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Nodules, subcutaneous [keywords]
- A rare case of disseminated cysticercosis. [Journal Article]
- Trop Parasitol 2012 Jul; 2(2):138-41.
Cysticercosis is a common tropical disease. One of the uncommon manifestations and a rare complication is its disseminated form (DCC). Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Human cysticercosis is caused by the dissemination of the embryo of Taenia solium in the intestine via the hepatoportal system to the tissues and organs of the body. The organs most commonly affected are the subcutaneous tissues, skeletal muscles, lungs, brain, eyes, liver, and occasionally the heart, thyroid, and pancreas. Widespread dissemination of the cysticerci can result in the involvement of almost any organ in the body. We report here a case of a 36-year-old-male with disseminated cysticercosis. He visited our hospital with symptoms of multiple palpable nodules, dementia, and confusion. After the investigations he was diagnosed with disseminated cysticercosis involving the brain, subcutaneous tissues all over the body, and the skeletal muscles. The patient was initially treated with Albendazole in a private hospital, but there was no response. Then he was treated with Praziquantel and steroids.
- MDM2 Amplification and PI3KCA Mutation in a Case of Sclerosing Rhabdomyosarcoma. [Journal Article]
- Sarcoma 2013.:520858.
A rare sclerosing variant of rhabdomyosarcoma characterized by prominent hyalinization and pseudovascular pattern has recently been described as a subtype biologically distinct from embryonal, alveolar, and pleomorphic forms. We present cytogenetic and molecular findings as well as experimental studies of an unusual case of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. The primary lesion arose within the plantar subcutaneous tissue of the left foot of an otherwise healthy 23-year-old male who eventually developed pulmonary nodules despite systemic chemotherapy. Two genetic abnormalities identified in surgical and/or autopsy samples of the tumor were introduced into 10T1/2 murine fibroblasts to determine whether these genetic changes cooperatively facilitated transformation and growth. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a complex abnormal hyperdiploid clone, and MDM2 gene amplification was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cancer gene mutation screening using a combination of multiplexed PCR and mass spectroscopy revealed a PIK3CA exon 20 H1047R mutation in the primary tumor, lung metastasis, and liver metastasis. However, this mutation was not cooperative with MDM2 overexpression in experimental assays for transformation or growth. Nevertheless, MDM2 and PIK3CA are genes worthy of further investigation in patients with sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma and might be considered in the enrollment of these patients into clinical trials of targeted therapeutics.
- [Primary antiphospholipid syndrome: newly developed leg ulcer and history of stroke.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hautarzt 2013 Jun 8.
Antiphospholipid syndrome features not only deep vessel thrombosis but also may have cutaneous manifestations such as Raynaud phenomenon, acral necrosis, livedo reticularis, subcutaneous nodules, and leg ulcers. A 72-year-old man presented with a rapidly progressing leg ulcer. He was already on anticoagulation with warfarin due to atrial fibrillation and disclosed a history of stroke with temporary paresis of the left leg. Histopathology of a biopsy of the edge of the ulcer revealed occlusive arteriosclerosis of medium-sized arteries. Serology showed autoantibodies against cardiolipin, β2- glycoprotein I, and phosphatidylserine which led to the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin, dexamethasone, and azathioprine in combination with stage-adjusted wound care led to complete healing of the ulcer within 5 months.
- [Skin manifestations of different forms of vasculitis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Z Rheumatol 2013 Jun; 72(5):436-44.
