(Ovarian tumor AND Ovarian functional and neoplastic tumors) articles in PubMed
- Ovarian-Sparing Surgery in Pediatric Benign Ovarian Tumors. [Journal Article]
- J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2016; 29(5):506-10JP
- CONCLUSIONS: Benign ovarian lesions in children can be treated successfully with OSS with low recurrence and repeat surgery rates.
- Possible relevance of tumor-related genes mutation to malignant transformation of endometriosis. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2016; 37(1):89-94EJ
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that the mutation and functional incapacitation of certain tumor-related genes may be involved in malignant transformation of endometriosis. PTEN mutation is the pristine event, but p53 mutation is the late.
- Exosomal transfer of stroma-derived miR21 confers paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer cells through targeting APAF1. [Journal Article]
- Nat Commun 2016; 7:11150NC
- Advanced ovarian cancer usually spreads to the visceral adipose tissue of the omentum. However, the omental stromal cell-derived molecular determinants that modulate ovarian cancer growth have not be...
Advanced ovarian cancer usually spreads to the visceral adipose tissue of the omentum. However, the omental stromal cell-derived molecular determinants that modulate ovarian cancer growth have not been characterized. Here, using next-generation sequencing technology, we identify significantly higher levels of microRNA-21 (miR21) isomiRNAs in exosomes and tissue lysates isolated from cancer-associated adipocytes (CAAs) and fibroblasts (CAFs) than in those from ovarian cancer cells. Functional studies reveal that miR21 is transferred from CAAs or CAFs to the cancer cells, where it suppresses ovarian cancer apoptosis and confers chemoresistance by binding to its direct novel target, APAF1. These data suggest that the malignant phenotype of metastatic ovarian cancer cells can be altered by miR21 delivered by exosomes derived from neighbouring stromal cells in the omental tumour microenvironment, and that inhibiting the transfer of stromal-derived miR21 is an alternative modality in the treatment of metastatic and recurrent ovarian cancer.
- Procoagulant activity in gynaecological cancer patients; the effect of surgery and chemotherapy. [Journal Article]
- Thromb Res 2016; 139:135-41TR
- CONCLUSIONS: CAT assay shows potential as a promising biomarker for the prediction of VTE in gynaecological cancer patients. The identification of high risk patients combined with individualised LMWH prophylaxis might reduce VTE in this high risk group.
- Mature cystic teratomas arise from meiotic oocytes, but not from pre-meiotic oogonia. [Journal Article]
- Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2016; 55(4):355-64GC
- Mature cystic teratomas (MCTs) in the ovaries have been thought to originate from germ cells from all developmental stages, i.e., from pre-meiotic oogonia through meiotic oocytes to mature post-meiot...
Mature cystic teratomas (MCTs) in the ovaries have been thought to originate from germ cells from all developmental stages, i.e., from pre-meiotic oogonia through meiotic oocytes to mature post-meiotic ova. This view was based on research on MCTs by classical methods, including those involving centromeric heteromorphisms in karyotypes, enzyme polymorphisms, and DNA polymorphisms. However, insufficient genomic information was obtained in those studies. The current study aimed to confirm the cytogenetic origin of ovarian MCTs by using short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism analysis to obtain sufficient genomic information, especially in connection with centromeric loci. Tissue samples of MCTs (57 ovaries from 51 patients, 91 MCTs, 156 specimens in total) obtained from cystectomies or oophorectomies were used. We categorized the specimens into two groups: i) solid components of MCTs and ii) cyst walls. The numbers of solid components of MCTs from pre-meiotic oogonia, primary oocytes, secondary oocytes, and ova were 0, 33, 16, and 15, respectively. There were no pre-meiotic oogonia in this series of solid-component specimens. We propose a hypothesis for the tumorigenesis of ovarian MCTs: the precursors of ovarian MCTs are not functional oocytes or ova, but are primary oocytes that have escaped from meiotic arrest. This hypothesis could satisfactorily explain the lack of pre-meiotic teratomas observed in this study and the nearly equal distribution of teratomas originating from primary oocytes, secondary oocytes, and ova in previous studies. Furthermore, this hypothesis could provide a starting point for determining the mechanism underlying tumorigenesis of ovarian MCTs.
- BRCA1 deficiency increases the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to auranofin. [Journal Article]
- Mutat Res 2016 Feb-Mar; 784-785:8-15MR
- Auranofin, a thioredoxin reductase inhibitor and an anti-rheumatic drug is currently undergoing phase 2 clinical studies for repurposing to treat recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Previous studies...
