(Opioid Abuse) articles in PubMed
- Unused opioid analgesics and drug disposal following outpatient dental surgery: A randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- Drug Alcohol Depend 2016 Sep 16DA
- CONCLUSIONS: Fifty-four percent of opioids prescribed in this pilot study were not used. The pharmacy-based drug disposal intervention showed a robust effect size but did not achieve statistical significance. Dentists and oral surgeons could potentially reduce opioid diversion by moderately reducing the quantity of opioid analgesics prescribed after surgery.
- NALOXONE BLOCKS THE AVERSIVE EFFECTS OF ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE PARABRACHIAL COMPLEX IN A PLACE DISCRIMINATION TASK. [Journal Article]
- Neurobiol Learn Mem 2016 Sep 19NL
- The parabrachial complex is known to participate in various rewarding and aversive processes, including those related to the learning of taste or place discrimination and the motivational effects of ...
The parabrachial complex is known to participate in various rewarding and aversive processes, including those related to the learning of taste or place discrimination and the motivational effects of drugs of abuse, such as morphine. This study shows that electrical stimulation of the external lateral parabrachial (LPBe) subnucleus induces consistent place avoidance or place preference in three-compartment rectangular mazes. Administration of naloxone, an opiate antagonist, blocks both motivational effects induced by the intracranial electrical stimulation. Subsequent re-administration of the electrical stimulation was found to recover its aversive but not its rewarding effects after vehicle administration. These results are discussed in relation to different natural and artificial agents involved in the induction of avoidance and preference motivational processes, especially with regard to the opioid system.
- Buprenorphine/Naloxone Versus Methadone for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines [BOOK]
- Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health: Ottawa (ON)BOOK
- In 2013, Suboxone (buprenorphine/naloxone) became available as a generic and its direct cost, and cost differential with methadone, decreased. Buprenorphine/naloxone has several advantages compared w...
In 2013, Suboxone (buprenorphine/naloxone) became available as a generic and its direct cost, and cost differential with methadone, decreased. Buprenorphine/naloxone has several advantages compared with methadone. Methadone is a full agonist; there is no ceiling to respiratory depression or sedation effects and an overdose can be fatal. Buprenorphine also has a long half-life but because it is a partial agonist, it has a ceiling effect (effect plateaus at higher doses) and thus the risk of overdose is decreased. Other advantages of buprenorphine/naloxone include its long duration of action which allows for every second day dosing if needed; its administration as a sublingual tablet; its lack of requirements of an exemption to be prescribed; and its formulation with less potential for abuse. Given the foregoing, an assessment is required to assist decision-makers and prescribers in selecting between the two treatments. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide evidence on the comparative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine/naloxone compared with methadone, for the treatment of patients with opioid use disorder. Clinical practice guidelines will also be examined.
- Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Nicotine Preference Requires Dynorphin/Kappa Opioid Activity in the Basolateral Amygdala. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2016 Sep 21; 36(38):9937-48JN
- The dynorphin (DYN)/kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) system plays a conserved role in stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking for prototypical substances of abuse. Due to nicotine's high propensity f...
The dynorphin (DYN)/kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) system plays a conserved role in stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking for prototypical substances of abuse. Due to nicotine's high propensity for stress-induced relapse, we hypothesized that stress would induce reinstatement of nicotine seeking-like behavior in a KOR-dependent manner. Using a conditioned place preference (CPP) reinstatement procedure in mice, we show that both foot-shock stress and the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) induce reinstatement of nicotine CPP in a norbinaltorphimine (norBNI, a KOR antagonist)-sensitive manner, indicating that KOR activity is necessary for stress-induced nicotine CPP reinstatement. After reinstatement testing, we visualized robust c-fos expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), which was reduced in mice pretreated with norBNI. We then used several distinct but complementary approaches of locally disrupting BLA KOR activity to assess the role of KORs and KOR-coupled intracellular signaling cascades on reinstatement of nicotine CPP. norBNI injected locally into the BLA prevented yohimbine-induced nicotine CPP reinstatement without affecting CPP acquisition. Similarly, selective deletion of BLA KORs in KOR conditional knock-out mice prevented foot-shock-induced CPP reinstatement. Together, these findings strongly implicate BLA KORs in stress-induced nicotine seeking-like behavior. In addition, we found that chemogenetic activation of Gαi signaling within CaMKIIα BLA neurons was sufficient to induce nicotine CPP reinstatement, identifying an anatomically specific intracellular mechanism by which stress leads to reinstatement. Considered together, our findings suggest that activation of the DYN/KOR system and Gαi signaling within the BLA is both necessary and sufficient to produce reinstatement of nicotine preference.
- Morphine addiction in ants: a new model for self-administration and neurochemical analysis. [Journal Article]
- J Exp Biol 2016 Sep 15; 219(Pt 18):2865-2869JE
- Conventional definitions of drug addiction are focused on characterizing the neurophysiological and behavioral responses of mammals. Although mammalian models have been invaluable in studying specifi...
