- Pisa syndrome in Parkinson's disease: An integrated approach from pathophysiology to management. [Review]
- MDMov Disord 2016 Oct 25
- Pisa syndrome was first described in 1972 in patients treated with neuroleptics. Since 2003, when it was first reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Pisa syndrome has progressively draw...
Pisa syndrome was first described in 1972 in patients treated with neuroleptics. Since 2003, when it was first reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Pisa syndrome has progressively drawn the attention of clinicians and researchers. Although emerging evidence has partially clarified its prevalence and pathophysiology, the current debate revolves around diagnostic criteria and assessment and the effectiveness of pharmacological, surgical, and rehabilitative approaches. Contrary to initial thought, Pisa syndrome is common among PD patients, with an estimated prevalence of 8.8% according to a large survey. Furthermore, it is associated with the following specific patient features: more severe motor phenotype, ongoing combined pharmacological treatment with levodopa and dopamine agonists, gait disorders, and such comorbidities as osteoporosis and arthrosis. The present literature on treatment outcomes is scant, and the uneven effectiveness of specific treatments has produced conflicting results. This might be because of the limited knowledge of Pisa syndrome pathophysiology and its variable clinical presentation, which further complicates designing randomized clinical trials on this condition. However, because some forms of Pisa syndrome are potentially reversible, there is growing consensus on the importance of its early recognition and the importance of pharmacological adjustment and rehabilitation. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- Incidence and time trends of drug-induced parkinsonism: A 30-year population-based study. [Journal Article]
- MDMov Disord 2016 Oct 25
- CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of drug-induced parkinsonism increased with older age and was higher in women at all ages. Typical antipsychotic drugs were the most common cause. The incidence of drug-induced parkinsonism decreased over the 30 years of the study because of changes in drug use. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- Brain plasticity in Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait induced by action observation training. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurol 2016 Oct 24
- Gait disorders represent a therapeutic challenge in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigated the efficacy of 4-week action observation training (AOT) on disease severity, freezing of gait an...
Gait disorders represent a therapeutic challenge in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigated the efficacy of 4-week action observation training (AOT) on disease severity, freezing of gait and motor abilities in PD, and evaluated treatment-related brain functional changes. 25 PD patients with freezing of gait were randomized into two groups: AOT (action observation combined with practicing the observed actions) and "Landscape" (same physical training combined with landscape-videos observation). At baseline and 4-week, patients underwent clinical evaluation and fMRI. Clinical assessment was repeated at 8-week. At 4-week, both groups showed reduced freezing of gait severity, improved walking speed and quality of life. Moreover, AOT was associated with reduced motor disability and improved balance. AOT group showed a sustained positive effect on motor disability, walking speed, balance and quality of life at 8-week, with a trend toward a persisting reduced freezing of gait severity. At 4-week vs. baseline, AOT group showed increased recruitment of fronto-parietal areas during fMRI tasks, while the Landscape group showed a reduced fMRI activity of the left postcentral and inferior parietal gyri and right rolandic operculum and supramarginal gyrus. In AOT group, functional brain changes were associated with clinical improvements at 4-week and predicted clinical evolution at 8-week. AOT has a more lasting effect in improving motor function, gait and quality of life in PD patients relative to physical therapy alone. AOT-related performance gains are associated with an increased recruitment of motor regions and fronto-parietal mirror neuron and attentional control areas.
- Brain structural profile of multiple system atrophy patients with cognitive impairment. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neural Transm (Vienna) 2016 Oct 24
- Current consensus diagnostic criteria for multiple system atrophy (MSA) consider dementia a non-supporting feature, although cognitive impairment and even frank dementia are reported in clinical prac...
Current consensus diagnostic criteria for multiple system atrophy (MSA) consider dementia a non-supporting feature, although cognitive impairment and even frank dementia are reported in clinical practice. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a commonly used global cognitive scale, and in a previous study, we established an MSA-specific screening cut-off score <27 to identify cognitive impairment. Finally, MSA neuroimaging findings suggest the presence of structural alterations in patients with cognitive deficits, although the extent of the anatomical changes is unclear. The aim of our multicenter study is to better characterize anatomical changes associated with cognitive impairment in MSA and to further investigate cortical and subcortical structural differences versus healthy controls (HC). We examined retrospectively 72 probable MSA patients [50 with normal cognition (MSA-NC) and 22 cognitively impaired (MSA-CI) based on MMSE <27] and compared them to 36 HC using gray- and white-matter voxel-based morphometry and fully automated subcortical segmentation. Compared to HC, MSA patients showed widespread cortical (bilateral frontal, occipito-temporal, and parietal areas), subcortical, and white-matter alterations. However, MSA-CI showed only focal volume reduction in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared with MSA-NC. These results suggest only a marginal contribution of cortical pathology to cognitive deficits. We believe that cognitive dysfunction is driven by focal fronto-striatal degeneration in line with the concept of "subcortical cognitive impairment".
- Teaching NeuroImages: Stroke mimicking thalamotomy: Cessation of tremor following ventrolateral thalamic ischemia. [Journal Article]
- NeurNeurology 2016 Oct 25; 87(17):e208-e209
- Autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease: Incidence of mutations in LRRK2, SNCA, VPS35 and GBA genes in Brazil. [Journal Article]
- NLNeurosci Lett 2016 Oct 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings in a representative series of index cases from families with ADPD emphasize the important contribution of LRRK2 G2019S and GBA (L444P and N370S) mutations to parkinsonism in Brazilian families. The absence of mutations in VPS35 and SNCA genes reveals that they are uncommon causes of PD in Brazil, corroborating previous studies that also failed to detect these genetic variants in PD patients from other populations. Recent discoveries of novel causative genes of autosomal dominant forms of PD expand the investigative possibilities and should be targeted on future studies.
