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Opioid Abuse [keywords]
- Enhancing motivation within a rapid opioid substitution treatment feasibility RCT: a nested qualitative study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2014 Nov 18; 9(1):44.
Opioid substitution treatment (OST) has multiple benefits for heroin injectors and is an evidence-based major component of international treatment. The current qualitative study sought to explore participants' attitudes to and reasons for participating in a feasibility randomised trial in primary care offering 'same day' OST (methadone) for injecting heroin users compared to usual care.Twenty injecting heroin users (8 intervention and 12 controls; 16 males and 4 females) were interviewed; purposive sampling was used to select a maximum variation sample from those who agreed; and analysis used thematic methods.Motivation to join the trial included the need to secure treatment set against some ambivalence due to previous negative experiences of trying to obtain OST. Positive effects of securing methadone via the trial, included self-reported improvements in health and self-care; reduction in crime, stress and drug use. Completing the baseline questionnaires at recruitment appeared to enhance motivation for treatment for all participants. For some control participants, this motivation seemed to increase a sense of self-efficacy and cognitive dissonance generated was resolved by seeking treatment from their GP. Self-determination theory suggests that behaviour change may have been initiated during the recruitment appointment, resulting in an increased determination to seek treatment amongst control participants.Taking part in the 'script in a day' trial enabled participants in the intervention arm to gain same-day access to methadone and reduce their drug use. For those in the control arm, completing the baseline questionnaires at recruitment appeared to create cognitive dissonance between their current health state and own aspirations, so increasing motivation for treatment. Over 50% obtained and were still in receipt of OST (methadone or buprenorphine) at the 3 month follow-up. We suggest that a regular 'health evaluation' for injecting heroin users not in treatment, paired with low-barrier access to treatment, may be a way of exploring this and encouraging more into obtaining OST more quickly and at the best time for them. This intervention should be delivered without pressure for change.Clinical trial registration: This trial is registered with International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register: SCript In a Day for injecting drug users: feasibility trial: ISRCTN16846554. http://www.controlledtrials.com/ISRCTN16846554/script+in+a+day.
- Opioid Abuse and Dependence during Pregnancy: Temporal Trends and Obstetrical Outcomes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anesthesiology 2014 Dec; 121(6):1158-1165.
The authors investigated nationwide trends in opioid abuse or dependence during pregnancy and assessed the impact on maternal and obstetrical outcomes in the United States.Hospitalizations for delivery were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2011. Temporal trends were assessed and logistic regression was used to examine the associations between maternal opioid abuse or dependence and obstetrical outcomes adjusting for relevant confounders.The prevalence of opioid abuse or dependence during pregnancy increased from 0.17% (1998) to 0.39% (2011) for an increase of 127%. Deliveries associated with maternal opioid abuse or dependence compared with those without opioid abuse or dependence were associated with an increased odds of maternal death during hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.6; 95% CI, 1.8 to 12.1, crude incidence 0.03 vs. 0.006%), cardiac arrest (aOR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.4 to 9.1; 0.04 vs. 0.01%), intrauterine growth restriction (aOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 2.4 to 2.9; 6.8 vs. 2.1%), placental abruption (aOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 2.1 to 2.6; 3.8 vs. 1.1%), length of stay more than 7 days (aOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 2.0 to 2.5; 3.0 vs. 1.2%), preterm labor (aOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 2.0 to 2.3; 17.3 vs. 7.4%), oligohydramnios (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6 to 1.9; 4.5 vs. 2.8%), transfusion (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 1.9; 2.0 vs. 1.0%), stillbirth (aOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3 to 1.8; 1.2 vs. 0.6%), premature rupture of membranes (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3 to 1.6; 5.7 vs. 3.8%), and cesarean delivery (aOR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.3; 36.3 vs. 33.1%).Opioid abuse or dependence during pregnancy is associated with considerable obstetrical morbidity and mortality, and its prevalence is dramatically increasing in the United States. Identifying preventive strategies and therapeutic interventions in pregnant women who abuse drugs are important priorities for clinicians and scientists.
- Effectiveness of local anesthesia with lidocaine in chronic opium abusers. [Journal Article]
- J Emerg Trauma Shock 2014 Oct; 7(4):301-4.
