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Oncology AND Testicular tumor [keywords]
- Testicular synovial sarcoma: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Cancer Biol Med 2012 Dec; 9(4):274-6.
This paper reports a case of testicular synovial sarcoma with molecular genetic analysis. A 24-year-old male presented with painless scrotal mass. Ultrasonography showed a heterogeneous mass of 66 mm × 34 mm in size involving the inguinal region. Histological examination of a surgical biopsy showed a grade III monophasic growth pattern of spindle cell proliferation. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated positive staining for pancytokeratine and epithelial membrane antigen. Cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of CYT-SSX1 mutation, and CT scan showed non-specific pleural micro-nodules with a size of 7.5 mm. The patient had an extended left orchidectomy but was lost to follow-up for 1 year. A local recurrent scrotal mass of 32 mm × 25 mm, multiple inguinal lymph nodes, and increased pleural nodules, which were confirmed by histological examination, were treated with three cycles of adriamycine and ifosfamide chemotherapy, surgical resection, and radiotherapy with complete response. After 3 months, the patient developed local recurrence and pulmonary metastases that did not respond to second-line chemotherapy based on gemcitabine and paclitaxel. The patient had dyspnea at the time of this writing and chest pain, and is under third-line chemotherapy based on Deticene after 30 months of following up. This patient died on November 16, 2012 after a resperatory failure and malignant pelural effusion. Synovial sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumor and it should be aggressively treated to improve prognosis. Although our patient has shown numerous factors of bad prognosis, he has had a relatively long survival time.
- Twenty years of experience on stem cell transplantation in iran. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013 Feb; 15(2):93-100.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a new window to therapy of many diseases. From March 1991 through April 2011, a total of 3237 HSCT were performed in the Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Here we report 20 years experience of HSCT.Our strategy and aim include the protraction of cytogenetic and molecular biological diagnostic tests, the expansion of the first Iranian Cord Blood Bank (ICBB) and development of the first Iranian Stem Cell Donor Program (ISCDP), and improvement the researches in new therapeutic fields.Totally, 3237 patients were undergone HSCT. Of these transplants, 2205 were allogeneic stem cell transplantation, 1016 autologous and 16 syngeneic. Among 2205 patients who were undergone allogenic-HSCT, 34 received cord blood stem cells as stem cell source for transplantation. It is important to point out that cord blood bank at our center provides reliable storage of cord blood stem cells for our patients. Stem cell transplantation was performed for treatment of various diseases such as acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphoblastic leukemia, beta-thalassemia major, sickle- cell thalassemia, sickle- cell disease, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, severe aplastic anemia, plasma cell leukemia, Niemann-Pick disease, Fanconi anemia, severe combined immunodeficiency, congenital neutropenia, leukocyte adhesion deficiencies, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, osteopetrosis, histiocytosis X, Hurler syndrome, amyloidosis, systemic sclerosis, breast cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, testicular cancer, germ cell tumors, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, ovarian cancer, Wilms' tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, pancreatoblastoma, and multiple sclerosis. Also, we had 220 cellular therapies for post-myocardial infarction, multiple sclerosis, cirrhosis, head of femur necrosis, Diabetes Mellitus and GvHD treatment. 45 patients were undergone retransplantation in this center.About 78.2% of the patients (2530 of 3237) remained alive between one to 211 months after stem cell transplantation. Nearly, 21.8% (707) of our patients died after stem cell transplantation. The main causes of death were relapse, infection, hemorrhagic cystitis, graft-versus- host disease and etc.In Iran, HSCT has been successfully adapted in routine clinical care. Recently, new methods such as double cord blood and haploidentical transplantation have been used to treat many life-threatening diseases.
- Genetic variation in AKT1, PTEN and the 8q24 locus, and the risk of testicular germ cell tumor. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Reprod 2013 May 2.
STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) and genetic polymorphisms in AKT1, PTEN and the 8q24 locus? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our findings suggest that genetic variation in PTEN may influence the risk of TGCT. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is strong evidence that genetic variation influences the risk of TGCT. The oncogene, AKT1, the tumor suppressor gene, PTEN and the chromosome 8q24 locus play important roles in cancer development in general.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We have conducted a population-based Norwegian-Swedish case-parent study, based on cases diagnosed in 1990-2008, including 831 triads (TGCT case and both parents), 474 dyads (TGCT case and one parent) and 712 singletons (only the TGCT case). In addition we expanded the study to include 3922 unrelated male controls from the TwinGene project. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING,
METHODS:We genotyped 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AKT1, PTEN and the 8q24 locus. First, triads and dyads were included in a likelihood-based association test. To increase the statistical power, case singletons and controls from the TwinGene project were included in a single test for association. We examined if the allelic effect on TGCT risk differed by histological subgroup, country of origin or parent of origin. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with Bonferroni correction (Pbonf) for multiple testing. MAIN
RESULTSAND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In the case-parent analyses, none of the 26 SNPs were significantly associated with TGCT. Of the 23 SNPs investigated in the combined study, one SNP in PTEN (rs11202586) remained associated with TGCT risk after adjusting for multiple testing (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06-1.28, Pbonf = 0.040). We found no difference in risk according to histological subgroup, parent of origin or between countries. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Our study is strengthened by the population-based design and large sample size, which gives high power to detect risk alleles. The reported association was not highly significant, and although it was based on an a priori hypothesis of this tumor suppressor gene being implicated in the etiology of TGCT, replication studies, as well as functional studies of this polymorphism, are warranted. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE
FINDINGS:We report, to our knowledge, a novel association between TGCT and a marker in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN. Previous studies have linked PTEN to TGCT etiology, and there is also a link between PTEN and KITLG, which contains TGCT susceptibility loci revealed through recent genome-wide studies. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was financially supported by the Norwegian Cancer Society (418975) and the Nordic Cancer Union (S-12/07). No competing interests are declared.
- Outcomes in stage I testicular seminoma: A population-based study of 9193 patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer 2013 Apr 30.
BACKGROUND:Few studies have quantified temporal patterns of cause-specific mortality in contemporary cohorts of men with early-stage seminoma. Given that several management strategies can be applied in these patients, each resulting in excellent long-term survival, it is important to evaluate associated long-term sequelae. In particular, data describing long-term risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are conflicting.
METHODS:We identified 9193 men diagnosed with stage I seminoma (ages 15-70 years) in the population-based SEER registries (1973-2001). We calculated survival estimates, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), and adjusted hazard rates (AHRs).
RESULTS:During 121,037 person-years of follow-up (median, 12.3 years), 915 deaths (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.16-1.32) were reported, with significant excesses for suicide (n = 39; SMR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06-1.98), infection (n = 58; SMR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.80-3.00), and second malignant neoplasms (SMNs; n = 291; SMR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.61-2.03), but not CVD (n = 201; SMR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.80-1.05). After radiotherapy (78% patients), CVD deaths were not increased (n = 158; SMR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76-1.04), in contrast to SMN deaths (n = 246; SMR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.67-2.14). SMN mortality was higher among patients administered radiotherapy than among those not given radiotherapy (AHR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.99-1.88; P = .059), with a cumulative 15-year risk of 2.64% (95% CI, 2.19-3.16). Suicide, although rare, accounted for 1 in 230 deaths.
CONCLUSIONS:Modern radiotherapy as applied in this large population-based study is not associated with excess CVD mortality. Although increased all-cause mortality exists, cumulative SMN risk is considerably smaller than reported in historical series, but additional follow-up will be required to characterize long-term trends. The increased risk of suicide, previously unreported in men with stage I seminoma, requires confirmation. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
- Mutations in LRRC50 Predispose Zebrafish and Humans to Seminomas. [Journal Article]
- PLoS Genet 2013 Apr; 9(4):e1003384.
Seminoma is a subclass of human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), the most frequently observed cancer in young men with a rising incidence. Here we describe the identification of a novel gene predisposing specifically to seminoma formation in a vertebrate model organism. Zebrafish carrying a heterozygous nonsense mutation in Leucine-Rich Repeat Containing protein 50 (lrrc50 also called dnaaf1), associated previously with ciliary function, are found to be highly susceptible to the formation of seminomas. Genotyping of these zebrafish tumors shows loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild-type lrrc50 allele in 44.4% of tumor samples, correlating with tumor progression. In humans we identified heterozygous germline LRRC50 mutations in two different pedigrees with a family history of seminomas, resulting in a nonsense Arg488* change and a missense Thr590Met change, which show reduced expression of the wild-type allele in seminomas. Zebrafish in vivo complementation studies indicate the Thr590Met to be a loss-of-function mutation. Moreover, we show that a pathogenic Gln307Glu change is significantly enriched in individuals with seminoma tumors (13% of our cohort). Together, our study introduces an animal model for seminoma and suggests LRRC50 to be a novel tumor suppressor implicated in human seminoma pathogenesis.
- Extramedullary plasmocytoma relapsing at differents sites: an unusual presentation. [Journal Article]
- Pan Afr Med J 2013.:34.
Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is an uncommon plasma cell neoplasm results from plasma cell proliferation and consists of monoclonal plasmacytic infiltration, without bone marrow involvement and any other systemic characteristics of multiple myeloma. EMP accounts for 3% of all plasma cell neoplasms and approximately 80% to 90% of EMP involve submucosa of the upper aerodigestive, while scrotal, dermis and retroperitoneal infiltration are very rare. There are no consensus guidelines for treatment, but EMP is highly radiosensitive, surgery may be considered for some sites, but 11 at 30% can progress in multiple myeloma. We report here an exceptional case of recurrent EMP in much localization. It's about a man 72 years old with initially testicular plasmocytoma who generalized the plasmacytic infiltration after 16 months in skin and progressively in mediastinal and retroperitoneal plasmacytoma, without any medullar and bone involvement.
