Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Olfactory dysfunction [keywords]
- Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats. [Journal Article]
- Front Cell Neurosci 2013.:67.
Manipulation of serotonin (5HT) during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT) immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM). Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB) and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8-21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days), OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD.
- Prevalence of subjective olfactory dysfunction and its risk factors: korean national health and nutrition examination survey. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e62725.
Population-based studies for olfactory dysfunction are lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of subjective olfactory dysfunction and its risk factors in the Korean general population.The data were obtained from the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of non-institutionalized population all around the country (n = 10,533). All interviewees underwent medical interviews, physical examinations, endoscopic examination and blood/urine tests. Whether sense of smell has been normal or abnormal during the last 3 months was asked. Complete olfaction data were obtained from 7,306 participants and the participants were divided into normosmic and hyposmic group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors.The weighted prevalence of subjective olfactory dysfunction was 4.5%. Its increased prevalence was significantly associated with the increasing age for both men and women. In the multivariate analyses, low income (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.01-2.03), habitual exposure to air pollutants (adjusted OR = 2.18, CI = 1.33-3.55), a history of hepatitis B (adjusted OR = 3.10, CI = 1.25-7.68), rhinitis (adjusted OR = 1.78, CI = 1.26-2.51) and chronic sinusitis (adjusted OR = 14.55, CI = 10.06-21.05) were risk factors of olfactory dysfunction.Our population-based study showed that olfactory dysfunction was quite prevalent and several risk factors were associated with impaired sense of smell. Given its prevalence, further researches for its prevention and management are required.
- Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Ginkgo biloba Extract (CAS No. 90045-36-6) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice (Gavage studies). [Journal Article]
- Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser 2013 Mar; (578):1-184.
Ginkgo biloba extract has been used primarily as a medicinal agent in the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular dysfunction. Ginkgo biloba extract was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute because of its widespread use as an herbal supplement to promote mental function and the limited availability of toxicity and carcinogenicity data. Furthermore, one of the major ingredients in Ginkgo biloba extract, quercetin, is a known mutagen. The Ginkgo biloba extract used in the current studies was procured from a supplier known to provide material to United States companies and contained 31.2% flavonol glycosides, 15.4% terpene lactones (6.94% bilo-balide, 3.74% ginkgolide A, 1.62% ginkgolide B, 3.06% ginkgolide C), and 10.45 ppm ginkgolic acid. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice were administered Ginkgo biloba extract in corn oil by gavage for 3 months or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered 0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 mg Ginkgo biloba extract/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. Additional groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (clinical pathology study) were administered the same doses, 5 days per week for 23 days. All rats survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of all dosed groups were similar to those of the vehicle control groups. Liver weights of all dosed groups of males and females were significantly greater than those of the vehicle control groups. The incidences of hepatocyte hypertrophy in all dosed groups of males and in 500 and 1,000 mg/kg females were significantly greater than those in the vehicle control groups; there was a dose-related increase in severity of this lesion in males. Hepatocyte fatty change occurred in all dosed males. The incidences of thyroid gland follicular cell hypertrophy were significantly increased in 500 and 1,000 mg/kg males and in 1,000 mg/kg females. The incidences of pigmentation in the olfactory epithelium of the nose were significantly increased in 500 and 1,000 mg/kg males and in females administered 125 mg/kg or greater. 3-MONTH STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were administered 0, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 mg Ginkgo biloba extract/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. One female mouse in the 1,000 mg/kg group died of a dosing accident during week 11. Mean body weights of 2,000 mg/kg females were significantly less than those of the vehicle control group. Ruffled fur was observed in two 1,000 mg/kg males between weeks 7 and 8 and all 2,000 mg/kg males between weeks 5 and 9. Liver weights of 250 mg/kg or greater males and all dosed groups of females were significantly greater than those of the vehicle control groups. Kidney weights of 2,000 mg/kg males were significantly less than those of the vehicle control group. The Markov transition matrix analyses indicate female mice in the 2,000 mg/kg group had a significantly higher probability of extended estrus than did the vehicle control females. The incidences of hepatocytic hypertrophy were significantly increased in males and females in the 250 mg/kg or greater groups. Significantly increased incidences of focal hepatocytic necrosis occurred in 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg males. The incidences of hyaline droplet accumulation in the respiratory epithelium of the nose were significantly increased in 500 mg/kg males and 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg females. In the olfactory epithelium of the nose, the incidences of hyaline droplet accumulation were significantly increased in the 125 (female only), 500, and 1,000 mg/kg groups. Incidences of atrophy of the olfactory epithelium were significantly increased in the 1,000 mg/kg groups. The incidences of pigment accumulation in macrophages in the olfactory epithelium were significantly increased in males in the 500 mg/kg or greater groups and in 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg females. 