The skin not only represents the organ which often reveals the first signs of systemic vasculitis, but also the organ which is most frequently involved in vasculitis. These diseases encompass systemic vasculitides and those which appear to involve the skin only. Among those vasculitides restricted to the skin, some are yet typically associated with other systemic diseases, such as nodular vasculitis, which often occurs during infections by M. tuberculosis, or erythema elevatum diutinum in patients with gammopathy. The type and localization of skin lesions give valuable indications as to the type of vasculitis. Subcutaneous nodules which ulcerate and are surrounded by livedo racemosa are suggestive of polyarteritis nodosa, a palpable purpura with predilection for the lower legs is almost pathognomonic for immune complex vasculitis (e.g. IgA vasculitis or cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis), hemorrhagic papules and necrotic plaques which occur in acral areas after cooling indicate cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, hemorrhagic papules and macules which develop in patients who start to feel worse and develop fever should arouse suspicion of septic vasulitis, while the simultaneous presence of ulcerating nodules and hemorrhagic papules without predilection for the lower legs will suggest ANCA-associated vasculitis. The different morphology of the cutaneous signs of the various vasculitides depends to a large extent on the size of the vessels primarily involved. In this review the cutaneous signs of vasculitides will be presented with reference to the revised nomenclature of the Chapel Hill Consensus Conference from 2012.
- Case of phaeohyphomycosis producing sporotrichoid lesions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Dermatol 2013 Jun 5.
A 90-year-old Japanese woman, taking prednisolone (5-10 mg/day) for polyarthritis, presented to our hospital with multiple subcutaneous lesions on her left arm in 2009. Her history included excision of a phaeomycotic cyst on the left middle finger in 2007. There were three subcutaneous nodules approximately 15 mm in diameter around her left wrist and a large soft cystic lesion measuring 80 mm × 60 mm on her left elbow. A granuloma with neutrophilic infiltration was detected in the deep dermis of a biopsy specimen. Chains composed of round brown cells and short pseudomycelia were found in the granuloma. Fungal cultures from the samples confirmed Exophiala sp. to be the causative agent. Treatment with terbinafine and local hyperthermia seemed effective as all the lesions tended to subside. However, the patient died due to pneumonia approximately 1 month after commencement of therapy.
- [Episacral lipoma: a treatable cause of low back pain]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Agri 2013 Apr; 25(2):83-6.
Episacral lipoma is a small, tender subcutaneous nodule primarily occurring over the posterior iliac crest. Episacral lipoma is a significant and treatable cause of acute and chronic low back pain. Episacral lipoma occurs as a result of tears in the thoracodorsal fascia and subsequent herniation of a portion of the underlying dorsal fat pad through the tear. This clinical entity is common, and recognition is simple. The presence of a painful nodule with disappearance of pain after injection with anaesthetic, is diagnostic. Medication and physical therapy may not be effective. Local injection of the nodule with a solution of anaesthetic and steroid is effective in treating the episacral lipoma. Here we describe 2 patients with painful nodules over the posterior iliac crest. One patient complained of severe lower back pain radiating to the left lower extremity and this patient subsequently underwent disc operation. The other patient had been treated for greater trochanteric pain syndrome. In both patients, symptoms appeared to be relieved by local injection of anaesthetic and steroid. Episacral lipoma should be considered during diagnostic workup and in differential diagnosis of acute and chronic low back pain.
- Cutaneous epithelioid sarcomalike (pseudomyogenic) hemangioendothelioma: a little-known low-grade cutaneous vascular neoplasm. [Journal Article]
- JAMA Dermatol 2013 Apr 1; 149(4):459-65.
IMPORTANCE Epithelioid sarcomalike (pseudomyogenic) hemangioendothelioma (ES-H) is a recently described and little-known vascular neoplasm that frequently presents with dermatologic lesions. Histopathologic characterization includes sheets or fascicles of plump, spindled and epithelioid, rhabdomyoblastlike neoplastic cells involving the dermis and often extending to subcutaneous tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals neoplastic cells that show a constant immunophenotype characterized by immunoreactivity for cytokeratins and endothelial markers. OBSERVATIONS We described the clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features of 2 cases of cutaneous ES-H. Clinical examination revealed multifocal lesions that consisted of erythematous nodules on the leg and foot in case 1 and small perioral papules in case 2. Neoplastic cells had a rhabdomyoblastic appearance, with large nuclei and ample eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed expression of cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CD31, ERG, and FLI-1, with focal and weak positivity for CAM 5.2 and smooth muscle actin. The nuclei of neoplastic cells showed intact expression of INI-1. This immunoprofile, especially the ERG positivity, demonstrated the endothelial nature of proliferating cells.