It had been demonstrated that chronic opium abusers have lower pain thresholds compared with than non-abusers.This study aimed to compare the required dose of lidocaine, a common local anesthetic drug, with regard to the onset of anesthesia in opium abusers with that in non-abusers undergoing similar suturing of minor hand lacerations.In this study, 109 opium abusers and 91 non-abusers underwent similar suturing for hand lacerations known as digital block. We explained the patients that their case records would remain confidential and admitting to any history of opioid abuse could assist in alleviating any pain associated with the procedure.There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to age, gender, and cause of injury (P > 0.05). We found a significantly longer duration of onset of analgesia in nonopioid abusers (5.42 ± 1.93 min) than that in abusers (10.30 ± 1.79 min) (P < 0.001). In addition, the lidocaine dose administered to abusers (6.67 ± 1.21 ml) was higher (4.07 ± 1.26) as well as statistically significant (P < 0.001) than that in non-abusers.The findings from this study suggest a longer duration of onset of anesthesia and requirement of a higher lidocaine dose in opium abusers compared with nonopioid abuser. Moreover, chronic opium abusers (4-5 years) experienced significantly higher time of onset of anesthesia compared with nonchronic abusers. This outcome may be useful in selecting a more suitable local anesthetic protocol in such patients.
- Impact of abuse-deterrent OxyContin on prescription opioid utilization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2014 Nov 13.
We quantified the degree to which the August 2010 reformulation of abuse-deterrent OxyContin affected its use, as well as the use of alternative extended-release and immediate-release opioids.We used the IMS Health National Prescription Audit, a nationally representative source of prescription activity in the USA, to conduct a segmented time-series analysis of the use of OxyContin and other prescription opioids. Our primary time period of interest was 12 months prior to and following August 2010. We performed model checks and sensitivity analyses, such as adjusting for marketing and promotion, using alternative lag periods, and adding extra observation points.OxyContin sales were similar before and after the August 2010 reformulation, with approximately 550 000 monthly prescriptions. After adjusting for declines in the generic extended-release oxycodone market, the formulation change was associated with a reduction of approximately 18 000 OxyContin prescription sales per month (p = 0.02). This decline corresponded to a change in the annual growth rate of OxyContin use, from 4.9% prior to the reformulation to -23.8% during the year after the reformulation. There were no statistically significant changes associated with the sales of alternative extended-release (p = 0.42) or immediate-release (p = 0.70) opioids. Multiple sensitivity analyses supported these findings and their substantive interpretation.The market debut of abuse-deterrent OxyContin was associated with declines in its use after accounting for the simultaneous contraction of the generic extended-release oxycodone market. Further scrutiny into the effect of abuse-deterrent formulations on medication use and health outcomes is vital given their popularity in opioid drug development. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Opiate dependence in schizophrenia: case presentation and literature review. [Journal Article]
- J Dual Diagn 2014 Jan-Mar; 10(1):52-7.
In the past decade opioid pain reliever misuse among the U.S. population has increased to epidemic proportions. While the U.S. has only 4% of the world's population, Americans consume 86% of the world's opioids. In 2011, approximately 13 million people (5% of the U.S. population) reported nonmedical use of prescription opioids, which are now the second most commonly abused class of drug behind cannabis. There has been little in the way of formal study examining the association between mental illness and prescription opiate abuse, but preliminary evidence suggests a strong association. Neurobiological processes involved in psychosis and opiate abuse may partially explain this association. Despite compelling evidence of the growth in opiate misuse and the potential relationship with mental illness, patients with mental disorders and/or substance abuse are routinely excluded from randomized trials, making it impossible to better understand these phenomena. Treatment guidelines, especially regarding opioid agonists such as methadone and buprenorphine for people with mental illness, are woefully inadequate. We present the case of a young man with schizoaffective disorder who sustained an injury and developed chronic back pain. Opioids were prescribed and he quickly progressed to abusing increasing doses of opioids, which eventually led to daily heroin use. The young man struggled with repeated relapses, serious use-related consequences and suicide attempts. This case highlights the role of chronic pain and opioid prescribing, the segue from prescribed use to abuse and dependence, and the transition to heroin use. It demonstrates the difficulty patients may have in obtaining adequate treatment for co-occurring mental illness and substance abuse and how outcomes are improved when treatment is integrated to address both disorders. Comprehensive treatment must involve a combination of case management and medical management, including possible opioid replacement therapy.
