Nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis [keywords]
- Clinical manifestations, course, and outcome of patients with neutralizing anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies and disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Jun; 95(25):e3927.
Neutralizing anti-interferon-γ autoantibody (nAIGA)-associated immunodeficiency is an emerging medical issue worldwide. In the present study, we describe and discuss the clinical features and outcomes of patients with nAIGAs and disseminated infections by nontuberculous mycobacteria (dNTM).We thoroughly reviewed the medical records of all patients. Microorganisms and nAIGAs were identified using previously described methods with modifications. All data were calculated and analyzed using SPSS software.Among 46 adult patients with dNTM infections, we identified 45 cases (97.8%) with nAIGAs. The average patient age was 58.6 years, and there was no sex predominance. Cervical lymphadenitis (81.8%) was the most common clinical manifestation. Endocrine disorder was the leading comorbidity (7 cases). Malignancies were found in 4 patients, and all of the malignancies originated from the T-cell/macrophage lineage. More than half of the identifiable isolates were slow-growing NTMs. Twenty-eight (62.2%) and 18 (40.0%) patients had a history of zoster and salmonellosis, respectively. A high proportion of patients with recurrent episodes of NTM infection or a history of zoster and dNTM infection had initial nAIGA titers ≥10 dilution (P < 0.05). Twenty-seven patients (60.0%) required long-term antimycobacterial therapy and had at least 1 episode of recurrent NTM disease. No mortality was related to dNTM infection.In Taiwan, nAIGAs are a recently recognized mechanism of dNTM infection. Long term of antibiotic treatment and adherence to medical advice are necessary to improve the clinical outcome of patients with nAIGAs.
- Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease in Children - Epidemiology, Diagnosis & Management at a Tertiary Center. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(1):e0147513.
There are limited data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and optimal management of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease in children.Retrospective cohort study of NTM cases over a 10-year-period at a tertiary referral hospital in Australia.A total of 140 children with NTM disease, including 107 with lymphadenitis and 25 with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), were identified. The estimated incidence of NTM disease was 0.6-1.6 cases / 100,000 children / year; no increasing trend was observed over the study period. Temporal analyses revealed a seasonal incidence cycle around 12 months, with peaks in late winter/spring and troughs in autumn. Mycobacterium-avium-complex accounted for most cases (77.8%), followed by Mycobacterium ulcerans (14.4%) and Mycobacterium marinum (3.3%). Polymerase chain reaction testing had higher sensitivity than culture and microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (92.0%, 67.2% and 35.7%, respectively). The majority of lymphadenitis cases underwent surgical excision (97.2%); multiple recurrences in this group were less common in cases treated with clarithromycin and rifampicin compared with clarithromycin alone or no anti-mycobacterial drugs (0% versus 7.1%; OR:0.73). SSTI recurrences were also less common in cases treated with two anti-mycobacterial drugs compared with one or none (10.5% versus 33.3%; OR:0.23).There was seasonal variation in the incidence of NTM disease, analogous to recently published observations in tuberculosis, which have been linked to seasonal variation in vitamin D. Our finding that anti-mycobacterial combination therapy was associated with a reduced risk of recurrences in patients with NTM lymphadenitis or SSTI requires further confirmation in prospective trials.
- [Severe neutropenia as side effect of medical treatment in nontuberculous mycobacterial adenitis]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Chilena Infectol 2015 Oct; 32(5):584-7.
Non-tuberculous mycobacterial adenitis is getting more common in our environment. Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials published nowadays are limited. We present a 2-years-old boy diagnosed of Mycobacterium intracellulare adenitis and severe neutropenia as side effect of combined treatment with oral azythromycin and rifabutin, which recovers after suspending the second one. Liver metabolism of macrolide seems to increase other drugs toxicity, in this case, rifabutin. The patient eventually needed surgery due to persistence of the adenitis despite treatment with antibiotics.
- Long-term Follow-up of Observation-Only Management of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lymphadenitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2015 Nov 24.
A total of 21 children with clinically and microbiologically proven craniofacial nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis managed by observation only at a tertiary medical center in 1993-2005 were evaluated for scar parameters at least 2 years after diagnosis. Parents completed a satisfaction questionnaire. Median follow-up time from presentation was 6.8 years (range = 2.3-16.9 years). In all, 18 patients showed scar formation, for a total of 26 scars; 21 scars (81%) had a maximal length of ≤3 cm. Vascularity was normal in 20 scars (77%), and pigmentation was normal in 18 (69%); 21 scars (81%) had a normal to only mildly uneven surface. Although 8 parents (44%) reported that the presence of the scar disturbed them, all responders but one (94%) expressed overall contentment of observation only as a conceivable management alternative. In conclusion, an observation-only approach to craniofacial nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis is associated with an acceptable outcome and may be an alternative to patients who wish to avoid surgery.
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis causing tuberculous lymphadenitis in Maputo, Mozambique. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMC Microbiol 2015.:268.
