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Oral lesions in HIV AND AIDS [keywords]
- [Clinical manifestation of Kaposi sarcoma in otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2013 Mar; 48(3):241-3.
To improve the knowledge of Kaposi sarcoma and the relationship between Kaposi sarcoma and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and to improve the ability to diagnose and treat Kaposi sarcoma and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).Symptoms, signs and results of 121 patients encountered in the department of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery in Tanzania, who was diagnosed as Kaposi sarcoma actually with HIV infection and AIDS, were retrospectively analyzed in this study.There were 46 males and 75 females with age ranged from 5 to 65 years, medium 30 year. The mucous membranes and skin lesions was the most commonly seen clinical manifestation in 121 cases, these lesions appeared as raised blotches or lumps that might be purple, brown, or red, early stages typical lesions began as flat or slightly raised colored spots. Among the cases reported here, 25 patients (20.66%) showed progressive nose blockage and nose bleeding and the purple-red new-grows were found in the nose of these patients. Fifteen patients (12.40%) had flat or slightly raised colored spots in their mucous membrane of mouth (palate or tongue), and in other 7 patients, purple small lumps were found in the gums of the patients. There were same lesions in their pharynx in 9 cases. In 10 patients (8.26%), Kaposi sarcoma was found in tonsil looked like tonsillitis with enlarged tonsils by two to three degree. Twelve patients (9.92%) had masses in the neck with no pain. Thirty-five patients (28.92%)had lesions of purple black nodules, including 10 patients who had the same lesions with ulcer formation in the nodules. All patients had been followed-up for at least two-years. Eighty-five patients passed away in one year, survival rate of one year was 21.48% (26/121), only 12 patients survived from the disease over two years, two years' survival rate was 9.92% (12/121).Kaposi sarcoma is the characteristic disease for AIDS, mainly found on the membranes and skin. These lesions appears as raised blotches or lumps that may be purple, brown, or red, early stages typical lesions begin as flat or slightly raised colored spots. Patients who had kaposi sarcoma often died in a short-time without treatment.
- Perforation of the Nasal Septum as the First Sign of Histoplasmosis Associated with AIDS and Review of Published Literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycopathologia 2013 May 10.
Disseminated histoplasmosis in South America is associated with AIDS in 70-90 % of cases. It is visceral and cutaneous, compromising the oral, pharynx, and laryngeal mucous membranes. The involvement of the nasal mucosa is unusual. Two patients with perforation of the nasal septum as the only sign of their disease were clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as leishmaniasis. The revision of the biopsies and the culture of nasal discharge secretions showed that the pathogens seen were not amastigotes but Histoplasma capsulatum. Other mycotic lesions were not detected, nor there was history of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The leishmanin skin test, available only for the male patient, was negative. The PCR and immunofluorescence antibody titers for Leishmania were negative in both patients. They were HIV positive; in the male, his CD4+ T cell count was 60/mm(3) and in the female 133/mm(3). The nasal ulcer was the only manifestation of histoplasmosis and the first of AIDS in both patients. The male patient recovered with amphotericin B and itraconazole treatment. The female has improved with itraconazole. Both patients received antiretroviral treatment. Nasal mucous membrane ulcers should include histoplasmosis among the differential diagnosis. In conclusion, two patients had perforation of their nasal septum as the only manifestation of histoplasmosis, a diagnosis confirmed by nasal mucosa biopsy and by culture of H. capsulatum, findings which demonstrated that both patients had AIDS.
- Radiation therapy in the treatment of HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma. [Journal Article]
- Anticancer Res 2013 May; 33(5):2153-7.
