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Ovarian tumor AND Ovarian functional and neoplastic tumors [keywords]
- Fine-scale mapping of the FGFR2 breast cancer risk locus: putative functional variants differentially bind FOXA1 and E2F1. [Journal Article]
- Am J Hum Genet 2013 Dec 5; 93(6):1046-60.
The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ERα to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease.
- Knockdown of CRM1 inhibits the nuclear export of p27(Kip1) phosphorylated at serine 10 and plays a role in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Cancer Lett 2014 Feb 1; 343(1):6-13.
In a previous study, the nuclear export protein chromosomal region maintenance (CRM1) was correlated with p27(Kip1) in glioma. The aims of the present study were to investigate the expression of CRM1 and pSer10p27 and their functional roles in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tissues. Using immunohistochemical analysis, CRM1 and pSer10p27 expression levels were shown to be associated with histologic stage and grade (P<0.05). High CRM1 and pSer10p27 expression levels were prognostic indicators of overall survival (P<0.05). Knockdown of CRM1 and pSer10p27 expression arrested cell cycle progression and inhibited the proliferation of SKOV3 cells both in vitro and in vivo. These data support the idea that pSer10p27 and CRM1 play cooperative roles in EOC.
- FGF18 as a prognostic and therapeutic biomarker in ovarian cancer. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Clin Invest 2013 Oct 1; 123(10):4435-48.
High-throughput genomic technologies have identified biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer. Comprehensive functional validation studies of the biological and clinical implications of these biomarkers are needed to advance them toward clinical use. Amplification of chromosomal region 5q31-5q35.3 has been used to predict poor prognosis in patients with advanced stage, high-grade serous ovarian cancer. In this study, we further dissected this large amplicon and identified the overexpression of FGF18 as an independent predictive marker for poor clinical outcome in this patient population. Using cell culture and xenograft models, we show that FGF18 signaling promoted tumor progression by modulating the ovarian tumor aggressiveness and microenvironment. FGF18 controlled migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells through NF-κB activation, which increased the production of oncogenic cytokines and chemokines. This resulted in a tumor microenvironment characterized by enhanced angiogenesis and augmented tumor-associated macrophage infiltration and M2 polarization. Tumors from ovarian cancer patients had increased FGF18 expression levels with microvessel density and M2 macrophage infiltration, confirming our in vitro results. These findings demonstrate that FGF18 is important for a subset of ovarian cancers and may serve as a therapeutic target.
- Cisplatin causes cell death via TAB1 regulation of p53/MDM2/MDMX circuitry. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Genes Dev 2013 Aug 15; 27(16):1739-51.
The interdependence of p53 and MDM2 is critical for proper cell survival and cell death and, when altered, can lead to tumorigenesis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways function in a wide variety of cellular processes, including cell growth, migration, differentiation, and death. Here we discovered that transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-binding protein 1 (TAB1), an activator of TAK1 and of p38α, associates with and inhibits the E3 ligase activity of MDM2 toward p53 and its homolog, MDMX. Depletion of TAB1 inhibits MDM2 siRNA-mediated p53 accumulation and p21 induction, partially rescuing cell cycle arrest induced by MDM2 ablation. Interestingly, of several agents commonly used as DNA-damaging therapeutics, only cell death caused by cisplatin is mitigated by knockdown of TAB1. Two mechanisms are required for TAB1 to regulate apoptosis in cisplatin-treated cells. First, p38α is activated by TAB1 to phosphorylate p53 N-terminal sites, leading to selective induction of p53 targets such as NOXA. Second, MDMX is stabilized in a TAB1-dependent manner and is required for cell death after cisplatin treatment. Interestingly TAB1 levels are relatively low in cisplatin-resistant clones of ovarian cells and in ovarian patient's tumors compared with normal ovarian tissue. Together, our results indicate that TAB1 is a potential tumor suppressor that serves as a functional link between p53-MDM2 circuitry and a key MAPK signaling pathway.
- SOX2 expression associates with stem cell state in human ovarian carcinoma. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Cancer Res 2013 Sep 1; 73(17):5544-55.
