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Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis [keywords]
- Prospects for prevention of Salmonella infection in children through vaccination. [Journal Article]
- Curr Opin Infect Dis 2013 Jun; 26(3):254-62.
Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica are amongst the most commonly identified invasive bacterial pathogens in resource-poor settings, and cause significant mortality, particularly in children. In this study we review recent progress in the development of vaccines against S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi and nontyphoidal Salmonella for children.Typhoid remains common and S. Paratyphi A is increasingly recognized as a cause of enteric fever in Asia. In rural Africa, nontyphoidal salmonellae are among the most common invasive bacterial infections, although S. Typhi predominates in some urban centres. Licensed vaccines against typhoid have moderate but useful efficacy but neither of the two available vaccines can be used in infants. Although Ty21a may afford some cross-protection against S. Paratyphi B, there are no vaccines that specifically target paratyphoid or any nontyphoidal Salmonella. Several live attenuated vaccines are under development and may offer some advantages over Ty21a. Vi-conjugate vaccines should offer children excellent protection from typhoid once licensed.There are few effective vaccines against Salmonella sp. and those that do exist target only one serovar, S. Typhi. Research is urgently needed to combat emerging agents of enteric fever such as S. Paratyphi A as well as nontyphoidal serovars, which commonly cause invasive disease in Africa.
- Pathogen-specific risk of chronic gastrointestinal disorders following bacterial causes of foodborne illness. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- BMC Gastroenterol 2013.:46.
The US CDC estimates over 2 million foodborne illnesses are annually caused by 4 major enteropathogens: non-typhoid Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Shigella spp. and Yersinia enterocoltica. While data suggest a number of costly and morbid chronic sequelae associated with these infections, pathogen-specific risk estimates are lacking. We utilized a US Department of Defense medical encounter database to evaluate the risk of several gastrointestinal disorders following select foodborne infections.We identified subjects with acute gastroenteritis between 1998 to 2009 attributed to Salmonella (nontyphoidal) spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. or Yersinia enterocolitica and matched each with up to 4 unexposed subjects. Medical history was analyzed for the duration of military service time (or a minimum of 1 year) to assess for incident chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Relative risks were calculated using modified Poisson regression while controlling for the effect of covariates.A total of 1,753 pathogen-specific gastroenteritis cases (Campylobacter: 738, Salmonella: 624, Shigella: 376, Yersinia: 17) were identified and followed for a median of 3.8 years. The incidence (per 100,000 person-years) of PI sequelae among exposed was as follows: irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 3.0; dyspepsia, 1.8; constipation, 3.9; gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), 9.7. In multivariate analyses, we found pathogen-specific increased risk of IBS, dyspepsia, constipation and GERD.These data confirm previous studies demonstrating risk of chronic gastrointestinal sequelae following bacterial enteric infections and highlight additional preventable burden of disease which may inform better food security policies and practices, and prompt further research into pathogenic mechanisms.
- Increase in resistance to ceftriaxone and nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin and decrease in multidrug resistance among Salmonella strains, United States, 1996-2009. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- Foodborne Pathog Dis 2013 Apr; 10(4):302-9.
Salmonella is a major bacterial pathogen transmitted commonly through food. Increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents (e.g., ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin) used to treat serious Salmonella infections threatens the utility of these agents. Infection with antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella has been associated with increased risk of severe infection, hospitalization, and death. We describe changes in antimicrobial resistance among nontyphoidal Salmonella in the United States from 1996 through 2009.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System conducts surveillance of resistance among Salmonella isolated from humans. From 1996 through 2009, public health laboratories submitted isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We used interpretive criteria from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and defined isolates with ciprofloxacin resistance or intermediate susceptibility as nonsusceptible to ciprofloxacin. Using logistic regression, we modeled annual data to assess changes in antimicrobial resistance.From 1996 through 2009, the percentage of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates resistant to ceftriaxone increased from 0.2% to 3.4% (odds ratio [OR]=20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.3-64), and the percentage with nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin increased from 0.4% to 2.4% (OR=8.3, 95% CI 3.3-21). The percentage of isolates that were multidrug resistant (resistant to ≥3 antimicrobial classes) decreased from 17% to 9.6% (OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7), which was driven mainly by a decline among serotype Typhimurium. However, multidrug resistance increased from 5.9% in 1996 to a peak of 31% in 2001 among serotype Newport and increased from 12% in 1996 to 26% in 2009 (OR=2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2) among serotype Heidelberg.We describe an increase in resistance to ceftriaxone and nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin and an overall decline in multidrug resistance. Trends varied by serotype. Because of evidence that antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella is predominantly a consequence of antimicrobial use in food animals, efforts are needed to reduce unnecessary use, especially of critically important agents.