Auranofin, a thioredoxin reductase inhibitor and an anti-rheumatic drug is currently undergoing phase 2 clinical studies for repurposing to treat recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Previous studies have established that auranofin exerts its cytotoxic activity by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) is a DNA repair protein whose functional status is critical in the prognosis of ovarian cancer. Apart from its key role in DNA repair, BRCA1 is also known to modulate cellular redox homeostasis by regulating the stability of anti-oxidant transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) via direct protein-protein interaction. However, it is currently unknown whether BRCA1 modulates the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to auranofin. Here we report that BRCA1-depleted cells exhibited increased DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and decreased clonogenic cell survival upon auranofin treatment. Interestingly, auranofin induced the expression of Nrf2 in BRCA1-depleted cells suggesting its regulation independent of BRCA1. Furthermore, anti-oxidant agent, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) protected BRCA1-depleted cells from DNA damage and apoptosis induced by auranofin. Our study suggests that accumulated lethal DSBs resulting from the oxidative damage render BRCA1 deficient cells more sensitive to auranofin despite the activation of Nrf2.
- Expression and Function of CD44 in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma. [Review]
- Biomolecules 2015; 5(4):3051-66B
- CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein, has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer, the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in women. Here, we review re...
CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein, has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer, the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in women. Here, we review recent reports on the expression and function of CD44 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Further functional data for CD44 in peritoneal adhesion and metastatic progression and its association with stem cells is highlighted. Recent studies utilizing CD44 for therapeutic targeting are also discussed.
- Oncogenic Signaling Adaptor Proteins. [Review]
- J Genet Genomics 2015 Oct 20; 42(10):521-9JG
- Signal transduction pathways activated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) play a critical role in many aspects of cell function. Adaptor proteins serve an important scaffolding function that facilita...
Signal transduction pathways activated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) play a critical role in many aspects of cell function. Adaptor proteins serve an important scaffolding function that facilitates key signaling transduction events downstream of RTKs. Recent work integrating both structural and functional genomic approaches has identified several adaptor proteins as new oncogenes. In this review, we focus on the discovery, structure and function, and therapeutic implication of three of these adaptor oncogenes, CRKL, GAB2, and FRS2. Each of the three genes is recurrently amplified in lung adenocarcinoma or ovarian cancer, and is essential to cancer cell lines that harbor such amplification. Overexpression of each gene is able to transform immortalized human cell lines in in vitro or in vivo models. These observations identify adaptor protein as a distinct class of oncogenes and potential therapeutic targets.
- Pleiotropic Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Oncogenic Activities of the Novel Mithralog Demycarosyl-3D-β-D-Digitoxosyl-Mithramycin SK (EC-8042). [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2015; 10(11):e0140786Plos
- Demycarosyl-3D-β-D-digitoxosyl-mithramycin SK (DIG-MSK) is a recently isolated analogue of mithramycin A (MTA) that showed differences with MTA in the DNA binding strength and selectivity. These diff...
Demycarosyl-3D-β-D-digitoxosyl-mithramycin SK (DIG-MSK) is a recently isolated analogue of mithramycin A (MTA) that showed differences with MTA in the DNA binding strength and selectivity. These differences correlated with a better therapeutic index and less toxicity in animal studies. Herein, we show that DIG-MSK displays a potent anti-tumor activity against different types of cancer cell lines, ovarian tumor cells being particularly sensitive to this drug. Of relevance, DIG-MSK exerts low toxicity on fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, this toxicity being significantly lower than that of MTA. In correlation with its antitumor activity, DIG-MSK strongly inhibited Sp1-mediated transcription and endogenous Sp1 mRNA expression, which correlated with the inhibition of the expression of key Sp1-regulated genes involved in tumorigenesis, including VEGFA, BCL2L1 (Bcl-XL), hTERT, BRCA2, MYC and SRC in several ovarian cells. Significantly, DIG-MSK was a stronger inhibitor of VEGFA expression than MTA. Accordingly, DIG-MSK also exhibited potent anti-angiogenic activity on microvascular endothelial cells. Likewise, it significantly inhibited the gene expression of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, FGFR, PDGFB and PDGFRA and, additionally, it induced the expression of the anti-angiogenic factors angiostatin and tunstatin. These effects correlated with a pro-apoptotic effect on proliferating microvascular endothelial cells and the inhibition of the formation of endothelial capillary structures. Overall, the pleiotropic activity of DIG-MSK in inhibiting key oncogenic and angiogenic pathways, together with its low toxicity profile, highlight the therapeutic potential of this new drug.
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- Confluence analysis of multiple omics on platinum resistance of ovarian cancer. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2015; 36(5):514-9EJ
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on high-throughput RNA-seq data and confluence analysis of multiple omics, the author explored the biological mechanisms on platinum tolerance of ovarian cancer, which may provide new ideas and methods for further research.