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Neurology AND Movement disorders [keywords]
- Author response. [Comment, Letter]
- Neurology 2014 Feb 18; 82(7):643.
- Effects of using the nintendo wii fit plus platform in the sensorimotor training of gait disorders in Parkinson's disease. [Journal Article]
- Neurol Int 2014 Jan 17; 6(1):5048.
The use of the Nintendo Wii has been considered a good alternative in the motor rehabilitation of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), requiring simultaneous interaction to develop strategies for physical, visual, auditory, cognitive, psychological and social activities in the performing of virtual activities, resulting in improvement in functional performance and gait. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of virtual sensorimotor activity on gait disorders in people with PD. Fifteen subjects with a clinical diagnosis of PD were submitted to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III), Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (SE), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and biomechanical gait analysis using digital images taken with a video camera before and after the treatment program. The activities with the Nintendo Wii virtual platform were standardized into three categories: aerobics, balance and Wii plus exercises. Participants carried out separate virtual exercises for 40 min, twice a week, for a total of 14 sessions. The program improved sensorimotor performance in PD gait, with an increase in stride length and gait speed, in addition to a reduction in motor impairment, especially in items of rigidity and flexibility of the lower limbs evaluated by UPDRS III, and greater functional independence, as evidenced in the SE and FIM scales. Improvements in items related to locomotion and stair climbing were also observed. The training was effective in motor recovery in chronic neurodegenerative diseases, showing improvement in motor performance and functional independence in individuals with PD.
- Diagnoses behind patients with hard-to-classify tremor and normal DaT-SPECT: a clinical follow up study. [Journal Article]
- Front Aging Neurosci 2014.:56.
The [(123)I]ioflupane-a dopamine transporter radioligand-SPECT (DaT-SPECT) has proven to be useful in the differential diagnosis of tremor. Here, we investigate the diagnoses behind patients with hard-to-classify tremor and normal DaT-SPECT. Therefore, 30 patients with tremor and normal DaT-SPECT were followed up for 2 years. In 18 cases we were able to make a diagnosis. The residual 12 patients underwent a second DaT-SPECT, were then followed for additional 12 months and thereafter the diagnosis was reconsidered again. The final diagnoses included cases of essential tremor, dystonic tremor, multisystem atrophy, vascular parkinsonism, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome, psychogenic parkinsonism, iatrogenic parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease. However, for 6 patients the diagnosis remained uncertain. Larger series are needed to better establish the relative frequency of the different conditions behind these cases.
- Motor Events during Healthy Sleep: A Quantitative Polysomnographic Study. [Journal Article]
- Sleep 2014; 37(4):763-73.
Many sleep disorders are characterized by increased motor activity during sleep. In contrast, studies on motor activity during physiological sleep are largely lacking. We quantitatively investigated a large range of motor phenomena during polysomnography in physiological sleep.Prospective polysomnographic investigation.Academic referral sleep laboratory.One hundred healthy sleepers age 19-77 y were strictly selected from a representative population sample by a two-step screening procedure.N/A.Polysomnography according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) standards was performed, and quantitative normative values were established for periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), high frequency leg movements (HFLM), fragmentary myoclonus (FM), neck myoclonus (NM), and rapid eye movement (REM)-related electromyographic (EMG) activity. Thirty-six subjects had a PLMS index > 5/h, 18 had a PLMS index > 15/h (90th percentile: 24.8/h). Thirty-three subjects had HFLM (90th percentile: four sequences/night). All subjects had FM (90th percentile 143.7/h sleep). Nine subjects fulfilled AASM criteria for excessive FM. Thirty-five subjects had NM (90th percentile: 8.8/h REM sleep). For REM sleep, different EMG activity measures for the mentalis and flexor digitorum superficialis muscles were calculated: the 90th percentile for phasic mentalis EMG activity for 30-sec epochs according to AASM recommendation was 15.6%, and for tonic mentalis EMG activity 2.6%. Twenty-five subjects exceeded the recently proposed phasic mentalis cutoff of 11%. None of the subjects exceeded the tonic mentalis cutoff of 9.6%.Quantification of motor phenomena is a basic prerequisite to develop normative values, and is a first step toward a more precise description of the various motor phenomena present during sleep. Because rates of motor events were unexpectedly high even in physiological sleep, the future use of normative values for both research and clinical routine is essential.Frauscher B; Gabelia D; Mitterling T; Biermayr M; Bregler D; Ehrmann L; Ulmer H; Högl B. Motor events during healthy sleep: a quantitative polysomnographic study. SLEEP 2014;37(4):763-773.