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent neoplasm occurring in patients with HIV-related AIDS and very often exhibits multifocal distribution so that a systemic approach is needed. KS is considered a radiosensitive tumor and (RT) has always played an important role in the therapeutic strategy of its various forms. RT is a valuable means of pain relief, bleeding control and edema palliation, but it is also an effective treatment modality for local control of skin and mucosal lesions in KS. The purpose of the present article is to report the results obtained by the Radiotherapy Unit of S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital in Rome in the management of 38 AIDS-associated KS lesions and to assess the efficacy of RT in the treatment and local control of KS.Eighteen patients histologically-diagnosed with HIV-related KS underwent RT in the period between January 2002 and January 2012 at the Radiotherapy Unit of S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital in Rome. In all cases, the lesions caused pain or discomfort and a thorough careful clinical evaluation had indicated a radiation treatment. A total of 38 lesions were treated with radiotherapy. Fifteen patients received systemic chemotherapy. Eight patients with multiple cutaneous lesions on their legs and arms were treated with a radiation schedule prescribing extended cutaneous irradiation using 6-18 MeV electron beam energy, 200 cGy per fraction and a total dose between 24-30 Gy, according to the depth of lesions. One of these patients had also a cutaneous lesion on an eyelid that was treated with a radiation schedule using 6 MeV electron beam energy and bolus of 1 cm, 200 cGy per fraction and a total dose of 30 Gy. Seven patients with single cutaneous lesions on the legs and arms were treated using a photon regimen of 6 Mv energy, 200 cGy per fraction and a total dose between 20 and 36 Gy. Two patients had oral mucosa lesions and they were treated with a radiation schedule prescribing irradiation using 6 Mev photon regimen and personal mask, 200 cGy per fraction and a total dose of 24 and 30 Gy, respectively. A patient with a single bone lesion on the spinal column was treated with irradiation using 6 Mev photon regimen, 300 cGy per fraction and a total dose of 30 Gy.At the time of reporting, 14 patients were alive and four patients had died. One patient died due to complications from HIV infection. The follow-up from the end of the treatment ranged from four to 124 months (mean=51.17 months). The overall survival for the group was 88.8% at one year. The mean overall survival was 57.4 months. A complete response was achieved for 31 lesions (83.8 %); a partial response with a tumor regression was observed for six lesions (16.2 %). No relapses were observed during the period of follow-up, but we observed new lesions in one patient. According to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale we observed erythematic and dry desquamation (grade 1) in eight sites (21%); in only one patient (2.6%) did stomatitis occur (grade 1). Good cosmetic results were described for 25 (65.7%) out of 31 lesions. Effective palliative action was obtained for all lesions except for two (5.2%) located in a vertebra and hard palate.RT will be a mainstay of cure for this group of patients especially when of young age and the will to preserve the cosmetic appearance is a primary need.
- Photoletter to the editor: Disseminated histoplasmosis with initial oral manifestations. [Journal Article]
- J Dermatol Case Rep 2013 Mar 30; 7(1):25-6.
Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that may present in a variety of clinical manifestations. Involvment of the oral mucosa is very rare and may occur as part of disseminated histoplasmosis or as isolated involvement. We present a patient with disseminated histoplasmosis, in whom oral lesions were the initial manifestation of the disease.
- Current status of herpesvirus identification in the oral cavity of HIV-infected children. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2013 Jan-Feb; 46(1):15-9.
Some viruses of the Herpesviridae family are frequently the etiologic agents of oral lesions associated with HIV. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), Varicella Zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus type 6, type 7 and type 8 (HHV-6, HHV-7 and HHV-8) in the oral cavity of HIV-infected children/adolescents and verify the association between viral subtypes and clinical factors.The cells of oral mucosa were collected from 50 HIV infected children/adolescents, 3-13 years old (mean age 8.66). The majority (66%) of selected were girls, and they were all outpatients at the pediatric AIDS clinic of a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Nested-PCR was used to identify the viral types.Absence of immunosuppression was observed in 66% of the children. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was used by 72.1% of selected and moderate viral load was observed in 56% of the children/adolescents. Viral types were found in 86% of the children and the subtypes were: HSV-1 (4%), HSV-2 (2%), VZV (4%), EBV (0%), HCMV (24%), HHV6 (18%), HHV-7 (68%), HHV8 (0%).The use of HAART has helped to reduce oral lesions, especially with herpes virus infections. The health professionals who work with these patients should be aware of such lesions because of their predictive value and the herpes virus can be found circulating in the oral cavity without causing lesions.
- Clinical characteristics and outcomes of HIV-infected children diagnosed with kaposi sarcoma in malawi and botswana. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013 Aug; 60(8):1274-80.
