Nipple Discharge [keywords]
- Different Levels of CEA, CA153 and CA125 in Milk and Benign and Malignant Nipple Discharge. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(6):e0157639.
The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic values of three breast tumor markers (i.e., CEA, CA153 and CA125) in milk and nipple discharge in the prediction of different breast diseases diagnoses.Three hundred thirty-six patients (96 breast cancer and 240 benign disease patients) with nipple discharge and a control group of 56 healthy parturient participants were enrolled in the present study. Nipple discharge samples were preoperatively collected from the patients, and milk was collected from the colostrum of the parturient participants. The samples were assayed for the CEA, CA153 and CA125 levels. Cutoff values were determined for the detection of breast diseases using ROC curves.The levels of CEA, CA153 and CA125 were significantly different between the nipple discharge and the milk (all ps < 0.001). In the nipple discharge, the CEA and CA153 levels in the breast cancer group were significantly greater than those in the benign group (all ps < 0.001), and cutoff values of 263.3 ng/mL and 1235.3 U/mL, respectively, were established. However, the expression of CA125 did not differ significantly between the breast cancer and benign groups.Differences in the apparent expression levels of CEA, CA153 and CA125 in patients with nipple discharge and healthy persons were validated. The present data suggest that CEA and CA153 might potentially be useful in the differential diagnoses of benign tumors and breast cancer. CA125 did not seem to be useful for breast cancer detection.
- A case of galactorrhea during paroxetine treatment. [Journal Article]
- Int J Psychiatry Med 2016 Apr; 51(3):302-5.
Paroxetine is one of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant drugs. Galactorrhea can be seen during antidepressant treatments. There are a few reports in literature on paroxetine use and related prolactin level changes. We present a case that was receiving paroxetine in whom despite low blood levels of the drug, hyperprolactinemia, and galactorrhea was found. We present a case that was receiving paroxetine despite low drug blood levels, hyperprolactinemia, and galactorrhea was found in this article.
- Metaplastic carcinoma of breast: A case series of seven patients from a tertiary care center and review of literature. [Journal Article]
- Gulf J Oncolog 2016 May; 1(21):74-6.
Metaplastic carcinoma of breast (MCB) is a rare histological subtype of breast carcinoma and accounts for less than 1 percent of the total breast cancer cases. Here we are reporting a series of seven patients of MCB from single institute along with review of literature.Patients records from January 2008 to August 2014 were retrieved to search for MCB patients. A etrospective review was conducted to document the clinicopathological features, treatment and outcomes of these patients. The data was entered in a predesigned proforma document.Seven patients were diagnosed to have MCB during this period. Most common symptom at presentation was lump in the breast with associated discharge per nipple in one patient. On histology, there was no definite differentiation in four patients while one patient had spindle cell neoplasia, one had osteoid and chondroid neoplasia respectively. Five patients underwent modified radical mastectomy while other two patients underwent simple mastectomy. All the patients were pathologically node negative and triple negative breast cancer. Adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy was given to all patients. Median follow up was 4 years (Range 3-6 years). Three out of seven patients completed 5 years of follow up. One patient developed isolated liver metastasis six years after completion of the treatment and she lost to follow up for further treatment.Metaplastic carcinoma of breast is a rare disease entity and there are no specific treatment guidelines. The prognosis of patients in this rare sub group remains poor and multi institutional studies evaluating role of new therapies may be required to improve outcome.