- Complementary and alternative medicine in Indian Parkinson's disease patients. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Tradit Complement Med 2016; 6(4):377-382
- Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué) in Parkinson disease (PD) ranged 40-70%. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency, types and factors a...
Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué) in Parkinson disease (PD) ranged 40-70%. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency, types and factors associated with the use of CAM in Indian PD patients. PD patients, fulfilling UKPD-Society brain-bank diagnostic-criteria, attending Movement-disorders clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in India from 1st May to 15th December 2012 were enrolled. Information on socio-demographic, clinical data and treatment along with factors (source of information, benefits, harms, reason for use and cost) associated with CAM use were recorded. Out of 233 consecutive PD patients, 106 (46%) used CAM. Mean ± SD age of CAM users was 56 ± 11.2 years. Among CAM users, 72% were males, with mean age-onset 49 ± 11.16 years (P = 0.042) and 73% receiving levodopa therapy (p = 0.006). Longer duration PD, higher education (graduates and above), urban residence, and fairly good perceived health were other factors seen among CAM users. Reasons for using CAM were 'feel good factor' (73%), 9% took CAM due to side effects from allopathic-medicines. Commonly used CAM were Ayurvedic, homeopathic medicines, and acupuncture ( zhēn jiǔ) [74/106 (70%)]. Median CAM cost in Indian Rupees (INR) was 1000/month (USD16, range: 0-400USD/month in year 2012). Almost half of PD patients use CAM. Three-quarters of Indian CAM using PD patients believe that CAM is harmless, using it at a substantial cost. CAM-users are educated, young, urban dwellers, longer duration PD and receiving levodopa. Commonly used CAM was Ayurvedic, Homeopathic medicines and acupuncture.
- Novel Levodopa Formulations for Parkinson's Disease. [Review]
- CDCNS Drugs 2016; 30(11):1079-1095
- Levodopa remains the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease and is considered the gold standard therapy. However, disease progression and changes in the gastrointestinal tract result in a d...
Levodopa remains the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease and is considered the gold standard therapy. However, disease progression and changes in the gastrointestinal tract result in a declining window of treatment response in a majority of patients. Efforts have been made recently to improve levodopa bioavailability either by developing more effective oral formulations or by innovating routes of administration (intestinal infusion, transcutaneous or inhaled levodopa). IPX066 is a novel levodopa-carbidopa (LD/CD) oral formulation combining immediate-release (IR) and extended-release (ER) LD/CD recently approved in the USA and the EU. Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is an approved therapy consisting of a suspension of levodopa and carbidopa infused directly into the proximal jejunum via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy (PEG-J) tube through a portable infusion pump. Ongoing studies are evaluating the 'accordion pill' (AP09004), an ER LD/CD formulation with gastroretentive properties. ND0612 is a proprietary liquid formulation of LD/CD that enables subcutaneous administration via a small patch-pump device, and CVT-301 is a levodopa inhalation powder with rapid onset of action; both are currently in active studies. Other novel formulations have been discontinued, including DM-1992, which is a bilayer formulation containing an IR LD/CD layer and an ER LD/CD layer with gastroretentive properties, and XP21279, a novel oral levodopa prodrug that is absorbed from the small and large intestine by high-capacity nutrient transporters expressed throughout the gastrointestinal system. ODM-101 is a new oral formulation of levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone that contains a higher amount of carbidopa (65 or 105 mg), but no active studies are underway. The current review aims to summarize the pharmacokinetic aspects, clinical efficacy, and potential adverse events of novel levodopa formulations currently available or under development.
- Sleep Disturbances in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Updated Review and Implications for Treatment. [Journal Article]
- PAPsychiatr Ann 2016; 46(3):173-176
- Sleep disturbances are common in adults with PTSD and range from insomnia and nightmares to periodic leg movements and disruptive nocturnal behaviors. Together these findings suggest profound disturb...
Sleep disturbances are common in adults with PTSD and range from insomnia and nightmares to periodic leg movements and disruptive nocturnal behaviors. Together these findings suggest profound disturbances in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, although there is a lack of consensus regarding a distinct profile of objective sleep disturbances associated with PTSD. Prospective, longitudinal studies have established that sleep disturbances represent a risk factor for the development and course of PTSD, suggesting that sleep is an important neurobiological mechanism in the etiology and maintenance of this disorder. This research highlights the importance of early identification and treatment of sleep disturbances in at-risk and trauma exposed populations. A number of psychological and pharmacological treatments are effective at treating sleep disturbances in PTSD. Additional research is needed to further develop clinical guidelines informing when and how to integrate sleep-specific treatment with PTSD focused clinical care.
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- Clinical Characteristics and Long-Term Outcomes of Movement Disorders in Childhood Thalamic Tumors. [Journal Article]
- PNPediatr Neurol 2016 Aug 22
- CONCLUSIONS: No specific injury of the thalamic nuclei was associated with movement disorders in children with thalamic tumors, and the severity of these disorders did not change over time.