- Stimulant medication for ADHD in opioid maintenance treatment. [Journal Article]
- J Dual Diagn 2014 Jan-Mar; 10(1):32-8.
The use of central stimulant medication in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who receive opioid maintenance treatment remains controversial and empirical evidence is limited. Because of the abuse potential of stimulant drugs, Norway has restrictions on prescribing central stimulants to individuals who have substance use disorders or who are on opioid maintenance treatment. In this naturalistic study, we describe experiences from a program through which central stimulant medication was administered to patients with ADHD receiving opioid maintenance treatment.This report is based on a program evaluation of a combined treatment project designed to provide stimulant medication to patients with adult ADHD who were receiving opioid maintenance treatment. As part of the clinical treatment, patients were monitored closely for any medical issues or adverse medication reactions and provided regular urine samples for analysis and information regarding demographics, treatment goals, legal involvement, diagnoses, substance abuse, and ADHD symptoms. Monitoring occurred at baseline, at 2 months (after patients being stabilized on the central stimulant), and again at 3, 6 and 24 months.Among 42 patients initially offered the combined treatment, 24 were actually eligible, 20 started the combined treatment, and 10 stayed in the program. We were not able to identify a single major cause of treatment dropout. Patients reported significantly fewer symptoms of ADHD at the 6- to 8-week point, regardless of whether the data were analyzed using an intent-to-treat (all participants) or per-protocol (only those with complete data at all points) method. Even though self-assessed ADHD scores dropped significantly during treatment, the scores still remained fairly high, suggesting persistent functional impairment. Neither severe complications nor increase in substance abuse were observed during treatment with central stimulants.These findings show some promise with regard to the safety and utility of central stimulant medications for patients with ADHD who are receiving opioid maintenance treatment. Our study has methodological limitations, and systematic, well-designed clinical investigations are needed to increase the knowledge base.
- Non-medical prescription opioid use and violent behaviour among adolescents. [Journal Article]
- J Child Adolesc Ment Health 2014 Jul; 26(1):35-47.
Objective A pharmacological explanation for the observed positive association between opioid abuse and violence does not appear to exist. Several explanations have therefore been posited. This study attempted to shed additional light on the latent factors linking opioid abuse and adolescent violence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation to examine this relationship while distinguishing between adolescents who misused their own versus a diverted prescription. A secondary objective was to compare the estimated effects of opioid abuse to those of other substances. Method The 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey data were analysed. A full information maximum likelihood multiple regression was used to account for missing data. Results Diverted- and own-prescription opioid abuse among adolescents were evidenced to be relatively strong predictors of violent thoughts and subsequent violent behaviour. Conclusions These findings, in conjunction with our unique operationalisation of violence, help us draw inferences about the true source of the relationship between opioid abuse and violence. The results also indicate that opioid abuse is a potentially modifiable risk factor for violence. The fact that this negative outcome was observed for youths abusing their own prescription is further cause for concern given the recent surge in opioid prescriptions.
- Pharmacokinetics of Hydrocodone Extended-Release Tablets Formulated with Different Levels of Coating to Achieve Abuse Deterrence Compared with a Hydrocodone Immediate-Release/Acetaminophen Tablet in Healthy Subjects. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Drug Investig 2014 Nov 13.
