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Nipple Discharge [keywords]
- Mammary ductoscopy and watchful follow-up substitute microdochectomy in patients with bloody nipple discharge. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Breast Cancer 2014 Aug 24.
In order to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of mammary ductoscopy and watchful follow-up for treating bloody nipple discharge, we investigated the incidence of cancer evolving from the location related to the affected duct and the disappearance of nipple discharge.Between April 1998 and March 2008, we assessed 709 lesions among 624 patients without a diagnosis of malignancy at the time of 6 months after mammary ductoscopy. The median follow-up time was 5.5 years. We reviewed the subjects' charts retrospectively and investigated the dates on which discharge-related cancer was diagnosed and the disappearance of discharge was noted after the initial examination with mammary ductoscopy.The incidence of cancer evolving from the location related to the pathological duct was 11 % (78/709). Nipple discharge disappeared in 480 (85.1 %) of the 564 followed up lesions, with the exception of 78 breast cancers and 67 resected benign lesions. The rate of disappearance for nipple discharge in the cases of intraductal papilloma at the first examination was 82.5 %. In cases in which no obvious lesions were observed on mammary ductoscopy, there was a 90 % probability that the nipple discharge would disappear, and the rate of evolving breast cancer in the cases of atypical papillary lesions at the first examination was significantly higher than that observed in the cases of intraductal papilloma, at 50 and 8.9 %, respectively.Information revealed by mammary ductoscopy is useful for differentiating patients who should be subjected to intensive examinations and those who should expect disappearance of their discharge. Mammary ductoscopy and watchful follow-up can substitute microdochectomy in patients with bloody nipple discharge.
- Rare benign tumours of the nipple. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2014 Aug 14.
Benign lesions of the breast in total are much more frequent than malignant ones. However, there are no epidemiologic data on the prevalence of benign or malignant tumours of the nipple, and the bibliography on benign nipple tumours in general is limited.To present some rare cases of benign nipple tumours and review the literature.Four cases of rare benign nipple tumours: neurofibromas, wart, leiomyoma and milium are presented. The literature search on benign nipple tumours was performed using MEDLINE, Pubmed, and Cochrane databases with limits: English language, human species and available abstract. The keyword used was 'benign nipple tumours'.The initial search retrieved 337 articles. The papers were reviewed and the articles that referred to benign lesions that appeared at the nipple specifically were identified. Different entities that were described included: neurofibroma, leiomyoma, milium, florid papillomatosis, syringomatous adenoma, nevoid hyperkeratosis, fibroma, pseudolymphoma and haemangioma.Differential diagnosis of benign tumours of the nipple can be demanding for the physicians. Many of the symptoms and signs like pruritus, serosanguinous discharge, lichenification, erosion and nodular enlargement are produced by either malignant or benign nipple lesions. Radiology can be unclear in the diagnosis of nipple abnormalities.Histological examination of the lesion can be the only definite answer in these cases.
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Unilateral Bloody Nipple Discharge; Useful When Conventional Diagnostics are Negative? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- World J Surg 2014 Aug 15.
Unilateral bloody nipple discharge (UBND) is mostly caused by benign conditions such as papilloma or ductal ectasia. However, in 7-33 % of all nipple discharge, it is caused by breast cancer. Conventional diagnostic imaging like mammography (MMG) and ultrasonography (US) is performed to exclude malignancy. Preliminary investigations of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assume that it has additional value. With an increasing availability of MRI, it is of clinical importance to evaluate this. We evaluated the additional diagnostic value of MRI in patients with UBND in the absence of a palpable mass, with normal conventional imaging.All women with UBND in the period November 2007-July 2012 were included. In addition to the standard work-up (patient's history, physical examination, MMG, and US), MRI was performed. Data from these examinations and treatment were collected retrospectively.A total of 111 women (mean age 52 years; range 23-80) were included. In nine (8 %) patients, malignancy was suspected on MRI while conventional imaging was normal. In eight (89 %) of these patients, histology was obtained, two by core biopsy and six by terminal duct excision. Benign conditions were found in six patients (86 %) and a (pre-) malignant lesion in two patients. In both cases, it concerned a ductal carcinoma in situ, which was treated with breast-conserving therapy. Moreover, in two cases of (pre)malignancy, the MRI was interpreted as negative.In patients with UBND who show no signs of a malignancy on conventional diagnostic examinations, the added value of a breast MRI is limited, since a malignancy can be demonstrated in <2 %.
- Ductal carcinoma in situ in a benign phyllodes tumor of breast: A rare presentation. [Journal Article]
- J Nat Sci Biol Med 2014 Jul; 5(2):470-2.
Phyllodes tumor (PT) is an uncommon tumor of female breast. The tumor clinically, radiologically, cytologically as well as histologically can mimic fibroadenoma which is a common tumor of fibroepithelial group. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in the epithelial component of PT is very rare. We report a rare case of intermediate grade DCIS arising in a benign PT in a 42-year-old lady. The patient presented with a small nodule in right breast along with serosanguineous discharge from nipple. Ultrasonography and cytology failed to distinguish between fibroadenoma and PT. Histopathological examination following wide local excision displayed the biphasic tumor comprising of benign looking cellular stroma and epithelial lining. It also demonstrated the foci of intermediate grade DCIS without any invasive component. Considering the clinicoradiological profile along with histopathological features, the diagnosis of DCIS in a benign PT of breast was made.
- Primary actinomycosis of the breast caused by Actinomyces turicensis with associated Peptoniphilus harei. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Breast Dis 2014 Aug 5.