The zoonosis bovine tuberculosis (TB) is known to be responsible for a considerable proportion of extrapulmonary TB. In Mozambique, bovine TB is a recognised problem in cattle, but little has been done to evaluate how Mycobacterium bovis has contributed to human TB. We here explore the public health risk for bovine TB in Maputo, by characterizing the isolates from tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) cases, a common manifestation of bovine TB in humans, in the Pathology Service of Maputo Central Hospital, in Mozambique, during one year.Among 110 patients suspected of having TBLN, 49 had a positive culture result. Of those, 48 (98%) were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and one for nontuberculous mycobacteria. Of the 45 isolates analysed by spoligotyping and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR), all were M. tuberculosis. No M. bovis was found. Cervical TBLN, corresponding to 39 (86.7%) cases, was the main cause of TBLN and 66.7% of those where from HIV positive patients. We found that TBLN in Maputo was caused by a variety of M. tuberculosis strains. The most prevalent lineage was the EAI (n = 19; 43.2%). Particular common spoligotypes were SIT 48 (EAI1_SOM sublineage), SIT 42 (LAM 9), SIT 1 (Beijing) and SIT53 (T1), similar to findings among pulmonary cases.M. tuberculosis was the main etiological agent of TBLN in Maputo. M. tuberculosis genotypes were similar to the ones causing pulmonary TB, suggesting that in Maputo, cases of TBLN arise from the same source as pulmonary TB, rather than from an external zoonotic source. Further research is needed on other forms of extrapulmonary TB and in rural areas where there is high prevalence of bovine TB in cattle, to evaluate the risk of transmission of M. bovis from cattle to humans.
- Elispot Igra With Purified Protein Derivative Stimulation For Diagnosing Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Cervical Lympadenitis. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016 Mar; 35(3):349-51.
Childhood cervical lymphadenitis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria is a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. We present a new promising diagnostic method for childhood nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis. The modified T-SPOT.TB test with purified protein derivative as an additional antigen is noninvasive with estimated sensitivity and specificity of 1.00 and 0.81, respectively.
- Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Secondary to Mycobacterium kansasii Infection in a Kidney Transplant Recipient. [Journal Article]
- Am J Transplant 2015 Dec; 15(12):3255-8.
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is a challenging diagnosis for clinicians in solid organ transplantation. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is so far unreported in this context. We report here the case of a renal transplant recipient who developed Mycobacterium kansasii-associated lymphadenitis complicated by IRIS while undergoing reduction of his immunosuppressive therapy. For IRIS, the patient required low-dose steroids and an increase in global immunosuppression, in association with NTM antibiotherapy.
- Complex nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis: What is the optimal approach? [Journal Article]
- Laryngoscope 2016 Jul; 126(7):1677-80.
Assess the role of combined antimicrobial and surgical therapy for difficult-to-treat nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lesions of the head and neck in children.Retrospective cohort.Retrospective review of pediatric head and neck NTM lesions at a tertiary children's hospital from 1999 to 2012.Seventy-one children were diagnosed with NTM lesions. Age of presentation ranged between 7 and 204 months of age. Most patients (62%) had multiple lesions. Treatments included incision and drainage, curettage, antibiotics, excision, and any combination of surgery and antibiotics. Upon initial presentation, the most common treatment was surgical excision alone (n = 34) with a high complication rate (50%). In 18 cases, patients were initially treated with a combination of antibiotics and surgical excision due to the extent or location of the lesion(s). Complication rate in these patients was also high (67%). The most common complications in surgically excised NTM lesions included temporary or persistent facial nerve dysfunction (24.6%), poor wound healing/scarring (10.8%), and Frey's syndrome (6.2%).Surgical excision with or without medical therapy for NTM cervicofacial lymphadenitis in high-risk regions commonly resulted in marginal mandibular nerve dysfunction (24.6%). Postoperative facial nerve weakness generally resolved within a year. High rates of complications and a lack of proven best approaches suggest tailoring the approach to address the potential risks in that particular patient based on location and severity.4 Laryngoscope, 126:1677-1680, 2016.
- Mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals after antiretroviral therapy initiation. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Laryngoscope 2015 Nov; 125(11):2498-502.
Mycobacterial infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals worldwide. Cervical lymph nodes are the most frequently affected extrapulmonary sites. Despite the substantial reduction in complications of HIV-tuberculosis coinfection, a proportion of individuals develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), a term used for a clinical deterioration following initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The objective of this study was to describe mycobacterial-associated IRIS in cervical lymph nodes of HIV-infected individuals receiving ART.Retrospective cohort study, set in a tertiary referral center in Mexico City.We included ART-naive subjects who had at least one follow-up ear, nose, and throat examination, and were diagnosed with lymph node mycobacterial infection before or during the first 3 months of ART initiation. Mycobacterial-associated IRIS in cervical lymph nodes was determined retrospectively through clinical case definition and medical chart review.Thirty-three subjects who initiated ART were diagnosed with cervical lymph node mycobacteriosis; 24 had Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and nine had nontuberculous disease.M. tuberculosis was the most common pathogen isolated from cervical lymph nodes. The only factor associated with IRIS was infection with a nontuberculous mycobacteria. The unexpectedly high incidence of mycobacterial-associated IRIS underlines the relevance of head and neck examination before ART initiation.4.
- Host susceptibility to non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural, Review]
- Lancet Infect Dis 2015 Aug; 15(8):968-80.
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria cause a broad range of clinical disorders, from cutaneous infections, such as cervical or intrathoracic lymphadenitis in children, to disseminated infections at all ages. Recognition of the underlying immune defect is crucial for rational treatment, preventive care, family screening, and, in some cases, transplantation. So far, at least seven autosomal mutations (in IL12B, IL12RB1, ISG15, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, STAT1, and IRF8) and two X-linked mutations (in IKBKG and CYBB), mostly presenting in childhood, have been reported to confer susceptibility to disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection. GATA2 deficiency and anti-interferon γ autoantibodies also give rise to disseminated infection, typically in late childhood or adulthood. Furthermore, isolated pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection has been increasing in prevalence in people without recognised immune dysfunction. In this Review, we discuss how to detect and differentiate host susceptibility factors underlying localised and systemic non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections.