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- A Novel Mutation of the TAZ Gene in Barth Syndrome: Acute Exacerbation after Contrast-Dye Injection. [Journal Article]
- J Korean Med Sci 2013 May; 28(5):784-7.
A 14-month-old boy was transferred because of dilated and hypertrophied left ventricle, neutropenia, and developmental delay. After checking computed tomographic angiography with contrast-dye, the patient showed acute exacerbation and finally died from multi-organ failure despite intensive cares. From genetic analysis, we revealed that the patient had Barth syndrome and found a novel hemizygous frame shift mutation in his TAZ gene, c.227delC (p.Pro76LeufsX7), which was inherited from his mother. Herein, we report a patient with Barth syndrome who had a novel mutation in TAZ gene and experienced unexpected acute exacerbation after contrast dye injection for computed tomographic angiography.
- A randomized, multi-center, open-label, phase II study of once-per-cycle DA-3031, a biosimilar pegylated G-CSF, compared with daily filgrastim in patients receiving TAC chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Invest New Drugs 2013 May 16.
Backgrounds A pegylated form of recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was developed for prophylactic use in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-per-cycle DA-3031 in patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Methods A total of 61 patients receiving docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC) chemotherapy were randomized in cycle 1 to receive daily injections of filgrastim (100 μg/m(2)) or a single subcutaneous injection of pegylated filgrastim DA-3031 at a dose of either 3.6 mg or 6 mg. Results The mean duration of grade 4 neutropenia in cycle 1 was comparable among the treatment groups (2.48, 2.20, and 2.05 days for filgrastim, DA-3031 3.6 mg and 6 mg, respectively; P = 0.275). No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidence of febrile neutropenia between the treatment groups (9.5 %, 15.0 %, and 5.0 % for filgrastim, DA-3031 3.6 mg and 6 mg, respectively; P = 0.681) in cycle 1. The incidences of adverse events attributable to G-CSF were similar among the treatment groups. Conclusions Fixed doses of 3.6 mg or 6 mg DA-3031 have an efficacy comparable to that of daily injections of filgrastim in ameliorating grade 4 neutropenia in patients receiving TAC chemotherapy.
- [Epidemiology of febrile neutropenia in adult patients with hematologic neoplasms in a period of 26 months in Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, Colombia]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Chilena Infectol 2013 Apr; 30(2):195-201.
Background:Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a significant adverse effect post-chemotherapy due to its high morbidity and mortality. There are few studies in our country with these kind of patients.
Objective:To describe the characteristics and mortality in patients with hematologic neoplasms who developed FN post-chemotherapy. Methodology: A descriptive case series in patients with hematologic neoplasms who developed FN post-chemotherapy in Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe.
Results:101 episodes of FN in 43 patients. The median age was 44 years. 63.5% of patients had no apparent clinical focus of infection at admission, 11.8% had soft tissue compromise and 8.9% urinary tract infection. Bacteremia was documented in 41.5% and catheter-associated bacteremia in 3.9%. The most common organisms were Escherichia coli 43.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 17.3% and Staphylococcus aureus 8.6%. Of those isolated in blood 84.7% were Gram negative rods and 15.2% were Gram positive bacteria. Piperacillin/tazobactam was the most common empirically prescribed antibiotic (81.1%). Mortality of FN episodes occurred in 8 (7.92%) patients, 5 (62.5%) attributable to infection and 3 (37.5%) due to progression of hematologic malignancy with a resolution of FN.
Conclusions:In our case series of FN the microbiological characteristics differed significantly from developed countries, but a similar mortality rate per episode was observed.
- Pilot study to assess toxicity and pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer and impaired liver function secondary to hepatic metastases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Oncol Pharm Pract 2013 May 14.
Background:Limited clinical data are available regarding the safety of docetaxel in metastatic breast cancer patients with liver dysfunction.
METHODS:Eligible patients had breast cancer with impaired liver function secondary to hepatic metastases and were candidates for docetaxel therapy. They were assigned to one of five groups on the basis of total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase levels. All other causes of liver dysfunction were excluded, and bile duct obstruction was corrected, if possible, prior to study entry. Patients received docetaxel every three weeks. The chemotherapy dose was chosen on the basis of the patient's level of hepatic dysfunction and escalated as tolerated. The primary outcome of this study was safety. The secondary outcomes were pharmacokinetic data and efficacy in terms of time to disease progression.
RESULTS:Twenty-three patients were enrolled. No unexpected toxicities occurred. Grade 3/4 fatigue (65%), neutropenia (30%), myalgias (26%), neutropenic fever (26%), vomiting (9%), and rash (9%) were the most common serious adverse events. The median time to progression was three months (range 1-18 months). Pharmacokinetic results indicated that patients with more severe hepatic dysfunction may have been underdosed based on our conservative dosing strategy.
CONCLUSIONS:Docetaxel can be administered to patients with metastatic breast cancer and liver dysfunction after dose attenuation. However, because of a narrow therapeutic index in this clinical setting, therapy should be closely monitored with subsequent dose escalation when possible.
