Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Opioid Abuse [keywords]
- The opioid abuse and misuse epidemic: Implications for pharmacists in hospitals and health systems. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Health Syst Pharm 2014 Sep 15; 71(18):1539-1554.
The current epidemic of prescription opioid abuse and misuse in the United States is discussed, with an emphasis on the pharmacist's role in ensuring safe and effective opioid use.U.S. sales of prescription opioids increased fourfold from 1999 to 2010, with an alarming rise in deaths and emergency department visits associated with the use of fentanyl, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and other opioid medications. Signs and symptoms of opioid toxicity may include altered mental status, hypoventilation, decreased bowel motility, central nervous system and respiratory depression, peripheral vasodilation, pulmonary edema, hypotension, bradycardia, and seizures. In patients receiving long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain, urine drug testing is an important tool for monitoring and assessment of therapy; knowledge of opioid metabolic pathways and assay limitations is essential for appropriate use and interpretation of screening and confirmatory tests. In recent years, there has been an increase in federal enforcement actions against pharmacies and prescription drug wholesalers involved in improper opioid distribution, as well as increased reliance on state-level prescription drug monitoring programs to track patterns of opioid use and improper sales. Pharmacies are urged to implement or promote appropriate guidelines on opioid therapy, including the use of pain management agreement plans; policies to ensure adequate oversight of opioid prescribing, dispensing, and waste disposal; and educational initiatives targeting patients as well as hospital and pharmacy staff.Pharmacists in hospitals and health systems can play a key role in recognizing the various forms of opioid toxicity and in preventing inappropriate prescribing and diversion of opioids.
- Inadequate pain control versus opioid abuse: It is time for the pendulum to swing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Health Syst Pharm 2014 Sep 15; 71(18):1537.
- Comparing the life concerns of prescription opioid and heroin users. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Subst Abuse Treat 2014 Jul 11.
This study explored life concerns of prescription opioid (PO) and heroin users. Persons entering opioid detoxification rated their level of concern about 43 health and welfare items. Using exploratory factor analysis and conceptual rationale, we identified ten areas of concern. Participants (N=529) were 69.9% male, 87.5% non-Hispanic Caucasian, and 24.2% PO users. Concern about drug problems was perceived as the most serious concern, followed by money problems, relationship problems, mental health, and cigarette smoking. PO users expressed significantly lower concern about drug problems (p=.017) and transmissible diseases (p<.001), but were more concerned about alcohol use (p<.001) than heroin users. There were no significant differences with regard to the other 7 areas of concern. Recognition of the daily worries of opioid dependent persons could allow providers to better tailor their services to the context of their patients' lives.
- Buprenorphine in treatment of opioid addiction: opportunities, challenges and strategies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Expert Opin Pharmacother 2014 Aug 29.:1-13.
Introduction: Buprenorphine follows the success of methadone as another milestone in the history of treatment for opioid addiction. Buprenorphine can be used in an office-based setting where it is clearly effective, highly accepted by patients and has a favorable safety profile and less abuse potential. However, the adoption of buprenorphine treatment has been slow in the USA. Areas covered: This article first reviews the history of medication-assisted opioid addiction treatment and the current epidemic opioid addiction, followed by a review of the efficacy, pharmacology and clinical prescription of buprenorphine in office-based care. We then explore the possible barriers in using buprenorphine and the ways to overcome these barriers, including new formulations, educational programs and policy regulations that strike a balance between accessibility and reducing diversion. Expert opinion: Buprenorphine can align addiction treatment with treatments for other chronic medical illnesses. However, preventing diversion will require graduate and continuing medical education and integrated care models for delivery of buprenorphine to those in need.
- Impulsivity and opioid drugs: differential effects of heroin, methadone and prescribed analgesic medication. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychol Med 2014 Aug 29.:1-13.
Previous studies have provided inconsistent evidence that chronic exposure to opioid drugs, including heroin and methadone, may be associated with impairments in executive neuropsychological functioning, specifically cognitive impulsivity. Further, it remains unclear how such impairments may relate of the nature, level and extent of opioid exposure, the presence and severity of opioid dependence, and hazardous behaviours such as injecting.Participants with histories of illicit heroin use (n = 24), former heroin users stabilized on prescribed methadone (methadone maintenance treatment; MMT) (n = 29), licit opioid prescriptions for chronic pain without history of abuse or dependence (n = 28) and healthy controls (n = 28) were recruited and tested on a task battery that included measures of cognitive impulsivity (Cambridge Gambling Task, CGT), motor impulsivity (Affective Go/NoGo, AGN) and non-planning impulsivity (Stockings of Cambridge, SOC).Illicit heroin users showed increased motor impulsivity and impaired strategic planning. Additionally, they placed higher bets earlier and risked more on the CGT. Stable MMT participants deliberated longer and placed higher bets earlier on the CGT, but did not risk more. Chronic opioid exposed pain participants did not differ from healthy controls on any measures on any tasks. The identified impairments did not appear to be associated specifically with histories of intravenous drug use, nor with estimates of total opioid exposure.These data support the hypothesis that different aspects of neuropsychological measures of impulsivity appear to be associated with exposure to different opioids. This could reflect either a neurobehavioural consequence of opioid exposure, or may represent an underlying trait vulnerability to opioid dependence.