Conventional definitions of drug addiction are focused on characterizing the neurophysiological and behavioral responses of mammals. Although mammalian models have been invaluable in studying specific and complex aspects of addiction, invertebrate systems have proven advantageous in investigating how drugs of abuse corrupt the most basic motivational and neurochemical systems. It has recently been shown that invertebrates and mammals have remarkable similarities in their behavioral and neurochemical responses to drugs of abuse. However, until now only mammals have demonstrated drug seeking and self-administration without the concurrent presence of a natural reward, e.g. sucrose. Using a sucrose-fading paradigm, followed by a two-dish choice test, we establish ants as an invertebrate model of opioid addiction. The ant species Camponotus floridanus actively seeks and self-administers morphine even in the absence of caloric value or additional natural reward. Using HPLC equipped with electrochemical detection, the neurochemicals serotonin, octopamine and dopamine were identified and subsequently quantified, establishing the concurrent neurochemical response to the opioid morphine within the invertebrate brain. With this study, we demonstrate dopamine to be governing opioid addiction in the brains of ants. Thus, this study establishes ants as the first non-mammalian model of self-administration that is truly analogous to mammals.
- Oral Abuse Potential, Pharmacokinetics, and Safety of Once-Daily, Single-Entity, Extended-Release Hydrocodone (HYD) in Recreational Opioid Users. [Journal Article]
- Pain Med 2016 Sep 19PM
- CONCLUSIONS: HYD demonstrated reduced oral abuse potential compared with hydrocodone solution in healthy adult, nondependent, recreational opioid users.
- Human Abuse Potential of an Abuse-Deterrent (AD), Extended-Release (ER) Morphine Product Candidate (Morphine-ADER Injection-Molded Tablets) vs Extended-Release Morphine Administered Intranasally in Nondependent Recreational Opioid Users. [Journal Article]
- Pain Med 2016 Sep 20PM
- OBJECTIVE : To compare the relative human abuse potential after insufflation of manipulated morphine abuse-deterrent, extended-release injection-molded tablets (morphine-ADER-IMT) with that of market...
OBJECTIVE : To compare the relative human abuse potential after insufflation of manipulated morphine abuse-deterrent, extended-release injection-molded tablets (morphine-ADER-IMT) with that of marketed morphine ER tablets. METHODS : A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active- and placebo-controlled five-way crossover study was performed with adult volunteers who were experienced, nondependent, recreational opioid users. After intranasal (IN) administration of manipulated high-volume (HV) morphine-ADER-IMT (60 mg), participants were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive IN manipulated low-volume (LV) morphine ER (60 mg), IN manipulated LV morphine-ADER-IMT, intact oral morphine-ADER-IMT (60 mg), and placebo in crossover fashion. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic assessments included peak effect of drug liking (Emax; primary endpoint) using drug liking visual analog scale (VAS) score, Emax using overall drug liking, and take drug again (TDA) VASs scores, and mean abuse quotient (AQ), a pharmacokinetic parameter associated with drug liking.
- A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Placebo-Controlled, Intranasal Drug Liking Study on a Novel Abuse-Deterrent Formulation of Morphine-Morphine ARER. [Journal Article]
- Pain Med 2016 Sep 20PM
- CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these data suggest that Morphine ARER has a lower abuse potential via the intranasal route of administration when compared with ER morphine.
- Abuse Potential and Pharmacodynamic Characteristics of Oral and Intranasal Eluxadoline, a Mixed μ- and κ-Opioid Receptor Agonist and δ-Opioid Receptor Antagonist. [Journal Article]
- J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2016 Sep 19JP
- Drugs with μ-opioid receptor (OR) activity can be associated with abuse and misuse. The peripherally acting mixed μ-OR and κ-OR agonist and δ-OR antagonist, eluxadoline, is approved in the US for the...
Drugs with μ-opioid receptor (OR) activity can be associated with abuse and misuse. The peripherally acting mixed μ-OR and κ-OR agonist and δ-OR antagonist, eluxadoline, is approved in the US for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea. In two separate crossover studies, we evaluated the oral and intranasal abuse potential of eluxadoline versus placebo and the active control oxycodone. Healthy recreational opioid users received eluxadoline 100, 300, and 1000 mg, oxycodone 30 and 60 mg, and placebo (oral study), or eluxadoline 100 and 200 mg, oxycodone 15 and 30 mg, and placebos matched to eluxadoline and oxycodone (intranasal study). In the oral study, Drug Liking Visual Analog Scale (VAS) peak (maximum) effect (Emax) score (primary endpoint) was significantly greater with eluxadoline 300 and 1000 mg versus placebo, but scores were significantly lower versus oxycodone. Following intranasal insufflation of eluxadoline, Drug Liking VAS Emax scores were not statistically different versus placebo, and were significantly lower versus oxycodone. Across other subjective measures, eluxadoline was generally similar to or disliked versus placebo. Pupillometry indicated no or minimal central effects with oral and intranasal eluxadoline, respectively. Adverse events of euphoric mood were reported with oral and intranasal eluxadoline, but at a far lower frequency versus oxycodone. These data demonstrate that eluxadoline has less abuse potential than oxycodone in recreational opioid users.
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- Statewide opioid prescriptions and the prevalence of adolescent opioid misuse in Ohio. [Journal Article]
- Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2016 Sep 19; :1-7AJ
- CONCLUSIONS: The amount of opioids filled by adults in Ohio, although relatively stable from 2008 to 2012, is approximately 13 times that filled by adolescents and is significantly associated with adolescents seeking treatment for opioid misuse. Efforts to decrease adolescent opioid misuse should also focus on reducing adult opioid prescriptions.