The SRY-related HMG-box family of transcription factors member SOX2 regulates stemness and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells and plays important roles during early embryogenesis. More recently, SOX2 expression was documented in several tumor types including ovarian carcinoma, suggesting an involvement of SOX2 in regulation of cancer stem cells (CSC). Intriguingly, however, studies exploring the predictive value of SOX2 protein expression with respect to histopathologic and clinical parameters report contradictory results in individual tumors, indicating that SOX2 may play tumor-specific roles. In this report, we analyze the functional relevance of SOX2 expression in human ovarian carcinoma. We report that in human serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC) cells, SOX2 expression increases the expression of CSC markers, the potential to form tumor spheres, and the in vivo tumor-initiating capacity, while leaving cellular proliferation unaltered. Moreover, SOX2-expressing cells display enhanced apoptosis resistance in response to conventional chemotherapies and TRAIL. Hence, our data show that SOX2 associates with stem cell state in ovarian carcinoma and induction of SOX2 imposes CSC properties on SOC cells. We propose the existence of SOX2-expressing ovarian CSCs as a mechanism of tumor aggressiveness and therapy resistance in human SOC.
- Endothelial cell junctional adhesion molecule C plays a key role in the development of tumors in a murine model of ovarian cancer. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- FASEB J 2013 Oct; 27(10):4244-53.
Junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) is a transmembrane protein with significant roles in regulation of endothelial cell (EC) functions, including immune cell recruitment and angiogenesis. As these responses are important in promoting tumor growth, the role of EC JAM-C in tumor development was investigated using the ID8 syngeneic model of ovarian cancer. Within 10-15 wk, intraperitoneally injected ID8 cells form multiple tumor deposits and ascites that resemble human high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Compared to wild-type mice, survival in this model was increased in EC JAM-C knockouts (KOs; 88 vs. 96 d, P=0.04) and reduced in EC JAM-C transgenics (88 vs. 78.5 d, P=0.03), mice deficient in or overexpressing EC JAM-C, respectively. While tumor growth was significantly reduced in EC JAM-C KOs (87% inhibition at 10 wk, P<0.0005), this was not associated with alterations in tumor vessel density or immune cell infiltration. However, tumor microvessels from EC JAM-C-deficient mice exhibited reduced pericyte coverage and increased vascular leakage, suggesting a role for EC JAM-C in the development of functional tumor vessels. These findings provide evidence for a role for EC JAM-C in tumor growth and aggressiveness as well as recruitment of pericytes to newly formed blood vessels in a model of ovarian cancer.
- A multiscale road map of cancer spheroids--incorporating experimental and mathematical modelling to understand cancer progression. [Journal Article, Review]
- J Cell Sci 2013 Jul 1; 126(Pt 13):2761-71.
Computational models represent a highly suitable framework, not only for testing biological hypotheses and generating new ones but also for optimising experimental strategies. As one surveys the literature devoted to cancer modelling, it is obvious that immense progress has been made in applying simulation techniques to the study of cancer biology, although the full impact has yet to be realised. For example, there are excellent models to describe cancer incidence rates or factors for early disease detection, but these predictions are unable to explain the functional and molecular changes that are associated with tumour progression. In addition, it is crucial that interactions between mechanical effects, and intracellular and intercellular signalling are incorporated in order to understand cancer growth, its interaction with the extracellular microenvironment and invasion of secondary sites. There is a compelling need to tailor new, physiologically relevant in silico models that are specialised for particular types of cancer, such as ovarian cancer owing to its unique route of metastasis, which are capable of investigating anti-cancer therapies, and generating both qualitative and quantitative predictions. This Commentary will focus on how computational simulation approaches can advance our understanding of ovarian cancer progression and treatment, in particular, with the help of multicellular cancer spheroids, and thus, can inform biological hypothesis and experimental design.
- Dysregulation of miR-106a and miR-591 confers paclitaxel resistance to ovarian cancer. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Br J Cancer 2013 Jul 23; 109(2):452-61.