- Rural Women's Awareness about Breast Cancer in Southeastern Iran: a Cross-Sectional Study. [Journal Article]
- Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016; 17(4):1875-9.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. A very important factor in the timely treatment and prevention of progression is high breast cancer awareness. Rural women are at risk of latte stage breast cancer due to poor education and lack of access to medical facilities.This cross-sectional-descriptive study was conducted on 266 women (out of 300) aged over 18 in rural areas of Zabol, Southeastern Iran during July 2015 to October 2015. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire that measured participant knowledge of breast cancer in four aspects (general awareness, risk factors, mammography, and symptoms). SPSS 22 was used for statistical analysis.Out of 266 participants, age information was available for 261. The age range was between 19 and 62, with a mean of 27±2.1 years. Most participants (154, 57.9%) had an average overall awareness of breast cancer. In the general awareness dimension, most participants (130, 48.9%) had poor scores. Most (166, 62.4%) also had average awareness about risk factors and many (137, 51.5%) had good awareness about mammography. Most participants did not know that changes in breast shape (232, 88.2%), dimpling of breast skin (192, 72.3%) and nipple discharge (183, 69.6%) are the main symptoms of breast cancer. ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between awareness level and participant education and occupation (<0.05).This study indicated average awareness of participants about breast cancer. Since rural women have lower levels of education, it is recommended that educational courses with contents about breast cancer, its risk factors, and symptoms be held for these women.
- Venlafaxine-Associated Euprolactinemic Galactorrhea and Hypersexuality: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Psychopharmacol 2016 May 23.
- Nipple adenoma in a female patient presenting with persistent erythema of the right nipple skin: case report, review of the literature, clinical implications, and relevancy to health care providers who evaluate and treat patients with dermatologic conditions of the breast skin. [Journal Article]
- BMC Dermatol 2016; 16(1):4.
Nipple adenoma is a very uncommon, benign proliferative process of lactiferous ducts of the nipple. Clinically, it often presents as a palpable nipple nodule, a visible nipple skin erosive lesion, and/or with discharge from the surface of the nipple skin, and is primarily seen in middle-aged women. Resultantly, nipple adenoma can clinically mimic the presentation of mammary Paget's disease of the nipple. The purpose of our current case report is to present a comprehensive review of the available data on nipple adenoma, as well as provide useful information to health care providers (including dermatologists, breast health specialists, and other health care providers) who evaluate patients with dermatologic conditions of the breast skin for appropriately clinically recognizing, diagnosing, and treating patients with nipple adenoma.Fifty-three year old Caucasian female presented with a one year history of erythema and induration of the skin of the inferior aspect of the right nipple/areolar region. Skin punch biopsies showed subareolar duct papillomatosis. The patient elected to undergo complete surgical excision with right central breast resection. Final histopathologic evaluation confirmed nipple adenoma. The patient is doing well 31 months after her definitive surgical therapy.Since nipple adenoma represents a benign proliferative process of the nipple, complete surgical excision is curative. However, the coexistence of nipple adenoma and ipsilateral or contralateral breast cancer is well reported in the literature. The potential for a direct causal link or association of nipple adenoma and breast cancer cannot be fully excluded.
- Gigantomastia and Macroprolactinemia Responding to Cabergoline Treatment: A Case Report and Minireview of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Endocrinol 2016.:3576024.
Background.Macroprolactinemia is defined as predominance of high molecular weight prolactin forms in the circulation. Although macroprolactin is considered as a biologically inactive molecule, some authorities suggest treatment in symptomatic cases. Gigantomastia is defined as excess breast tissue and most cases in the literature were treated by surgical intervention. Case. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with gigantomastia and galactorrhea. The patient had a demand for surgical therapy. In laboratory examination, she had hyperprolactinemia and macroprolactinemia. Pituitary imaging revealed 6 mm microadenoma in right side of the hypophysis. Since she was symptomatic, cabergolin treatment was started. Macroprolactin became negative, breast circumference decreased significantly, and galactorrhea resolved after treatment.
Conclusion.Gigantomastia might be the presenting symptom in patients with macroprolactinemia. In these patients medical treatment with cabergoline may be used initially as an alternative to surgical approach.
- Male Breast Abscess Secondary to Actinomycosis: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Apr; 10(4):TD05-7.
Primary breast actinomycosis is a rare condition that has been previously reported in the female breast. Male breast infection is uncommon and most often associated with trauma to the skin or predisposing conditions like diabetes. We report the first case to our knowledge of primary breast actinomycosis in the male breast caused by Actinomycesneuii (A. neuii), a rare strain of Actinomyces. Mammography demonstrated periareolar skin thickening with a mottled pattern. Sonography showed multiple small cystic structures. Definitive diagnosis was made by culture of the nipple discharge.