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were administered 0, 100, 300, or 1,000 mg Ginkgo biloba extract/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week for 104 or 105 (females) weeks. Additional groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (special study) were administered the same doses, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. Survival of 1,000 mg/kg males was significantly less than that of the vehicle controls. At week 14, all dosed groups of males and 1,000 mg/kg females had increased levels of thyroid stimulating hormone compared to those of the vehicle control groups. There were no significant decreases in the levels of triiodothyronine or total thyroxine. Mean body weights of 300 mg/kg males and females were less (10% or more) than those of the vehicle controls after week 93, and those of 1,000 mg/kg males and females were less after week 89. Clinical findings included ruffled fur in seven, eight, and 10 males in the 100, 300, and 1,000 mg/kg groups, respectively, beginning at week 89; four vehicle control males also had ruffled fur. Liver weights were significantly increased in all dosed groups of special study rats at 14 weeks. In the liver at 2 years, incidences of hepatocellular adenoma were slightly increased in 100 and 300 mg/kg males. Significantly increased incidences of nonneoplastic lesions at 2 years included hepatocyte hypertrophy and bile duct hyperplasia in all dosed groups of males and females, focal fatty change in all dosed groups of females, cystic degeneration in 100 and 1,000 mg/kg males, and oval cell hyperplasia and necrosis in 1,000 mg/kg males. In the thyroid gland, incidences of follicular cell adenoma were slightly increased in 300 and 1,000 mg/kg males and 300 mg/kg females. Single incidences of follicular cell carcinoma occurred in the 300 and 1,000 mg/kg female groups. There were significantly increased incidences of follicular cell hypertrophy in all dosed groups of males and females and follicle hyperplasia in all dosed groups of males. In the nose, adenoma of the respiratory epithelium occurred in two females receiving 300 mg/kg. Except for respiratory epithelium hyperplasia in 100 mg/kg females, the incidences of transitional epithelium and respiratory epithelium hyperplasia were significantly increased in all dosed groups of males and females. Except for olfactory epithelium respiratory metaplasia in 100 mg/kg females, the incidences of atrophy, respiratory metaplasia, nerve atrophy, and pigmentation were significantly increased in the olfactory epithelium of all dosed groups of males and females. Incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia in the respiratory epithelium were significantly increased in 300 and 1,000 mg/kg males and females, and incidences of chronic active inflammation were significantly increased in 1,000 mg/kg males and females. The incidence of submucosa fibrosis was significantly increased in 1,000 mg/kg males. The incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia in 300 and 1,000 mg/kg males were significantly greater than that in the vehicle controls. Dose-related increased severity of kidney nephropathy was noted in all dosed groups of males. 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 50 male and 50 female mice were administered 0, 200, 600, or 2,000 mg Ginkgo biloba extract/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week for 104 weeks. Survival of 600 and 2,000 mg/kg males was significantly less than that of the vehicle controls; survival of 600 mg/kg females was significantly greater than that of the vehicle controls. Mean body weights of 600 and 2,000 mg/kg males were less (10% or more) than those of the vehicle controls after weeks 85 and 77, respectively; mean body weights of 2,000 mg/kg females were generally less than those of the vehicle controls between weeks 17 and 69 and after week 93. In the liver, there were significantly increased incidences of hepatocellular adenoma in all dosed groups of females, hepatocellular carcinoma in all dosed groups of males and 2,000 mg/kg females, and hepatoblastoma in all dosed groups of males and 600 and 2,000 mg/kg females. The increased incidences of these neoplasms were primarily due to increased incidences of multiple adenoma, carcinoma, and hepatoblastoma. Except for the incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoblastoma (combined) in 200 and 600 mg/kg females, the incidences of hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma (combined), hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoblastoma (combined), and hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, or hepatoblastoma (combined) were significantly increased in all dosed groups of males and females. Significantly increased incidences of nonneoplastic liver lesions included hypertrophy in all dosed groups of males and females, erythrophagocytosis in all dosed groups of males and in 600 and 2,000 mg/kg females, hematopoietic cell proliferation, inflammation, and necrosis in 600 and 2,000 mg/kg males, and cytoplasmic vacuolization, eosinophilic focus, and mixed cell focus in all dosed groups of females. In the thyroid gland, two incidences each of follicular cell adenoma occurred in the 600 and 2,000 mg/kg male groups. The incidence of follicle hyperplasia was significantly increased in 2,000 mg/kg males, and the incidences of follicular cell hypertrophy were significantly increased in 2,000 mg/kg males and 600 and 2,000 mg/kg females. In the forestomach, the incidences of inflammation, epithelium hyperplasia, and epithelium hyperkeratosis were significantly increased in all dosed groups of males and in 2,000 mg/kg females; the incidences of epithelium ulcer were significantly increased in 2,000 mg/kg males and females. (
- A novel α-synuclein-GFP mouse model displays progressive motor impairment, olfactory dysfunction and accumulation of α-synuclein-GFP. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurobiol Dis 2013 Apr 30.