- A 'Missing Not at Random' (MNAR) and 'Missing at Random' (MAR) Growth Model Comparison with a Buprenorphine/Naloxone Clinical Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Addiction 2014 Aug 29.
To compare three missing data strategies: 1) Latent growth model that assumes the data are missing at random (MAR) model, 2) Diggle-Kenward missing not at random (MNAR) model where dropout is a function of previous/concurrent urinalysis (UA) submissions, and 3) Wu-Carroll MNAR model where dropout is a function of the growth factors.Secondary data analysis of a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network trial that examined a 7-day versus 28-day taper (i.e., stepwise decrease in buprenorphine/naloxone) on the likelihood of submitting an opioid-positive UA during treatment.11 outpatient treatment settings in 10 US cities.516 opioid dependent participants.Opioid UAs provided across the 4-week treatment period.The MAR model showed a significant effect (B=-0.45, p <0.05) of trial arm on the opioid-positive UA slope (i.e., 28-day taper participants were less likely to submit a positive UA over time) with a small effect size (d=0.20). The MNAR Diggle-Kenward model demonstrated a significant (B=-0.64, p<0.01) effect of trial arm on the slope with a large effect size (d=0.82). The MNAR Wu-Carroll model evidenced a significant (B=-0.41, p<0.05) effect of trial arm on the UA slope that was relatively small (d=0.31).This performance comparison of three missing data strategies (latent growth model, Diggle-Kenward selection model, Wu-Carrol selection model) on sample data indicates a need for increased use of sensitivity analyses in clinical trial research. Given the potential sensitivity of the trial arm effect to missing data assumptions, it is critical for researchers to consider whether the assumptions associated with each model are defensible.
- Intranasal Ketorolac as Part of a Multimodal Approach to Postoperative Pain. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pain Pract 2014 Aug 28.
Despite recent advances in the knowledge of pain mechanisms and pain management, postoperative pain continues to be a problem. Inadequately managed postsurgical pain has both clinical and economic consequences such as longer recovery times, delayed ambulation, higher incidence of complications, increased length of hospital stay, and potential to develop into chronic pain. Generally, opioids are the mainstay option for pain management in patients with moderate-to-severe postsurgical pain; however, opioids have significant side effects and have abuse potential. To improve patient and economic outcomes after surgery, postoperative pain guidelines have suggested incorporating a multi-modal/multi-mechanistic approach to pain treatment. A multi-modal approach is the simultaneous use of a combination of two or more (usually opioid and non-opioid) analgesics that provide two different mechanisms of actions. Utilizing a multi-modal approach may result in a greater reduction in pain vs. single therapies in addition to minimizing opioid use, thus reducing opioid related side effects. However, not all approaches may be effective for all types of patients and not all analgesics may be a viable option for outpatient settings, ambulatory surgery, or the fast-track surgical procedures. In this report, we present a review of the literature with a focus on intranasal ketorolac in order to provide a timely update regarding past, present, and future multi-modal treatment options for postoperative pain.
- Oregon's strategy to confront prescription opioid misuse: a case study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Subst Abuse Treat 2014 Aug 2.
Governor John Kitzhaber appointed a Prescription Drug Taskforce to address Oregon's opioid epidemic. This case study reviews the Taskforce's participation in the National Governors Association State Policy Academy on Reducing Prescription Drug Abuse. To address the challenge of the misuse and abuse of prescription opioids, the Taskforce developed a strategy for practice change, community education and enhanced access to safe opioid disposal using stakeholder meetings, consensus development, and five action steps: (1) fewer pills in circulation, (2) educate prescribers and the public on the risks of opioid use, (3) foster safe disposal of unused medication, (4) provide treatment for opioid dependence, and (5) continued leadership from the Governor, health plans and health professionals. Although the story is ongoing, there are lessons for leadership in other states and for public health and medical practitioners throughout the country.
- The Pros and Cons of Long-Term Opioid Therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2014 Sep; 28(3):308-310.
ABSTRACT Evidence supporting the efficacy of long-term opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain is scarce. However, weak evidence suggests that those who are able to continue opioids long-term experience clinically significant pain relief. Fear of opioid abuse or addiction should not impede the prescribing of opioids if the patients are carefully selected and monitored. In patients taking opioids who experience intolerable side effects or unsatisfactory pain relief, alternatives should be sought as soon as possible. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 1, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the Web site: http://www.paineurope.com , at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication.
- Tramadol treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. [Journal Article]
- Ann Clin Psychiatry 2014 Aug; 26(3):217-21.
Improved psychopharmacologic treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is needed. Accruing evidence implicates pain-conducting signals in PTSD pathophysiology.Four combat-related PTSD patients from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan were treated with open-label tramadol hydrochloride (HCL), an atypical analgesic with opioid and non-opioid mechanisms of antinociception. Tramadol also inhibits neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin.The clinical outcomes show evidence of a positive effect of twice-daily immediate-release tramadol HCL in men with combat-related PTSD. Total daily doses were 200 to 300 mg/d, with individual doses ranging from 100 to 200 mg.Given its unique mechanism of action, relatively low abuse potential, and ability to double as an analgesic for minor to moderate pain, tramadol is a promising candidate for clinical use in PTSD.