- Revisiting the Molecular Mechanism of Neurological Manifestations in Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Beyond Vascular Damage. [REVIEW]
- J Immunol Res 2014.:239398.
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a multiorgan disease often affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Typically, neurological manifestations of APS include thrombosis of cerebral vessels leading to stroke and requiring prompt initiation of treatment with antiplatelet drugs or anticoagulant therapy. In these cases, alterations of the coagulation system at various levels caused by multiple effects of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been postulated to explain the vascular damage to the CNS in APS. However, several nonvascular neurological manifestations of APS have progressively emerged over the past years. Nonthrombotic, immune-mediated mechanisms altering physiological basal ganglia function have been recently suggested to play a central role in the pathogenesis of these manifestations that include, among others, movement disorders such as chorea and behavioral and cognitive alterations. Similar clinical manifestations have been described in other autoimmune CNS diseases such as anti-NMDAR and anti-VGCK encephalitis, suggesting that the spectrum of immune-mediated basal ganglia disorders is expanding, possibly sharing some pathophysiological mechanisms. In this review, we will focus on thrombotic and nonthrombotic neurological manifestations of APS with particular attention to immune-mediated actions of aPL on the vascular system and the basal ganglia.
- Swiss Cheese Striatum: Clinical Implications. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA Neurol 2014 Apr 14.
IMPORTANCE Markedly enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces throughout the striatum appear occasionally on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the elderly, and this type of striatum is known as the Swiss cheese striatum (SCS); however, its clinical impact is unknown. OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical features associated with SCS detected on MRI scans. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A blinded, retrospective case-control study using medical records from 2000 to 2007 obtained from an MRI database at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, of residents 40 years of age or older of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who had extensive Mayo Clinic medical records and MRI reports suggestive of SCS. Cases with a severe form of SCS (n = 27) were randomly selected for comparison with age-, sex-, and examination year-matched controls (n = 52) with a minimal form of SCS or no SCS. EXPOSURE Magnetic resonance imaging. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Associations of clinical and imaging features with the presence of a severe form of SCS. Medical records were reviewed for clinical features such as parkinsonism, dementia, and vascular risk factors. The MRI scans were visually scored for degree of leukoaraiosis, central atrophy, and cortical atrophy. RESULTS No significant differences were found between those with a severe form of SCS and controls in rates of parkinsonism (19% vs 17%; odds ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.28-4.16]) or dementia of any type (30% vs 21%; odds ratio, 1.57 [95% CI, 0.48-5.13]). Vascular risk factors were not significantly different between groups. Swiss cheese striatum correlated with degree of leukoaraiosis (P < .001). Potential associations with visualized cortical atrophy (P = .01), nonobstructive urinary incontinence (18.5% vs 3.9%; P = .04), and syncope (37% vs 9.6%; P = .01) did not hold up after correction for the false discovery rate. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our study suggests that marked cribriform change in the striatum was not associated with the development of extrapyramidal clinical disorders, including parkinsonism. The association of SCS with leukoaraiosis suggests that it is part of a more generalized cerebrovascular process. Skepticism is called for when attributing clinical symptoms to this MRI finding.
- The "brittle response" to Parkinson's disease medications: characterization and response to deep brain stimulation. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(4):e94856.