CONCLUSIONSWe recommend adding the low-grade neoplasm ES-H to the large list of cutaneous vascular proliferations. Dermatologists should be aware of this low-grade cutaneous vascular tumor.
- FLT3 inhibitor-induced neutrophilic dermatosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Blood 2013 May 17.
The FLT3-ITD mutation is associated with poor outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Multiple FLT3-inhibitors have been studied in clinical trials. Recently, potent FLT3 inhibition was shown to induce terminal differentiation of FLT3-mutant myeloblasts. In three patients who developed characteristic skin nodules upon initiation of FLT3-inhibition, we conducted dermatopathologic evaluation of skin samples, as well as FLT3 and NPM1 mutational analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). All three patients demonstrated characteristically deep dermal and subcutaneous neutrophilic infiltrates, without evidence of myeloblasts. Discovery of FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations in two of the samples, as well as presence of FLT3-ITD and deletion of 7q in the other, confirmed the ancestry of the differentiated neutrophils as that of the original FLT3-mutant myeloblasts. FLT3 inhibition can lead to a clinically distinct dermatoses, which suggest the impact of FLT3 inhibition on myeloid differentiation and a manifestation of a broader "syndrome" associated with this therapy.
- Reconstruction with cutaneous flap after resection for breast cancer's skin metastases in a chemoresistant patient. [Journal Article]
- Ann Ital Chir 2013.
We reported a case of a breast cancer's skin metastases in a patient that had sustained 3 lines of chemotherapy. At first she received surgical treatment with Madden's mastectomy with dissection of axillary limphnodes and positioning of an expander. After that she underwent to chemo- and radiotherapy. The schedules we performed were: FEC, TC,Vinorelbine and Capecitabine. Only after the FEC there was a clinical remission just for 1 year. After that she underwent to surgery for the removal of a lozenge of skin on the right hemithorax, including also the subcutaneous tissue, a strip of muscular tissue, and a residue of the breast implant. The histology showed a multiple-nodules infiltration involving the dermis, the hypodermis, and the muscle. This pattern was valuated as a G3 breast cancer recurrence with ER 70%, PgR<5%, Ki67 50% Her2neu-. During the second line chemotherapy with TC she developed an high grade LCIS with lymphovascular infiltration on the left breast; on the right hemithorax there were cutaneous metastases with dermis' infiltration. Surgery with local excision was performed, and a cutaneous flap was realized. KEY WORDS: Breast cancer, Chemo-radiotherapy, Cutaneous Flap, Local Excision.
- First reported case of subcutaneous hyalohyphomycosis caused by Paecilomyces variotii. [Journal Article]
- Int J Dermatol 2013 Jun; 52(6):711-3.
Hyalohyphomycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection caused by saprophytes of genera such as Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium, Penicillium, Scopulariopsis Acremonium, and similar fungi. The literature includes only one previous report of Paecilomyces variotii human infection and very few reports of subcutaneous mycosis caused by any of the hyalohyphomycosis group of fungi.We report an instance of fungal infection in a 50-year-old woman, known to have diabetes, who presented with multiple raised lesions on the upper back of two years' duration. Dermatological examination revealed a 20 × 22-cm, swollen, indurated area on the upper back with multiple violaceous, exophytic nodules on the surface.Microscopy from pus and tissue smear revealed septate branching fungi. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain was positive for fungal elements. Culture on three occasions yielded P. variotii. Slide culture mounts showed septate hyaline hyphae of P. variotii with elongated phialides demonstrating bulbous bases and tapering apices attached to the conidiophores. The patient was treated with itraconazole, to which she responded well.This is the first reported case of subcutaneous hyalohyphomycosis caused by P. variotii. It appears that this relatively rare fungal pathogen may be starting to assert itself as an important cause of infection in humans.