- Estimates of illnesses, hospitalizations and deaths caused by major bacterial enteric pathogens in young children in the United States. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- Pediatr Infect Dis J 2013 Mar; 32(3):217-21.
Many enteric pathogens disproportionately affect young children. However, higher incidences of laboratory-confirmed illness may be explained, at least in part, by higher rates of medical care-seeking and stool sample submission in this age group. We estimated the overall number of bacterial enteric illnesses among children <5 years old in the United States caused by Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157, nontyphoidal Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia enterocolitica.We used a statistical model that scaled counts of laboratory-confirmed illnesses from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network up to an estimated number of illnesses in the United States, adjusting for the surveillance steps needed for an illness to be laboratory diagnosed (medical care sought, stool sample submitted, bacterial culture performed, laboratory tested for pathogen, laboratory test sensitivity).We estimated that 5 bacterial enteric pathogens caused 291,162 illnesses each year among children <5 years old, resulting in 102,746 physician visits, 7830 hospitalizations and 64 deaths. Nontyphoidal Salmonella caused most illnesses (42%), followed by Campylobacter (28%), Shigella (21%), Y. enterocolitica (5%) and E. coli O157 (3%). The estimated annual number of physician visits ranged from 3763 for E. coli O157 to 44,369 for nontyphoidal Salmonella. Nontyphoidal Salmonella was estimated to cause most hospitalizations (4670) and deaths (38).Bacterial enteric infections cause many illnesses in US children. Compared with the general population, enteric illnesses among children <5 years old are more likely to be diagnosed. However, overall rates of illness remain higher in children after adjusting for underdiagnosis in both groups.
- The "decline and fall" of nontyphoidal salmonella in the United kingdom. [Journal Article]
- Clin Infect Dis 2013 Mar; 56(5):705-10.
Remarkable changes in the epidemiology of human nontyphoidal salmonellosis have occurred in the United Kingdom over the last century. Between 1981 and 1991, the incidence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis in the United Kingdom rose by >170%, driven primarily by an epidemic of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type (PT) 4, which peaked in 1993. Measures introduced to control this epidemic included legislation, food safety advice, and an industry-led vaccination program in broiler-breeder and laying poultry flocks. The incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis has been falling since 1997, and levels of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 have fallen to preepidemic levels and have stayed low. The temporal relationship between vaccination programs and the reduction in human disease is compelling and suggests that these programs have made a major contribution to improving public health.
- Cutting edge: B cells are essential for protective immunity against Salmonella independent of antibody secretion. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- J Immunol 2012 Dec 15; 189(12):5503-7.
Typhoid fever and nontyphoidal bacteremia caused by Salmonella remain critical human health problems. B cells are required for protective immunity to Salmonella, but the mechanism of protection remains unclear. In this study, we immunized wild-type, B cell-deficient, Ab-deficient, and class-switched Ab-deficient mice with attenuated Salmonella and examined protection against secondary infection. As expected, wild-type mice were protected and B cell-deficient mice succumbed to secondary infection. Interestingly, mice with B cells but lacking secreted Ab or class-switched Ab had little deficiency in resistance to Salmonella infection. The susceptibility of B cell-deficient mice correlated with marked reductions in CD4 T cell IFN-γ production after secondary infection. Taken together, these data suggest that the primary role of B cells in acquired immunity to Salmonella is via the development of protective T cell immunity.
- Purification of antibodies to O antigen of Salmonella Typhimurium from human serum by affinity chromatography. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Immunol Methods 2013 Jan 31; 387(1-2):199-210.
Nontyphoidal Salmonellae (NTS) are a common cause of bacteraemia in children and HIV-infected adults in Sub-Saharan Africa. We have previously shown that antibodies play a key role in both bactericidal and cellular mechanisms of immunity to NTS, but found that high concentrations of antibody to Salmonella Typhimurium O antigen (OAg) in the serum of some HIV-infected African adults is associated with impaired killing of NTS. To further investigate the function of antibodies to the OAg of NTS, we developed a method to purify these antibodies from human serum by affinity chromatography. Purified Salmonella Typhimurium OAg was activated with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) via two different chemistries before linking to N-hydroxysuccinamide-Sepharose resin: one ADH molecule was introduced per OAg chain on its terminal 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid sugar (OAg-ADH), or multiple ADH molecules were attached along the OAg chain after oxidation with sodium periodate (OAgoxADH). Both resulting columns worked well when tested with commercial polyclonal anti-O:4,5 antibodies from rabbit serum. Over 90% of the applied antibodies bound to the resin and 89% of these antibodies were then eluted as detected by ELISA. OAg-ADH was preferred as the method for OAg derivatisation as it does not modify the saccharide chain and can be applied to OAg from different bacteria. Both columns were able to bind OAg-specific antibodies in human serum, but antibody recovery was initially low. Different elution buffers were tested and different amounts of OAg-ADH were linked to the resin to improve the yield. Optimal recovery (51%) was obtained by loading 1mg of activated OAg per ml of resin and eluting with 0.1M glycine, 0.1M NaCl pH2.4. The column matrix could be regenerated following elution with no detectable loss in performance for over ten uses. This method offers the potential to purify antibodies to Salmonella OAg from polyclonal serum following vaccination or natural exposure to Salmonella and so investigate the functionality and diversity of the antibody response to OAg.