- Determination of gonad doses during robotic stereotactic radiosurgery for various tumor sites. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Med Phys 2013 Apr; 40(4):041703.
The authors evaluated the absorbed dose received by the gonads during robotic stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of different tumor localizations.The authors measured the gonad doses during the treatment of head and neck, thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic tumors in both RANDO phantom and actual patients. The computerized tomography images were transferred to the treatment planning system. The contours of tumor and critical organs were delineated on each slice, and treatment plans were generated. Measurements for gonad doses were taken from the geometric projection of the ovary onto the skin for female patients, and from the scrotal skin for male patients by attaching films and Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). SRS was delivered with CyberKnife (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA).The median gonadal doses with TLD and film dosimeter in actual patients were 0.19 Gy (range, 0.035-2.71 Gy) and 0.34 Gy (range, 0.066-3.18 Gy), respectively. In the RANDO phantom, the median ovarian doses with TLD and film dosimeter were 0.08 Gy (range, 0.03-0.159 Gy) and 0.05 Gy (range, 0.015-0.13 Gy), respectively. In the RANDO phantom, the median testicular doses with TLD and film dosimeter were 0.134 Gy (range 0.056-1.97 Gy) and 0.306 Gy (range, 0.065-2.25 Gy).Gonad doses are below sterility threshold in robotic SRS for different tumor localizations. However, particular attention should be given to gonads during robotic SRS for pelvic tumors.
- Long-term outcome of primary endocrine non-Hodgkin lymphomas: does the site make the difference? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- QJM 2013 Feb 20.
Aim:Primary lymphomas of endocrine glands are extremely rare. Our study adds more data to the few published series regarding the incidence, clinical characteristics, management and overall survival (OS) by comparing the various diffuse large B-cell endocrine lymphomas. Moreover, it contributes to a better understanding of these neoplasms and provides concepts for future research.
Methods:We retrospectively evaluated the clinical profile and the patterns of outcome among patients who were treated in our center with the diagnosis of aggressive, B-cell, primary endocrine lymphoma.
Results:Between May 1980 and December 2011, 450 patients were diagnosed as primary extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Among them, 18 cases (4%) were primary testicular lymphoma (PTL), 8 cases (2%) were primary thyroid lymphoma (PTHL) and 4 cases (1%) were primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL). The therapeutic approaches employed were variable, including mainly chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy and surgery. The median OS for the patients with PTL and PAL was 27 and 6 months, respectively. Better outcome was observed in patients with PTHL for whom the median OS has not been reached yet, whereas the PAL group had the worst prognosis.
Conclusions:The discrepancies in the outcome among endocrine lymphomas could be partly attributed to their biologic variability, which might be determined by the initial site involved. We conclude that treatment decisions should be made according to a multi-disciplinary approach to avoid unnecessary surgery. Existing treatment strategies for PTL and PAL fail to provide long-term survival, rendering the application of novel therapeutic approaches essential.
- Manipulating the epigenome for the treatment of urological malignancies. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Pharmacol Ther 2013 May; 138(2):185-96.
Urological malignancies (cancers of the prostate, bladder, kidney and testes) account for 15% of all human cancers and more than 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. This group of malignancies is spread across multiple generations, affecting the young (testicular) through middle and old-age (kidney, prostate and bladder). Like most human cancers, urological cancers are characterized by widespread epigenetic insult, causing changes in DNA hypermethylation and histone modifications leading to silencing of tumor suppressor genes and genomic instability. The inherent stability yet dynamic plasticity of the epigenome lends itself well to therapeutic manipulation. Epigenetic changes are amongst the earliest lesions to occur during carcinogenesis and are essentially reversible (unlike mutations). For this reason, much attention has been placed over the past two decades on deriving pharmacological compounds that can specifically target and reverse such epi-mutations, either halting cancer on its developmental trajectory or reverting fully formed cancers to a more clinically manageable state. This review discusses DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors that have been extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials for advanced and metastatic urological cancers.
- Chemotherapy refractory testicular germ cell tumor is associated with a variant in Armadillo Repeat gene deleted in Velco-Cardio-Facial syndrome (ARVCF). [Journal Article]
- Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2012.:163.
Introduction: There is evidence that inherited genetic variation affects both testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) treatment outcome and risks of late-complications arising from cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Using a candidate gene approach, we examined associations of three genes involved in the cisplatin metabolism pathway, GSTP1, COMT, and TPMT, with TGCT outcome and cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and