- Do LORIS Trial Eligibility Criteria Identify a Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Patient Population at Low Risk of Upgrade to Invasive Carcinoma? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Surg Oncol 2016 May 12.
The Surgery Versus Active Monitoring for Low-Risk DCIS (LORIS) trial is studying the safety of monitoring core-biopsy diagnosed low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) without excision. We sought to determine the incidence and characteristics of synchronous invasive carcinoma found in LORIS-eligible women who underwent excision, as this knowledge is essential in assessing the safety of observation alone.Women meeting LORIS eligibility criteria (age ≥46 years, screen-detected calcifications, non-high-grade DCIS diagnosed by core biopsy, absence of nipple discharge, or strong family history of breast cancer) who underwent surgical excision from 2009 to 2012 were identified. Histologic findings of excision specimens were reviewed.Overall, 296 LORIS-eligible cases were identified; 58 (20 %) had invasive carcinoma on final pathology (90 % invasive ductal, 78 % >1 mm in size, 21 % high grade, 3 % triple negative, 9 % HER2 amplified). Of these, 18 (31 %) were pT1b or larger and 3 (5 %) were pN1. Among eligible upgraded cases, 90 % received radiation, 89 % received endocrine therapy, and 18 % were recommended chemotherapy. Women upgraded to invasive carcinoma were more likely to have intermediate-grade DCIS on core biopsy and to have undergone mastectomy.Among LORIS-eligible women, 20 % had invasive carcinoma at surgical excision that was heterogeneous in grade, size, and receptor status. Information gained from surgical excision influenced receipt of adjuvant radiation and endocrine therapy in most patients, and indicated benefit from chemotherapy in 18 % of patients. Surgical excision is warranted until additional risk stratification is available to identify a cohort of DCIS patients at lower risk for clinically significant synchronous invasive carcinoma.
- Primary Hypothyroidism with Exceptionally High Prolactin-A Really Big Deal. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- World Neurosurg 2016 May 4.
Primary hypothyroidism can cause both hyperprolactinemia and pituitary hyperplasia. The degree of hyperprolactinemia is generally modest, and rarely do prolactin concentrations exceed 100 ng/mL (4.34 nmol/L). This combination of hyperprolactinemia and pituitary gland enlargement might raise suspicion for a prolactinoma or a nonfunctioning adenoma limiting the ability of hypothalamic dopamine to inhibit prolactin production, the so-called "stalk effect."We describe a 30-year-old female with headaches, galactorrhea, and hyperprolactinemia with a presumptive diagnosis of a prolactinoma. She had hypothyroidism after treatment of Graves disease at age 17 years but was noncompliant with levothyroxine replacement. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was 263 mIU/L, FT4 was 3.01 pmol/L, and prolactin was 323 ng/mL (14.06 nmol/L). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated increased volume of the pituitary gland with homogeneous enhancement with gadolinium. Levothyroxine treatment for 2 weeks decreased her TSH to130 mIU/L, but her total prolactin remained elevated at 386 ng/mL (16.78 nmol/L). Further testing identified that 76% of the total prolactin was macroprolactin.Primary hypothyroidism can cause hyperprolactinemia, and prolonged disease may lead to pituitary hyperplasia. However, a marked elevation of prolactin should raise suspicion to investigate additional etiologies for hyperprolactinemia. Our case exemplifies a dual etiology for hyperprolactinemia and pituitary hyperplasia caused by both hypothyroidism and macroprolactin. This knowledge is invaluable for clinicians to avoid unnecessary management with dopamine agonists and/or surgery. This patient's prolactin was 323 ng/mL (14.06 nmol/L). Before our case, the highest prolactin in a hypothyroid patient reported in the literature was 253 ng/mL (11.0 nmol/L).