- Invasive African nontyphoidal Salmonella requires high levels of complement for cell-free antibody-dependent killing. [Journal Article]
- J Immunol Methods 2013 Jan 31; 387(1-2):121-9.
Nontyphoidal isolates of Salmonella (NTS), particularly Salmonella Typhimurium, are a major cause of invasive bacteremia in Africa. Despite this, no vaccine against NTS is currently available for use in humans. If a NTS vaccine is to be developed in a timely manner, there is a need to develop assays to assess its in vivo efficacy. Assessment of potential efficacy of candidate vaccines in preclinical models is important for proof-of-concept and reduces attrition of vaccines in clinical trials. Serum bactericidal assays (SBA) are often used to assess the functional activity of vaccine-induced antibody responses targeted against Gram-negative bacteria with results given as the maximum dilution of serum that can effect bacterial killing. Previously we have found evidence for a protective role for antibody-induced complement-mediated killing of NTS in African children using an undiluted whole serum SBA. However, endogenous complement in diluted human sera is limiting and insufficient to effect bactericidal activity against S. Typhimurium beyond two two-fold dilutions. In the current study, we examined the requirements for SBA against NTS using baby rabbit serum (BRS) as an exogenous source of complement. We found that the amount of complement required for antibody-mediated bactericidal activity is much higher for the invasive African S. Typhimurium isolate D23580, compared with the laboratory S. Typhimurium LT2 and Salmonella Paratyphi A CVD1901. While 20% BRS was sufficient to kill LT2 and CVD1901, 75% BRS was needed to kill D23580. Our findings demonstrate that one concentration of exogenous complement is not suitable for SBA against all Salmonella isolates. To develop SBA to assess the in vivo efficacy of Salmonella vaccines, it is necessary to optimize the assay for the Salmonella isolates against which the vaccine is targeted.
- Human infections due to Salmonella Blockley, a rare serotype in South Africa: a case report. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- BMC Res Notes 2012.:562.
Infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella have increased worldwide over the last couple of decades. Salmonella enterica serotype Blockley (Salmonella Blockley) infections is associated with chickens and is a rarely isolated serotype in human infections in most countries.We report a case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2011. Three African males (aged 4, 14 and 16) presented to a clinic with diarrhoea, stomach cramps and headache. They started experiencing signs of illness a day after they consumed a common meal, consisting of meat, rice and potatoes. Stool specimens from the patients cultured Salmonella Blockley. The strains showed an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern.This is the first recorded case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in South Africa.
- Incidence and characteristics of bacteremia among children in rural Ghana. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2012; 7(9):e44063.
The objective of the study was to describe systemic bacterial infections occurring in acutely ill and hospitalized children in a rural region in Ghana, regarding frequency, incidence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associations with anthropometrical data.Blood cultures were performed in all children below the age of five years, who were admitted to Agogo Presbyterian Hospital (APH), Asante Region, Ghana, between September 2007 and July 2009. Medical history and anthropometrical data were assessed using a standardized questionnaire at admission. Incidences were calculated after considering the coverage population adjusted for village-dependent health-seeking behavior.Among 1,196 hospitalized children, 19.9% (n = 238) were blood culture positive. The four most frequent isolated pathogens were nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS) (53.3%; n = 129), Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%; n = 32), Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.1%; n = 22) and Salmonella ser. Typhi (7.0%; n = 17). Yearly cumulative incidence of bacteremia was 46.6 cases/1,000 (CI 40.9-52.2). Yearly cumulative incidences per 1,000 of the four most frequent isolates were 25.2 (CI 21.1-29.4) for NTS, 6.3 (CI 4.1-8.4) for S. aureus, 4.3 (CI 2.5-6.1) for S. pneumoniae and 3.3 (CI 1.8-4.9) for Salmonella ser. Typhi. Wasting was positively associated with bacteremia and systemic NTS bloodstream infection. Children older than three months had more often NTS bacteremia than younger children. Ninety-eight percent of NTS and 100% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whereas both tested 100% susceptible to ceftriaxone. Seventy-seven percent of NTS and 65% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Systemic bacterial infections in nearly 20% of hospitalized children underline the need for microbiological diagnostics, to guide targeted antimicrobial treatment and prevention of bacteremia. If microbiological diagnostics are lacking, calculated antimicrobial treatment of severely ill children in malaria-endemic areas should be considered.