation and Dopamine Agonist Therapy in Parkinson's Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Parkinsons Dis 2014 Jul 24.
Background: It has been suggested that all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who undergo functional neurosurgery have difficulties in slowing down in high conflict tasks. However, it is unclear whether concomitant dopaminergic medication is responsible for this impairment. Objective: To assess perceptual decision making in PD patients with bilateral deep brain stimulation. Methods: We tested 27 PD patients with bilateral deep brain stimulation on a task in which participants had to filter task relevant information from background noise. Thirteen patients were treated with Levodopa monotherapy and 14 patients were treated with Levodopa in combination with a dopamine agonist. Results were compared to healthy matched controls. Results: We found that all PD patients who were treated with a dopamine agonist made faster decisions than controls and PD patients who were not exposed to a dopamine agonist. Further, all patients made more errors than controls, but there was no difference between the two patient groups. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dopamine agonist therapy rather than deep brain stimulation is likely responsible for the inability to slow down in high conflict situations in PD. These results further strengthen the need to reduce dopamine agonists in PD patients undergoing functional neurosurgery in order to prevent them making inadvisable decisions.