Compelling evidence suggests that accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we describe a novel Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) transgenic model, in which we have expressed wild-type human α-syn fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), under control of the mouse α-syn promoter. We observed a widespread and high expression of α-syn-GFP in multiple brain regions, including the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the ventral tegmental area, the olfactory bulb as well as in neocortical neurons. With increasing age, transgenic mice exhibited reductions in amphetamine-induced locomotor activity in the open field, impaired rotarod performance and a reduced striatal dopamine release, as measured by amperometry. In addition, they progressively developed deficits in an odor discrimination test. Western blot analysis revealed that α-syn-GFP and phospho-α-syn levels increased in multiple brain regions, as the mice grew older. Further, we observed, by immunohistochemical staining for phospho-α-syn and in vivo by two-photon microscopy, the formation of α-syn aggregates as the mice aged. The latter illustrates that the model can be used to track α-syn aggregation in vivo. In summary, this novel BAC α-syn-GFP model mimics a unique set of aspects of PD progression combined with the possibility of tracking α-syn aggregation in neocortex of living mice. Therefore, this α-syn-GFP-mouse model can provide a powerful tool that will facilitate the study of α-syn biology and its involvement in PD pathogenesis.
- Meta-Analysis of Olfactory Function in Schizophrenia, First-Degree Family Members, and Youths At-Risk for Psychosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Schizophr Bull 2013 May 2.
Background:Previous research has provided compelling support for olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia patients, their first-degree relatives, and youth at-risk for psychosis. A previous meta-analysis revealed large effect sizes across olfactory tasks but was limited to 2 olfactory tasks and did not examine moderator variables. Thus, the current meta-analysis was undertaken to incorporate additional studies, risk cohorts, olfactory test domains, and moderator variable analyses.Method:A meta-analysis was conducted on 67 publications examining olfactory function in schizophrenia patients and 15 publications examining olfactory functioning in youth at-risk for psychosis, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, and individuals with schizotypy.
Results:Results revealed medium-to-large olfactory deficits in schizophrenia patients though significant heterogeneity was evident. Several variables moderated overall study effects. At-risk youths similarly demonstrated medium-to-large effect sizes, whereas first-degree relatives and individuals with schizotypy showed small effects.
Conclusions:Findings suggest robust olfactory deficits in schizophrenia and at-risk youths. In schizophrenia, several variables had significant impact on these deficits and warrant consideration in prospective studies. Our findings also indicate that olfactory measures may be a useful marker of schizophrenia risk status.
- Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2013 May; 33(2):163-176.
The presence of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) in a patient with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and asthma is associated with severe eosinophilic upper and lower airway disease. This article deals with the inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract as it relates to the sinuses. Involvement of the sinuses in AERD is almost universal, depending on the stage of onset of the disease and evaluation by computed tomography. This article explores the clinical aspects, physiopathology, and treatment of rhinosinusitis as it relates to AERD.
- Prospective outcome assessment of occupational rhinitis after removal from exposure. [Journal Article]
- J Occup Environ Med 2013 May; 55(5):579-85.
: To conduct a prospective evaluation of clinical and quality of life (QOL) outcomes of occupational rhinitis (OR) after cessation of exposure.: We assessed changes in nasal symptoms, disease-specific QOL, nasal patency, and nasal inflammation in 20 subjects with confirmed OR. Olfactory function was assessed cross-sectionally at follow-up.: At follow-up, a significant decrease in the number of nasal symptoms and a significant improvement in QOL were observed. There were no significant differences in nasal patency outcomes. A not significant decrease in neutrophils number in nasal fluid and a significant decrease in macrophages were observed. As a group, study subjects showed a mild olfactory dysfunction at follow-up.: We showed that cessation of exposure to causal agent improved QOL in patients with OR, leading to relief of rhinitis-associated symptoms and improvement in well-being.
- [Airways dysfunction syndromes RADS and RUDS]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Duodecim 2013; 129(6):615-9.
RADS is an airways dysfunction syndrome caused by a sudden, massive exposure to an irritative chemical. RADS is considered a subtype of occupational asthma. RADS patient may cure within months, but RADS may also become a permanent disability. RUDS is a dysfunction syndrome in upper airways caused by exposure to an irritative chemical. It seems that in RUDS there are problems in olfactory function in addition to inflammation of upper airways. We present a patient, who was suddenly exposed to chemical vapours in her workplace. She had RADS-like symptoms and was diagnosed with RUDS.