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-associated malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa. The presentation and outcomes of pediatric KS are not well understood.We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 81 HIV-infected children with KS at the Baylor Children's Clinical Centres of Excellence in Malawi and Botswana from March 2003 to October 2009.Eighty-one children with KS were identified whose median age was 8.0 (inter-quartile range 5.1-11.3) years. KS lesions were presented primarily on the skin (83%), lymph nodes (52%), and oral mucosa (41%). Occasionally disease was limited to the lymph nodes only (10%). Severe immunosuppression (70%), anemia (29%), and thrombocytopenia (17%) were common laboratory findings. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was administered to 94% of children, including 77% who received HAART plus chemotherapy. KS immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) occurred in 22%. Disease status 12 months after KS diagnosis was determined for 69 children: 43% were alive and 57% had died. Severe immunosuppression was independently associated with mortality in multivariate analysis (OR = 4.3; 95% CI 1.3-14.6; P = 0.02).KS occurs in a significant number of HIV infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. Pediatric KS is distinct from KS in adults. Lymph node involvement was a common manifestation of KS in children, and severe immunosuppression was associated with the highest mortality risk. Though overall mortality was high in children with KS, patients did achieve clinical remission in settings with limited diagnostic and therapeutic resources. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013;60:1274-1280. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Conventional systemic treatments associated with therapeutic sites of local lesions of secondary syphilis in the oral cavity in patients with AIDS. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Indian J Dent Res 2012 Sep-Oct; 23(5):670-3.
Patients with HIV infection may develop common diseases with atypical clinical features. HIV infection can change the classic clinical course of syphilis and increase the incidence of malignant syphilis. Malignant syphilis is a rare subtype of secondary syphilis that presents special clinical and histological features and has been associated with several processes characterized by variable degrees of immunosuppression. It is necessary to consider the possibility of this entity in the differential diagnoses in HIV-infected patients with cutaneous lesions. The dental surgeon (or oral surgeon) is vital to the medical team for promoting the health and improving the quality of life of syphilis patients. A patient with HIV infection was referred to us for complaints of a white patch on the tongue, stinging and burning sensation on the tongue, loss of taste, and dryness of the mouth. On clinical examination, the patient was found to have a tabetic gait (the Prussian soldier gait) associated with Charcot arthropathy. We also identified bilateral lesions with ulceration and exposure of the tissue that were tender, characterized by discrete necrosis. The treatment that was initiated at that time involved cleaning the area with gauze to remove all the white patches, followed by rinsing with bicarbonate in water (one teaspoon of baking soda dissolved in half a glass of water) four times a day. Additionally, fluconazole (100 mg/day for 7 days) was prescribed. We diagnosed secondary malignant syphilis of approximately 5 days duration. As an adjunctive therapy, we performed low-intensity laser treatment using a GaAsAl (gallium-aluminum arsenide) laser at 790 nm. With this treatment there was progressive resolution of the lesions.
- Fungal infections of the oral mucosa. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Dent Res 2012 Sep-Oct; 23(5):650-9.
Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection/AIDS and others. Oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection and rarely appears as a systemic fungal disease whereas oral non-Candidal fungal infections are usually signs of disseminated disease. Some of the non-Candidal fungi that were once considered exotic and geographically restricted are now seen worldwide, beyond their natural habitat, probably attributed to globalization and travels. Currently infections from these fungi are more prevalent than before and they may present either as primary oral lesions or as oral manifestations of systemic mycoses. This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa.
- Intrahost genetic variability of human herpes virus-8. [Journal Article]
- J Med Virol 2013 Apr; 85(4):636-45.
Studies were conducted to determine whether HHV-8 hyperactivity could be the consequence of the propensity of the host to multiple HHV-8 infection. The aim of the present work was to investigate HHV-8 intrahost genetic variability. HHV-8 subgenomic DNA was amplified by PCR from patients infected with HIV, health care workers (HCW) and bone marrow transplant recipients (BMT), and from oral lesional tissues of AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) patients. As controls, blood from HIV-negative health care workers, and the cell lines BC-1, BC-2, and BCP-1 were used. Clones derived from amplicons originating from DNA fragments in open reading frame (ORF) 26 and ORF K1 were isolated. For each ORF, intra-specimen nucleotide sequence differences were determined. The extent of HHV-8 variation in clones derived from blood of patients infected with HIV was significantly higher than in blood from health care workers or post-bone marrow transplantation patients or in AIDS-KS tissue. Among the clones derived from the latter three categories of specimens, sequence variations were not significant. It is concluded that HIV-infected individuals can have multiple of HHV-8, but AIDS-KS lesions are associated with infection by a single HHV-8 variant or a small group of related variants.
- AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma presenting with palatal and eyelid nodule. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Review]
- J Assoc Physicians India 2012 Jul.:50-3.
Kaposi sarcoma is a low-grade vascular neoplasm associated with Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV8) infection. Although India has a large HIV infected population, Kaposi's sarcoma is rare and only 12 cases of AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma from India have been reported in the published literature to our knowledge. The 50% of total cases in India has been reported from Mumbai. The incidence of AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma is increasing as more than 50% of the cases are reported in 2008 to 2010.