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Nipple discharge [keywords]
- Can Breast Nipple Fluid Collected with Automated Aspiration and Preserved in Based-Liquid Solution Improve the Cytological Samples? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Cytol 2013; 57(3):276-280.
Objective:Samples from breast nipples collected with the automated HALO™ Mamo Cito Test were studied in order to evaluate the cellularity for the diagnosis of breast cancer.
Study Design:One hundred and fifty-nine asymptomatic women were prospectively examined. Women younger than 18 years, pregnant or lactating women, and women with a history of breast cancer, with previous radio- or chemotherapy and with nipple piercing were excluded from the study. Nipple samples from both breasts were collected.
Results:In 107 (34.96%) of the 306 samples of nipple discharge analyzed by optical microscopy, adequate cellularity was observed after the HALO procedure. Cytological findings, previously categorized according to the National Health Service Breast Screening Program (NHSBSP), were grouped as unsatisfactory, benign, suspected for malignancy, and malignant. Of the cellular breast samples, 97.19% (104/107) were classified as benign, and 2.81% (3/107) were classified as suspicious for malignancy. In 199 cases there were samples without cells (65.03%). Most of the cells observed were easily recognized as well-preserved and adequately stained macrophages. None of the women reported discomfort with the nipple aspiration procedure.
Conclusions:The results discussed here encouraged us to use samples collected automatically in routine procedures.
- Detection of Duct Ectasia of Mammary Gland by Ultrasonography in a Neonate with Bloody Nipple Discharge. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Neonatol 2013 Jan 21.
Bloody nipple discharge, a rare finding in infants, is associated most often with benign mammary duct ectasia and commonly resolves spontaneously. Ultrasonography is a useful diagnostic imaging method to detect the cause of discharge. The rarity of this symptom in infants and its association with breast carcinoma in adults can lead to unnecessary investigation and treatment. Here, we describe ultrasonographic and color Doppler ultrasonographic findings of a 20-day-old boy with bilateral bloody nipple discharge that resolved spontaneously without treatment after 15 days. We conclude that bloody nipple discharge is usually a benign and self-limited process in infancy, and that it is advisable to avoid unnecessary invasive investigations initially.
- The diagnostic value of clinical examination and imaging used as part of an age-related protocol when diagnosing male breast disease: An audit of 1141 cases from a single centre. [Journal Article]
- Breast 2013 Jun; 22(3):268-72.
Triple assessment in men varies, possibly in response to currently published non-specific guidance. The study aims to assess the efficacy of triple assessment as part of an age related protocol currently used in the clinical setting. 1141 referrals between 01.01.01 and 31.12.09 were evaluated. Patient age ranged from 29 to 89 years. Mammography (M) was performed in men ≥35years. Sensitivity for clinical examination (CE) was 64.0%, M 77.8%, US 92.0%. 25 cancers were diagnosed, 24 aged >40years, 1 aged 29. 2 presented with nipple discharge. The cancer <40years was diagnosed with CE and US, all others had suspicious CE and/or M necessitating US and biopsy. We suggest a protocol incorporating mammography in men ≥40years would capture all cancers. Combined specificities approaching 100% suggest men >40 years scored benign after CE and M warrant no further assessment. Bloody nipple discharge is a suspicious sign and the reassurance of non-bloody discharge should be treated with caution.
- Nipple discharge: An uncommon presentation of a common disease, Tuberculosis. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2013 Jan; 5(1):80.
- Feeding Infants With Cleft Lip and/or Palate in Brazil: Suggestions to Improve Health Policy and Research. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2013 Apr 4.
Objective : To verify feeding resources used prior to corrective surgery among cleft babies from Brazil and to discuss suggestions to improve common feeding problems around the world. Design : Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at eight medical centers. Participants : A total of 215 parents or guardians of cleft children. Methods : Interview based upon a prevalidated questionnaire. The chi-square test and comparison of means by analysis of variance were used; significance level adopted was 5% (P < .05). Results : Feeding guidelines were provided in the maternity unit to 53% of the families. Breast-feeding was encouraged among 80% of mothers, predominantly in the South (P = .016). However, follow-up after maternity discharge was not appropriately carried out and failure to breast-feed occurred in 78% of families. The feeding tube was used in 21%. According to families, for those who used the ordinary nipple, it was considered the best option by the majority (28.5%). Conclusion : Neonatal feeding in cleft babies is a global challenge. Reports about the difficulties encountered and successful experiences would be helpful to disseminate strategies and stimulate research directed at the large-scale applicability of neonatal feeding for cleft babies on public health. This study detected the need to increase professional training and emphasizes the need for public policies addressing neonatal referral to specialized care wherever possible. It also stimulates research into using an ordinary nipple as another resource for feeding cleft babies and suggests an international discussion about specific recommendations for humanized primary health care.
- Measurement of HER2 in Saliva of Women in Risk of Breast Cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pathol Oncol Res 2013 Mar 12.
