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Ovarian tumor AND Ovarian functional and neoplastic tumors [keywords]
- A Functional Genomic Approach Identifies FAL1 as an Oncogenic Long Noncoding RNA that Associates with BMI1 and Represses p21 Expression in Cancer. [Journal Article]
- Cancer Cell 2014 Sep 8; 26(3):344-57.
In a genome-wide survey on somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in 2,394 tumor specimens from 12 cancer types, we found that about 21.8% of lncRNA genes were located in regions with focal SCNAs. By integrating bioinformatics analyses of lncRNA SCNAs and expression with functional screening assays, we identified an oncogene, focally amplified lncRNA on chromosome 1 (FAL1), whose copy number and expression are correlated with outcomes in ovarian cancer. FAL1 associates with the epigenetic repressor BMI1 and regulates its stability in order to modulate the transcription of a number of genes including CDKN1A. The oncogenic activity of FAL1 is partially attributable to its repression of p21. FAL1-specific siRNAs significantly inhibit tumor growth in vivo.
- A 9-kg Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenoma in a 14-Year-Old Premenarchal Girl. [Journal Article]
- Am J Case Rep 2014.:326-9.
Background Although ovarian tumors are most commonly observed in adults, they relatively rarely occur in children. The majority of ovarian masses encountered in the premenarchal or childhood stages are non-neoplastic lesions such as benign functional cysts. Epithelial tumors account for 8-10% of all ovarian tumors and are histologically classified as mucinous or serous. The most common benign epithelial ovarian tumor is cystadenoma. Case Report We report the case of a 14-year-old premenarchal girl with chronic abdominal pain, constipation, and abdominal enlargement. A computed tomography detected a huge left ovarian cystic tumor. A 9-kg ovarian tumor was removed surgically. Pathology showed a benign mucinous cystadenoma (MCA). Conclusions Ovarian neoplasms in children present a diagnostic quandary, and very often the diagnoses are missed or delayed. When the diagnosis is made, a prompt and fertility-preserving surgical treatment must be performed and followed to prevent recurrence.
- Prognostic analysis of invasive circulating tumor cells (iCTCs) in epithelial ovarian cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gynecol Oncol 2014 Jun 24.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been introduced as a biomarker in detecting advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC). The goals are to examine the prevalence of the invasive subpopulation of CTCs (iCTCs) in patients at high risk of EOC and to compare this biomarker to serum CA125.We used a unique Cell Adhesion Matrix (CAM)-based, functional cell enrichment and identification platform to isolate iCTCs from 129 preoperative patients. We confirmed the identity of iCTCs using positive epithelial (Epi+) markers and negative hematopoietic lineage (HL-) markers. Sensitivity and specificity of the assays were examined and iCTCs / CA125 were correlated with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and clinical parameters.We found a 41.2% sensitivity, 95.1% specificity and 77.8% positive predictive value (PPV) of the iCTC assay in detecting patients with stage I and II EOC malignancy, and a 83% sensitivity and 97.3% PPV in detecting all stages of EOC malignancy. However, a positive CA125 test provided weak evidence to detect stage I and II malignancy (61.6% PPV) and all EOC (92.1% PPV), because of its 76.2% specificity. A significantly stronger concordance in OS and PFS of clinical factors (tumor stage, debulking and platinum sensitivity) was noted for elevated iCTCs than for serum CA125.The CAM-initiated CTC enrichment / identification method enabled the detection of early stage EOC. iCTCs were better correlated with worse OS and PFS, more specific and better PPV than CA125 in detecting EOC malignancy in patients at high risk of EOC.
- Sineoculis homeobox homolog 1 protein as an independent biomarker for gastric adenocarcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2014 May 24.
Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) protein is a member of the homeobox transcription factor family. Overexpression of SIX1 contributes to cancer progression and is associated with adverse outcomes in various cancer types including breast, ovarian, uterine cervical and liver. To investigate the clinicopathological significance of SIX1 protein expression in gastric adenocarcinomas (GAC), localization of the SIX1 protein was determined in MKN-1, a gastric cancer cell line, using immunofluorescence (IF) staining, SIX1 mRNA level was detected in fresh tissues of GAC and normal gastric mucosa using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and SIX1 protein expression was assessed in 163 GAC, 35 gastric dysplasia and 26 normal gastric mucosa using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Correlations between SIX1 protein expression and pathological parameters of GAC were analyzed using Chi-square tests, differences in survival curves were analyzed using log-rank tests, and multivariate survival analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. SIX1 protein showed a mainly cytoplasmic staining pattern in GAC using IF and IHC staining. The positive SIX1 protein expression rate was 80.4% in GAC, which was significantly higher than in either gastric dysplasia (45.7%) or normal gastric mucosa (26.9%) (P<0.01). qRT-PCR data also confirmed increased levels of SIX1 mRNA expression in GAC compared with the normal gastric mucosa in fresh tissues. In addition, the strongly positive SIX1 protein expression rate was significantly correlated with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and serosal invasion of GAC (P<0.01 or P<0.05), while there was no association with gender, age, tumor size, Lauren classification or histological types of GAC. Notably, strongly positive signals were frequently observed in tumor blood vessels and/or lymphatic vessels. GAC patients with high expression of the SIX1 had shorter overall and disease-free survival rates than those with low SIX1 protein expression (P<0.005 and P<0.05, respectively). Furthermore, using multivariate analysis, SIX1 protein expression was found to be an independent risk factor for survival in patients with GAC along with clinical stage and serosal invasion (P<0.001). In conclusion, SIX1 protein expression status may be an independent biomarker for prognostic evaluation of GAC.
- Inferring probabilistic miRNA-mRNA interaction signatures in cancers: a role-switch approach. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nucleic Acids Res 2014 Mar 7.
Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression is implicated in tumorigenesis. The underlying mechanisms are unclear because the regulations of each miRNA on potentially hundreds of mRNAs are sample specific. We describe a novel approach to infer Probabilistic MiRNA-mRNA Interaction Signature ('ProMISe') from a single pair of miRNA-mRNA expression profile. Our model considers mRNA and miRNA competition as a probabilistic function of the expressed seeds (matches). To demonstrate ProMISe, we extensively exploited The Cancer Genome Atlas data. As a target predictor, ProMISe identifies more confidence/validated targets than other methods. Importantly, ProMISe confers higher cancer diagnostic power than using expression profiles alone. Gene set enrichment analysis on averaged ProMISe uniquely revealed respective target enrichments of oncomirs miR-21 and 145 in glioblastoma and ovarian cancers. Moreover, comparing matched breast (BRCA) and thyroid (THCA) tumor/normal samples uncovered thousands of tumor-related interactions. For example, ProMISe-BRCA network involves miR-155/183/21, which exhibits higher ProMISe coupled with coherently higher miRNA expression and lower target expression; oncomirs miR-221/222 in the ProMISe-THCA network engage with many downregulated target genes. Together, our probabilistic approach of integrating expression and sequence scores establishes a functional link between the aberrant miRNA and mRNA expression, which was previously under-appreciated due to the methodological differences.
- Loss of HSulf-1 expression enhances tumorigenicity by inhibiting Bim expression in ovarian cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cancer 2014 Mar 4.
The expression of human Sulfatase1 (HSulf-1) is downregulated in the majority of primary ovarian cancer tumors, but the functional consequence of this downregulation remains unclear. Using two different shRNAs (Sh1 and Sh2), HSulf-1 expression was stably downregulated in ovarian cancer OV202 cells. We found that HSulf-1-deficient OV202 Sh1 and Sh2 cells formed colonies in soft agar. In contrast, nontargeting control (NTC) shRNA-transduced OV202 cells did not form any colonies. Moreover, subcutaneous injection of OV202 HSulf-1-deficient cells resulted in tumor formation in nude mice, whereas OV202 NTC cells did not. Also, ectopic expression of HSulf-1 in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Here, we show that HSulf-1-deficient OV202 cells have markedly decreased expression of proapoptotic Bim protein, which can be rescued by restoring HSulf-1 expression in OV202 Sh1 cells. Enhanced expression of HSulf-1 in HSulf-1-deficient SKOV3 cells resulted in increased Bim expression. Decreased Bim levels after loss of HSulf-1 were due to increased p-ERK, because inhibition of ERK activity with PD98059 resulted in increased Bim expression. However, treatment with a PI3 kinase/AKT inhibitor, LY294002, failed to show any change in Bim protein level. Importantly, rescuing Bim expression in HSulf-1 knockdown cells significantly retarded tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively, these results suggest that loss of HSulf-1 expression promotes tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer through regulating Bim expression.
- Mirk/dyrk1B kinase is upregulated following inhibition of mTOR. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Carcinogenesis 2014 Mar 28.
The PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway is one of the most frequently deregulated signaling pathways in solid tumors and has a functional role in drug resistance. However, targeting this pathway leads to compensatory activation of several mediators of cell survival. Expression of the reactive oxygen species-controlling kinase Mirk/dyrk1B was increased severalfold by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors RAD001, WYE354 and rapamycin, with less effect by the Akt inhibitors AZD5363 and MK-2206. Upregulation of Mirk messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was mediated by cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) binding to two sites in the Mirk promoter upstream of the transcription start site and one site within exon 4. Depletion of CREB reduced Mirk expression, whereas depletion of mTOR increased it. Moreover, hydroxytamoxifen activation of an Akt-estrogen receptor construct blocked an increase in Mirk mRNA and protein. Addition of a Mirk/dyrk1B kinase inhibitor increased the sensitivity of Panc1 pancreatic cancer cells and three different ovarian cancer cell lines to the mTOR inhibitor RAD001. Targeting Mirk kinase could improve the utility of mTOR inhibitors and so presents an attractive drug target.
- S100A2 is a BRCA1/p63 coregulated tumour suppressor gene with roles in the regulation of mutant p53 stability. [Journal Article]
- Cell Death Dis 2014.:e1070.
Here, we show for the first time that the familial breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA1, along with interacting ΔNp63 proteins, transcriptionally upregulate the putative tumour suppressor protein, S100A2. Both BRCA1 and ΔNp63 proteins are required for S100A2 expression. BRCA1 requires ΔNp63 proteins for recruitment to the S100A2 proximal promoter region, while exogenous expression of individual ΔNp63 proteins cannot activate S100A2 transcription in the absence of a functional BRCA1. Consequently, mutation of the ΔNp63/p53 response element within the S100A2 promoter completely abrogates the ability of BRCA1 to upregulate S100A2. S100A2 shows growth control features in a range of cell models. Transient or stable exogenous S100A2 expression inhibits the growth of BRCA1 mutant and basal-like breast cancer cell lines, while short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of S100A2 in non-tumorigenic cells results in enhanced proliferation. S100A2 modulates binding of mutant p53 to HSP90, which is required for efficient folding of mutant p53 proteins, by competing for binding to HSP70/HSP90 organising protein (HOP). HOP is a cochaperone that is required for the efficient transfer of proteins from HSP70 to HSP90. Loss of S100A2 leads to an HSP90-dependent stabilisation of mutant p53 with a concomitant loss of p63. Accordingly, S100A2-deficient cells are more sensitive to the HSP-90 inhibitor, 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, potentially representing a novel therapeutic strategy for S100A2- and BRCA1-deficient cancers. Taken together, these data demonstrate the importance of S100A2 downstream of the BRCA1/ΔNp63 signalling axis in modulating transcriptional responses and enforcing growth control mechanisms through destabilisation of mutant p53.
- Conservative treatment of a young patient with thyroid carcinoma in adult ovarian teratoma - case report. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2014 Mar; 30(3):187-91.
The cystic mature teratomas, including dermoid cysts, are one of the most frequently occurring benign ovarian tumors diagnosed in female patients. The process of neoplastic transformation in mature dermoid cysts is applicable only to 1-2% of cases. In our article, we present a rare case of thyroid carcinoma development in adult teratoma in 21-year-old patient. The young age, certain pathomorphological features and clinical data (small size of neoplastic lesion, correct values of tumour markers, unilateral character, regular levels of thyreoglobulin and absence of any significant deviations in imaging examinations), were the basis for attempting to apply the conservative treatment both in the scope of gynecological surgery and in the supplemental endocrinological therapy. In the patient, the one-sided adnexectomy was performed, considering pathological lesions on the adnexa, as well as the other ovary dermoid cyst was enucleated, without the hysteroctomy procedure. Considering the lack of any morphological lesions and functional changes relating to thyroid gland, the treatment was not radicalised in this scope, either. At present, one year after the primary operation treatment, the patient does not manifest any disease symptoms, whereas the other ovary, in the follow-up ultrasound examinations, shows normal size and echostructure. The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression keeps being applied.
- In vivo multiplexed interrogation of amplified genes identifies GAB2 as an ovarian cancer oncogene. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Jan 21; 111(3):1102-7.
High-grade serous ovarian cancers are characterized by widespread recurrent copy number alterations. Although some regions of copy number change harbor known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, the genes targeted by the majority of amplified or deleted regions in ovarian cancer remain undefined. Here we systematically tested amplified genes for their ability to promote tumor formation using an in vivo multiplexed transformation assay. We identified the GRB2-associated binding protein 2 (GAB2) as a recurrently amplified gene that potently transforms immortalized ovarian and fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells. Cancer cell lines overexpressing GAB2 require GAB2 for survival and show evidence of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation, which was required for GAB2-induced transformation. Cell lines overexpressing GAB2 were as sensitive to PI3K inhibition as cell lines harboring mutant PIK3CA. Together, these observations nominate GAB2 as an ovarian cancer oncogene, identify an alternative mechanism to activate PI3K signaling, and underscore the importance of PI3K signaling in this cancer.