- Phase 1 study of cetuximab in combination with 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced anal canal carcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer 2013 May 14.
BACKGROUND:This study sought to determine the feasibility and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of the combination of cetuximab with chemoradiotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CP) in locally advanced anal canal carcinoma.
METHODS:Cetuximab was administered on days 1, 8, 15, 29, 36, 43, and 50 (400 mg/m(2) initial dose, then 250 mg/m(2) /week) concurrent with total dose radiation of 55 to 59 Gy, both starting on day 1. Escalating doses of 5-FU (96-hour infusion) and CP (2-hour infusion), both on days 1 and 29, were administered according to the following design: starting dose level (0) 5-FU/CP = 800/60 mg/m(2) /day and up to dose level (+2) 5-FU/CP = 1000/80 mg/m(2) /day.
RESULTS:Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) events (uncontrolled diarrhea or febrile neutropenia) occurred in 3 of 14 assessable patients receiving escalated dose of 5-FU/CP, with 1 in dose level (0) and 2 in dose level (+2). The RP2D was 5-FU/CP = 800/80 mg/m(2) /day. Because of unexpected non-DLT treatment-related grade 3 (G3) adverse events (AEs) such as thrombosis/embolism, syncope, and infection occurring in ≥ 20% of patients, a safety expansion cohort with an additional 9 patients was investigated with the RP2D. The most frequent G3/G4 AEs evaluated in 23 patients were radiation dermatitis (12 patients), diarrhea (10 patients), thrombosis/embolism (6 patients), and infection (5 patients). The study was closed due to these severe AEs, although no G5 AEs occurred. Twenty of 21 patients (95%) achieved pathological complete response at primary tumor. With a median follow-up of 43.4 months, the 3-year locoregional control rate was 64.2%.
CONCLUSIONS:Cetuximab could not be integrated with chemoradiotherapy-cisplatin-based therapy due to the high toxicity rate. However, efficacy is encouraging and further investigation of an epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted agent (other than cetuximab) concurrent with chemoradiation should be pursued. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
- Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 mediates the expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in invasive cancer cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oncol Rep 2013 May 14.
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) affects granulopoiesis and is important for mobilizing neutrophils into blood circulation. Due to the hematopoietic properties of G-CSF, it has been widely used to clinically treat chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. However, G-CSF can promote tumors by inhibiting innate and adaptive immunity and enhancing angiogenesis and neoplastic growth. Most G-CSF-producing tumors are associated with a poor prognosis. This indicates that G-CSF promotes cancer progression. Thus, identifying regulatory molecules involved in tumor-derived G-CSF expression may provide therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. This study identified considerable G-CSF expression in malignant breast, lung and oral cancer cells. However, G-CSF expression was barely detectable in non-invasive cell lines. Expression of G-CSF mRNA and protein increased during exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Treatment with U0126 (a mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor) drastically reduced basal levels of G-CSF and TNF-α-induced G-CSF in aggressive cancer cells. This study also showed that knockdown of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 by shRNA was necessary and sufficient to eliminate the expression of tumor-derived G-CSF. This did not apply to ERK1. Therefore, ERK2 (but not ERK1) is responsible for the transcriptional regulation of tumor-derived G-CSF. The results indicate the pharmaceutical value of specific ERK2 inhibitors in treating patients with G-CSF-producing tumors.
- An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Predictive Value of Serum Biomarkers in the Assessment of Fever during Neutropenia in Children with Cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Infect Dis J 2013 May 13.
BACKGROUND::Fever during neutropenia (FN) is a frequent and potentially life-threatening complication of the treatment of childhood cancer. The role of biomarkers in predicting morbidity and mortality associated with FN in children has been explored with varying results. This systematic review identified, critically appraised, and synthesised information on the use of biomarkers for the prediction of outcome of FNP in children/young adults, updating a review of initial assessment, and adding further analysis of their value at reassessment.
METHODS::This review was conducted in accordance with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Methods, using three different random-effects meta-analysis models.
RESULTS::37 studies involving over 4689 episodes of FN in children were assessed, including an additional 13 studies investigating 18 biomarkers in 1670 FN episodes since the original review. Meta-analysis was possible for admission C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in their ability to detect significant infection. Marked heterogeneity exists, precluding clear clinical interpretation of the results. Qualitative synthesis of the role of serial biomarkers suggests their predictive ability may be more pronounced at 24 to 48 hours compared to admission. Direct comparisons of the discriminatory power of admission values of PCT and CRP showed PCT generally had a better discriminatory estimate of serious infection than CRP.
CONCLUSIONS::There remains a paucity of robust and reproducible data on the use of biomarkers in prediction of serious infection in children with FNP. Available evidence suggests PCT has better discriminatory ability than CRP and that the role of serial biomarkers warrants further study.