MicroRNAs are noncoding regulatory RNAs strongly implicated in carcinogenesis, cell survival, and chemosensitivity. Here, microRNAs associated with chemoresistance in ovarian carcinoma, the most lethal of gynaecological malignancies, were identified and their functional effects in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells were assessed.MicroRNA expression in paclitaxel (PTX)-resistant SKpac sublines was compared with that of the PTX-sensitive, parental SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line using microarray and qRT-PCR. The function of differentially expressed microRNAs in chemoresistant ovarian cancer was further evaluated by apoptosis, cell proliferation, and migration assays.Upregulation of miR-106a and downregulation of miR-591 were associated with PTX resistance in ovarian cancer cells and human tumour samples. Transfection with anti-miR-106a or pre-miR-591 resensitized PTX-resistant SKpac cells to PTX by enhancing apoptosis (23 and 42% increase), and inhibited their cell migration (43 and 56% decrease) and proliferation (64 and 65% decrease). Furthermore, ZEB1 was identified as a novel target gene of miR-591, and BCL10 and caspase-7 were target genes of miR-106a, as identified by immunoblotting and luciferase assay.MiR-106a and miR-591 have important roles in conferring PTX resistance to ovarian cancer cells. Modulation of these microRNAs resensitizes PTX-resistant cancer cells by targeting BCL10, caspase-7, and ZEB1.
- Normal and cancer stem cells of the human female reproductive system. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2013.:53.
The female reproductive system (FRS) has a great capacity for regeneration. The existence of somatic stem cells (SSC) that are likely to reside in distinct tissue compartments of the FRS is anticipated. Normal SSC are capable of regenerating themselves, produce a progeny of cells that differentiate and maintain tissue architecture and functional characteristics, and respond to homeostatic controls. Among those SSC of the FRS that have been identified are: a) undifferentiated cells capable of differentiating into thecal cells and synthesizing hormones upon transplantation, b) ovarian surface epithelium stem cells, mitotically responsive to ovulation, c) uterine endometrial and myometrial cells, as clonogenic epithelial and stromal cells, and d) epithelial and mesenchymal cells with self-renewal capacity and multipotential from cervical tissues. Importantly, these cells are believed to significantly contribute to the development of different pathologies and tumors of the FRS.It is now widely accepted that cancer stem cells (CSC) are at the origin of many tumors. They are capable of regenerating themselves, produce a progeny that will differentiate aberrantly and do not respond adequately to homeostatic controls. Several cell surface antigens such as CD44, CD117, CD133 and MYD88 have been used to isolate ovarian cancer stem cells. Clonogenic epithelial and stromal endometrial and myometrial cells have been found in normal and cancer tissues, as side population, label-retaining cells, and CD146/PDGF-R beta-positive cells with stem-like features. In summary, here we describe a number of studies supporting the existence of somatic stem cells in the normal tissues and cancer stem cells in tumors of the human female reproductive system.
- Comprehensive methylome analysis of ovarian tumors reveals hedgehog signaling pathway regulators as prognostic DNA methylation biomarkers. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Epigenetics 2013 Jun; 8(6):624-34.
Women with advanced stage ovarian cancer (OC) have a five-year survival rate of less than 25%. OC progression is associated with accumulation of epigenetic alterations and aberrant DNA methylation in gene promoters acts as an inactivating "hit" during OC initiation and progression. Abnormal DNA methylation in OC has been used to predict disease outcome and therapy response. To globally examine DNA methylation in OC, we used next-generation sequencing technology, MethylCap-sequencing, to screen 75 malignant and 26 normal or benign ovarian tissues. Differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs) were identified, and the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model were used to correlate methylation with clinical endpoints. Functional role of specific genes identified by MethylCap-sequencing was examined in in vitro assays. We identified 577 DMRs that distinguished (p < 0.001) malignant from non-malignant ovarian tissues; of these, 63 DMRs correlated (p < 0.001) with poor progression free survival (PFS). Concordant hypermethylation and corresponding gene silencing of sonic hedgehog pathway members ZIC1 and ZIC4 in OC tumors was confirmed in a panel of OC cell lines, and ZIC1 and ZIC4 repression correlated with increased proliferation, migration and invasion. ZIC1 promoter hypermethylation correlated (p < 0.01) with poor PFS. In summary, we identified functional DNA methylation biomarkers significantly associated with clinical outcome in OC and suggest our comprehensive methylome analysis has significant translational potential for guiding the design of future clinical investigations targeting the OC epigenome. Methylation of ZIC1, a putative tumor suppressor, may be a novel determinant of OC outcome.