Formulate a definition and describe the clinical characteristics of PD patients with a "brittle response" (BR) to medications versus a "non-brittle response" (NBR), and characterize the use of DBS for this population.An UF IRB approved protocol used a retrospective chart review of 400 consecutive PD patients presenting to the UF Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration. Patient records were anonymized and de-identified prior to analysis. SPSS statistics were used to analyze data.Of 345 included patients, 19 (5.5%) met criteria for BR PD. The BR group was comprised of 58% females, compared to 29% in the NBR group (P = .008). The former had a mean age of 63.4 compared to 68.1 in the latter. BR patients had lower mean weight (63.5 vs. 79.6, P = <.001), longer mean disease duration (12.6 vs. 8.9 years, P = .003), and had been on LD for more years compared to NBR patients (9.8 vs. 5.9, P = .001). UPDRS motor scores were higher (40.4 vs. 30.0, P = .001) in BR patients. No differences were observed regarding the Schwab and England scale, PDQ-39, and BDI-II. Sixty-three percent of the BR group had undergone DBS surgery compared to 18% (P = .001). Dyskinesias were more common, severe, and more often painful (P = <.001) in the BR group. There was an overall positive benefit from DBS.BR PD occurred more commonly in female patients with a low body weight. Patients with longer disease duration and longer duration of LD therapy were also at risk. The BR group responded well to DBS.
- Covert Anti-Compensatory Quick Eye Movements during Head Impulses. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(4):e93086.
Catch-up saccades during passive head movements, which compensate for a deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), are a well-known phenomenon. These quick eye movements are directed toward the target in the opposite direction of the head movement. Recently, quick eye movements in the direction of the head movement (covert anti-compensatory quick eye movements, CAQEM) were observed in older individuals. Here, we characterize these quick eye movements, their pathophysiology, and clinical relevance during head impulse testing (HIT).Video head impulse test data from 266 patients of a tertiary vertigo center were retrospectively analyzed. Forty-three of these patients had been diagnosed with vestibular migraine, and 35 with Menière's disease.CAQEM occurred in 38% of the patients. The mean CAQEM occurrence rate (per HIT trial) was 11±10% (mean±SD). Latency was 83±30 ms. CAQEM followed the saccade main sequence characteristics and were compensated by catch-up saccades in the opposite direction. Compensatory saccades did not lead to more false pathological clinical head impulse test assessments (specificity with CAQEM: 87%, and without: 85%). CAQEM on one side were associated with a lower VOR gain on the contralateral side (p<0.004) and helped distinguish Menière's disease from vestibular migraine (p = 0.01).CAQEM are a common phenomenon, most likely caused by a saccadic/quick phase mechanism due to gain asymmetries. They could help differentiate two of the most common causes of recurrent vertigo: vestibular migraine and Menière's disease.
- CHRNB3 c.-57A>G functional promoter change affects Parkinson's disease and smoking. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurobiol Aging 2014 Mar 20.
Cigarette smoking is protective in Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly because of nicotine action on brain nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors. The β3 nicotinic-acetylcholine receptor subunit (encoded by CHRNB3) is depleted in the striatum of PD patients and associated with nicotine dependence. Herein, the CHRNB3 gene was sequenced, and the c.-57G allele frequency was 0.31 and 0.26 among patients (n = 596) and controls (n = 369), respectively (p = 0.02, odds ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.73). The c.-57G allele was strongly associated with smoking in patients, as 48.4% of c.-57G carriers compared with 32.6% of noncarriers reported smoking history (p < 0.0001). The transcription factor Oct-1 binding was almost eliminated in lymphoblasts with the c.-57G/G genotype, to only 6.5% percent, and the CHRNB3 promoter activity was reduced in cells with the c.-57G/G genotype by 96%-70%. These findings suggest that the CHRNB3 c.-57A>G alteration affects the promoter activity and is associated with PD and smoking in PD patients. It is therefore possible that nicotine may be valuable for patients who carry this alteration and beneficial in PD only for patients with specific genotypes.