Actinomycosis of the breast is a rare disease which may mimic malignancy in presentation. Clinical presentation may make it difficult to distinguish primary actinomycosis from mastitis and inflammatory carcinoma. A 22-year-old lady presented with a 3-week history of right breast pain and greenish discharge through her nipple piercing. Physical examination revealed a palpable fluctuant lump in the upper inner quadrant of the right breast and a nipple jewelry in-situ in the upper inner quadrant of the right breast with an abscess at the edge of the areola. Needle aspiration was performed and microbiological examination of the aspirate isolated Actinomyces turicensis and Peptoniphilus harei. Actinomycosis of the breast is rare and the specie, Actinomyces turicensis, is even rarer especially in association with Peptoniphilus harei. Actinomyces is a difficult organism to treat due to its relative indolent course with potential scarring and disruption of local tissue. However, surgical intervention could be avoided with an intensive course of high-dose intravenous antibiotics and prolonged oral antibiotics afterwards.
- Exploring breast with therapeutic ductoscopy. [Journal Article, Review]
- Gland Surg 2014 May; 3(2):136-41.
Breast lesions are thought to arise mostly from the epithelium of ductal lining. Conventional imaging could only show indirect images of suspected lesions which are confirmed by percutaneous biopsies. However, ductoscopy provides direct images of the ductal epithelium which is the source of most malignant and papillary lesions. As an advance of current ductoscopy systems, pathologic nipple discharge (PND) could be treated ductoscopically by miniaturized endo-baskets or wires. Our goal is to discuss current intraductal technology which enables diagnostic and therapeutic advance for breast lesions that cause nipple discharge.
- Clinical and radiologic features of neuroendocrine breast carcinomas. [Journal Article]
- J Ultrasound Med 2014 Aug; 33(8):1511-8.
Neuroendocrine breast carcinoma is a rare and distinct type of breast carcinoma, with morphologic features similar to those of pulmonary and gastrointestinal tract neuroendocrine tumors. More than 50% of cells express neuroendocrine markers. We documented the clinical and radiologic features of 11 patients with histologically confirmed neuroendocrine breast carcinomas. Clinical manifestations included nipple discharge (6 patients) and palpable masses (5 patients). Lesions were mainly oval or irregular on mammography (n = 8), sonography (n = 11), and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 9). Understanding the clinical and radiologic features of neuroendocrine breast carcinoma will facilitate the differential diagnosis.
- Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: a case with exuberant cutaneous horns in nipples. [Journal Article]
- An Bras Dermatol 2014 Jul; 89(4):641-4.
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a rare disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent infections by Candida due to changes in cellular immunity and may be associated with autoimmune endocrine disorders. It is refractory to the usual antifungal treatments, which merely control it with imidazole derivatives. This reports the case of a 50-year-old female patient who referred vaginal discharge associated with vulvar ulcerated lesions and whitish plaques on oral and genital mucous membranes of onset in adolescence besides cutaneous horns in nipples. The clinical picture, family history, culture and anatomopathological studies were consistent with chronic infection by candida. Treatment with systemic antifungals obtained partial response of lesions characterizing a clinical picture of Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis.
- Microdochectomy assisted by ultrasound-guided indigo carmine staining of intraductal lesions: a case report. [Journal Article]
- J Breast Cancer 2014 Jun; 17(2):184-7.
Spontaneous bloody nipple discharge from a single duct is a significant clinical problem. When performing preoperative marking of the discharging duct, it is sometimes difficult to identify the duct owing to intermittent discharge. Precise preoperative marking of the discharging duct and intraductal lesions is very important to avoid unnecessary wide excision of breast tissue or failure to remove the cause of nipple discharge. We herein present a case of preoperative ultrasound-guided indigo carmine staining in a patient with no discharge on the day of surgery. When a dilated duct is visualized on ultrasound, the targeted duct can be localized using indigo carmine staining, and it is possible to perform a precise minimal volume microdochectomy.
- The role of breast ductoscopy in evaluation of nipple discharge: a chinese experience of 419 patients. [Journal Article]
- Breast J 2014 Jul; 20(4):388-93.
The aim of this study is to report our experience with ductoscopic evaluation for screening patients with nipple discharge and evaluate any potential indications and benefits of ductoscopy. From January 2010 to December 2012, 419 female patients with nipple discharge were enrolled in this study. All patients involved in this study showed no mass in ultrasound and mammography. Data concerning age, clinical characteristics of nipple discharge, nipple discharge cytology, ductoscopic and postsurgical diagnosis, and complications were statistically analyzed. Ductoscopy examinations were completed in 405 patients (96.66%). For these 405 patients, there were 519 ductoscopic investigations. 112 (27.65%) patients were found to have intraductal papillary lesions of which 62 were operated in our hospital. Postsurgical diagnosis showed 8 (12.9%) malignancy including 6 DCIS and 2 invasive ductal carcinomas. All of the 8 patients meet at least two criteria of pathologic nipple discharge (single duct, spontaneous, bloody nipple discharge). The other patients with nonpapillary lesions are still under surveillance. By univariate analysis, patients with unilateral, single duct, spontaneous and bloody nipple discharge were more likely to have intraductal papillary lesions. By multivariate analysis, unilateral, spontaneous, and bloody nipple discharge showed statistically significant correlations with intraductal papillary lesions revealed by ductoscopy. Ductoscopy is a safe and efficient investigation in preoperative screening of the patients with nipple discharge. Clinical characteristics have predictive value in selection of patients for ductoscopical investigation. Patients with clinical characteristics of unilateral, spontaneous, and bloody nipple discharge were more likely to have intraductal papillary lesions revealed by ductoscopy.