- Early changes of procalcitonin predict bacteremia in patients with intensive care unit-acquired new fever. [Journal Article]
- Chin Med J (Engl) 2013 May; 126(10):1832-7.
Rapid detection of bacteremia is important for critically ill patients. Procalcitonin (PCT) has emerged as a marker of sepsis, but its characterization for predicting bacteremia is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of change of PCT within 6 to 12 hours after new fever in predicting bacteremia.An observational study was conducted in the ICU of our hospital from January 2009 to March 2010. Adult patients with new fever were included and grouped as bacteremia and non bacteremia group. Serum PCT concentration was measured at admission and within 6 to12 hours after new fever (designated PCT0 and PCT1). Other results of laboratory tests and therapeutic interventions were recorded. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors of bacteremia. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was constructed to evaluate the discriminative power of variables to predict bacteremia.Totally 106 patients were enrolled, 60 of whom had bacteremia and 46 did not have bacteremia,. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were 13.1 ± 7.8 and 5.0 ± 2.2 at admission, respectively. There was no significant difference in PCT0 between the bacteremia group and nonbacteremia group; 1.27 µg/L (range, 0.10 - 33.3) vs. 0.98µg/L (range, 0.08 - 25.7), (P = 0.157). However, the PCT1 and the rate of change of PCT were significantly higher in bacteremia group; PCT1 was 6.73 µg/L (1.13 - 120.10) vs. 1.17 µg/L (0.10 - 12.10) (P = 0.001), and the rate of change was 5.62 times (1.05 - 120.6) vs. 0.07 times (-0.03 - 0.18) (P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC; 95% confdence interval) of the rate of change of PCT was better for predicting bacteremia than that of PCT1; 0.864 (range, 0.801 - 0.927) vs. 0.715 (range, 0.628 - 0.801), (P < 0.05). The AUCs of PCT0 and other parameters (such as WBC count, granulocyte percentage and temperature) were not significantly different (all P > 0.05). The best cut-off value for the rate of change was 3.54 times, with a sensitivity of 88.5% and a specificity of 98.0%. It was also an independent predictor of bacteremia (odds ratio 29.7, P < 0.0001) and wasn't correlated with the presence or absence of co-infection, neutropenia or immunodefciency (P > 0.05).The rate of change of PCT is useful for early detection of bacteremia during new fever and superior to the PCT absolute value and other parameters in non-selected ICU patients.
- Benefits and Adverse Events in Younger Versus Older Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Osteosarcoma: Findings From a Meta-Analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Oncol 2013 May 13.
PURPOSEThe LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance has conducted a meta-analysis of individual patient data from prospective neoadjuvant chemotherapy osteosarcoma studies and registries to examine the relationships of sex, age, and toxicity on survival.
PATIENTS AND METHODSSuitable data sets were identified by a survey of published data reported in PubMed. The final pooled data set comprised 4,838 patients from five international cooperative groups.ResultsAfter accounting for important variables known at study entry such as tumor location and histology, females experienced higher overall survival rates than males (P = .005) and children fared better than adolescents and adults (P = .002). Multivariate landmark analysis following surgery indicated that a higher rate of chemotherapy-induced tumor necrosis was associated with longer survival (P < .001), as was female sex (P = .004) and the incidence of grade 3 or 4 mucositis (P = .03). Age group was not statistically significant in this landmark analysis (P = .12). Females reported higher rates of grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia relative to males (P < .001). Children reported the highest rates of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (P < .001) and thrombocytopenia (P < .001). The achievement of good tumor necrosis was higher for females than for males (P = .002) and for children than for adults (P < .001). CONCLUSIONThese results suggest fundamental differences in the way chemotherapy is handled by females compared with males and by children compared with older populations. These differences may influence survival in a disease in which chemotherapy is critical to overall outcomes.
- Antimicrobial agent prescription patterns for chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with hematological malignancies at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman. [Journal Article]
- J Infect Public Health 2013 Jun; 6(3):216-21.
The aim of this study was to describe the antimicrobial prescription patterns of patients with hematological malignancies who developed febrile neutropenia (FN) at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Oman.This was a retrospective observational study covering a period of 3 years (January 2007-February 2010). FN episodes were studied in patients with hematological malignancies in three different wards at SQUH.A total of 176 FN episodes were analyzed. Overall, 64% of the 107 patients studied experienced at least 2 episodes during the analysis period. Approximately, 69% of the febrile neutropenia episodes had severe neutropenia. The duration of neutropenia was less than 1 week in the majority of the episodes (57%). The mean duration of treatment was approximately 7 days, with no significant difference between specialties or different types of malignancies. Only 34 (19%) episodes had positive cultures, and most of these were from blood samples (30 episodes, 88%). The majority of isolates were gram-negative organisms (63%). The initial empirical treatment included monotherapy (37%), dual therapy (60%) and triple therapy (3%).This study demonstrates that there is a large variation in the antimicrobial treatment of FN episodes in patients with hematological malignancies at SQUH. All chosen drugs were within international guideline recommendations.