A hydrocodone extended-release (ER) formulation employing the CIMA(®) Abuse-Deterrence Technology platform was developed to provide resistance against rapid release of hydrocodone when tablets are comminuted or taken with alcohol. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of three hydrocodone ER tablet prototypes with varying levels of polymer coating to identify the prototype expected to have the greatest abuse deterrence potential based on pharmacokinetic characteristics that maintain systemic exposure to hydrocodone comparable to that of a commercially available hydrocodone immediate-release (IR) product.In this four-period crossover study, healthy subjects aged 18-45 years were randomized to receive a single intact, oral 45-mg tablet of one of three hydrocodone ER prototypes (low-, intermediate-, or high-level coating) or an intact, oral tablet of hydrocodone IR/acetaminophen (APAP) 10/325 mg every 6 h until four tablets were administered, with each of the four treatments administered once over the four study periods. Dosing periods were separated by a minimum 5-day washout. Naltrexone 50 mg was administered to block opioid receptors. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic assessments were collected predose and through 72 h postdose. Parameters assessed included maximum observed plasma hydrocodone concentration (C max), time to C max (t max), and area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞).Mean C max values were 49.2, 32.6, and 28.4 ng/mL for the low-, intermediate-, and high-level coating hydrocodone ER tablet prototypes, respectively, and 37.3 ng/mL for the hydrocodone IR/APAP tablet; respective median t max values were 5.9, 8.0, 8.0, and 1.0 h. Total systemic exposure to hydrocodone (AUC0-∞) was comparable between hydrocodone ER tablet prototypes (640, 600, and 578 ng·h/mL, respectively) and hydrocodone IR/APAP (581 ng·h/mL). No serious adverse events or deaths were reported. The most common adverse events included headache (26 %) and nausea (18 %).All three hydrocodone ER tablet prototypes (low-, intermediate-, and high-level polymer coating) demonstrated ER pharmacokinetic characteristics. The hydrocodone ER tablet prototype with the high-level coating was selected for development because of its comparable exposure to the hydrocodone IR/APAP formulation and potentially increased ability to resist rapid drug release upon product tampering because of a higher polymer coating level. All study medications were well tolerated in healthy naltrexone-blocked volunteers.
- Comorbidity and pattern of substance use in hospitalized psychiatric patients. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014 Aug; 16(8):e19282.
Substance use in patients with psychiatric disorder is an every-day seen. Detection of this comorbidity can significantly affect the treatment of these disorders, as well as substance use.This study has been conducted to determine the prevalence and pattern of substance use in hospitalized psychiatric patients.In this cross-sectional study, 210 hospitalized psychiatric patients were selected by simple randomization from all records of hospitalized patients. The instrument of gathering data was a demographic checklist including age, gender, marital status, education, type of disorder and substance abuse and duration of psychiatric disorder. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using Fisher exact and Chi square tests.The mean age of patients was 37.9 years. Most of the patients were male, married and unemployed. The Prevalence of substance use was 36.7%. The most prevalent pattern of substance use was opium, opioid, methamphetamines and other substances (poly substance). The prevalence of substance use in patients with mood disorders was more than the other disorders and the most prevalent substance use in these patients was opium and opioid. Poly substance use was the most prevalent pattern of use (80 %) in psychotic and mood disorders due to substance. Significant difference was seen between genders, marital status, occupation, duration of illness and frequency of substance use (P < 0.05 ), however no significant difference was seen between educational levels, age and substance use.The patients with mood disorders had the highest comorbidity with substance use and concurrent use of poly substance was the most prevalent pattern of use in these patients. Therefore, successful treatment of psychiatric disorders and substance use needs multimodal and more serious interventions. Regarding to the pattern of poly substance use in these patients, careful screening should be performed at admission.
- Considerations on the role of buprenorphine in recovery from heroin addiction from a UK perspective. [REVIEW]
- J Psychopharmacol 2014 Nov 11.
The United Kingdom Drug Strategy emphasises recovery as a key focus in the treatment of drug dependence. A framework for recovery is defined in the Recovery-Orientated Drug Treatment report, written by an expert working group, and comprises four key phases: engagement and stabilisation, including the establishment of treatment goals; preparation for change, involving engagement in psychosocial and pharmacological interventions; active change, including detoxification and medical withdrawal; and completion, including interventions that strengthen community integration. A body of evidence supports the benefits of buprenorphine, a partial agonist at mu opioid receptors, in supporting individualised recovery based on this framework, specifically in relation to the potential for rapid stabilisation, flexibility to transition to other treatment options or achieve abstinence, effective blocking of on-top use of illicit drugs, the treatment of comorbidities through the minimisation of drug-drug interactions, and a good safety profile. In addition, the newer abuse-deterrent formulation of buprenorphine combined with the opioid antagonist naloxone is likely to strengthen recovery-orientated systems of care due to its potential to reduce misuse and diversion. Progress through the recovery journey and the ability to sustain recovery will depend on individual needs and goals and on the amount of recovery capital that individuals have developed.