HER2 amplification can be present in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of measuring soluble HER2 in the saliva of patients at risk of breast cancer towards early diagnosis and prognosis. Women with lesions classified as 4 according to BIRADS and women with spontaneous nipple discharge (NAF) were recruited for this study. Quantification of soluble HER2 in saliva was performed using the enzyme immunoassay ELISA. Median values of HER2 were quantified in saliva of the control groups and in the patient groups. The statistical test nonparametric Mann-Whitney was applied for the evaluation of median differences. Although the medians increased with the severity of the clinical status, no significant difference was found in all possibilities (p > 0.05) when comparing the medians among the patients groups. Interestingly, inter-individual HER2 quantity variations in the saliva were detected in this study in some subjects from each group. Considering possible inter-individual variations, research on saliva-based circulating HER2 has to be reinforced to ensure its correct application in diagnosis, treatment and in follow-up of breast cancer patients. Older and current issues surrounding the controversy about the appropriate methods for HER2 evaluation are discussed.
- Detection of Demodex folliculorum from nipple discharge. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Diagn Cytopathol 2013 Feb 26.
- Clinical profile of patients presenting with breast cancer in Nepal. [Journal Article]
- Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2012 Jul-Sep; 10(39):3-7.
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women in Nepal. Even though the evaluation and treatment of patients is done as per western guidelines, there are considerable variations in risk factors, presenting stage and prognostic factors such as receptor status.To evaluate the clinical profile of patients presenting with breast cancer in Nepal.The study was conducted at Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Bir Hospital and Department of Radiation Oncology, BP Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur from 16th July 2007 to 15th June 2008 for a period of one year and 114 patients were enrolled. Detailed history, clinical examination and necessary investigations performed. Histological features including receptor status were recorded. Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) staging system was as per American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), fifth edition. Data was collected in preformed case report form and was managed using SPSS version 13.The incidence was high (34.2%) among perimenopausal women age ranging from 41 to 50. The majority of women presented with lump (98.2%) and others with pain (21.9%), nipple retraction (16.7%), ulceration (7.9%), discharge (7%), or symptoms of metastasis (6.1%). Regarding receptor status, the majority (64.0%) were Estrogen receptor (ER) and Progesterone receptor (PR) negative with 21.9 percent. ER+PR+, Younger women were more likely to be both ER and PR negative. Where available, Her- 2 immunohistochemistry showed that 45.0 % of post menopausal women were Her-2 neative, compared to 64.0 % of premenopausal women. Incidence of Triple negative disease was 41.3 %. The most common stage at presentation was stage III (26.3%).Majority of patients were perimenopausal, presenting with locally advanced disease (Stage III and Stage II) and with average tumor size two to five cm and were hormonal receptor negative. These findings are similar to other South Asian population but is inverse than profile reported in Western populations.
- Nipple discharge: role of ductoscopy in comparison with standard diagnostic tests. [Journal Article]
- Onkologie 2013; 36(1-2):12-6.
This study aims to assess the role of ductoscopy for detecting intraductal anomalies in patients with nipple discharge in comparison to conventional tests and to find an effective combination of both approaches.Prior to duct excision, ductoscopy was performed in 97 women. Histologic and all other diagnostic results were compared. Sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency were calculated for all methods. These parameters were also calculated for all possible test combinations in 12 patients who had completed all tests.Breast sonography reached the highest sensitivity (64.1%) and efficiency (64%); mammography had the highest specificity (100%). The sensitivity of ductoscopy was 53.2%, its specificity 60%, and its efficiency 55.1%. Among combinations of all methods, the combination ductoscopy + galactography was the most sensitive (80%). Mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ductoscopy were each 100% specific. Ductoscopy was the most efficient (75%) single method.Ductoscopy is a valuable test for diagnosing intraductal lesions in patients with nipple discharge. It is more efficient than conventional tests in patients undergoing all tests.
- Use of oxidized and regenerated cellulose polymer in oncoplastic breast surgery. [Journal Article]
- Ann Ital Chir 2013 Jan-Feb; 84(1)
The aim of this paper is evaluate the use of oxidized regenerated cellulose in order to control breast symmetry, shape and volume reducing skin retraction after wide excision for the treatment of early breast cancer.The Authors describe a new procedure using oxidized regenerated cellulose polymer after 8 resections for breast cancer and 1 total galactophore ducts resection for nipple discharge.Oncoplastic breast surgery allows a more radical local tumour excision achieving an acceptable cosmetic result. Breast reshaping absorbs the volume loss and decreases the risk of a localized defect although there are zones that are at high risk of deformity. Once reabsorption of the seroma occurs, the excision cavity becomes prominent due to fibrosis and retraction of the surrounding tissue creating a noticeable defect.In oncoplastic breast surgery the oxidized regenerated cellulose by preventing the hematoma, can promote dermal fibroblasts proliferation and cell migration playing a role in adjustment of the shape, volume and symmetry of the breast and reducing skin retraction. KEY WORDS: Breast Cancer, Breast conserving surgery, Oncoplastic breast surgery, Oxidized regenerated cellulose polymer.