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PFTs, obstructive disease [keywords]
- Serial Changes in Pulmonary Function after Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Lobectomy in Lung Cancer Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013 Apr 25.
Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the serial changes in pulmonary function and the recovery time for the observed postoperative values to reach the predicted postoperative values after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for lung cancer.Patients and Methods Patients undergoing VATS lobectomy for lung cancer were prospectively evaluated using complete preoperative and repeated postoperative pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The parameters of PFT at each time were compared according to the resected lobe as well as the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The differences between the observed and predicted postoperative values of PFT and the recovery time for the observed values to reach the predicted values were calculated.Results Seventy-two patients (33 men, 39 women; mean age: 63.9 years) received complete pre- and postoperative regular PFT after undergoing VATS lobectomy. Of these patients, 24 (33.3%) patients satisfied the criteria for COPD. During the immediate postoperative period, forced vital capacity (FVC) percentage of the patients who received right lower lobectomy patients was decreased most significantly compared with the preoperative values. Compared with the upper lobectomy (UL) group, the lower lobectomy (LL) group showed a significant decrease of FVC% up to 6 months. However, there was no significant difference at 12 months after surgery. Patients with COPD showed little reduction of FEV1% that persisted significantly until 1 month after the surgery in both UL and LL groups. The recovery time was shortest in the left lower lobectomy patients, and it was shorter in the LL group than in the UL group.Conclusions Postoperative pulmonary function and recovery time were different depending on the lobe resected and presence of COPD in VATS lobectomy patients. The information obtained from postoperative serial PFT would help accurately predict postoperative pulmonary function changes and recovery time after VATS lobectomy for lung cancer.
- Assessment of lung volume collapsibility in chronic obstructive lung disease patients using CT. [Journal Article]
- Eur Radiol 2013 Jun; 23(6):1564-72.
To investigate the collapsibility of the lung and individual lobes in patients with COPD during inspiration/expiration and assess the association of whole lung and lobar volume changes with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and disease severity.PFT measures used were RV/TLC%, FEV1% predicted, FVC, FEV1/FVC%, DLco% predicted and GOLD category. A total of 360 paired inspiratory and expiratory CT examinations acquired in 180 subjects were analysed. Automated computerised algorithms were used to compute individual lobe and total lung volumes. Lung volume collapsibility was assessed quantitatively using the simple difference between CT computed inspiration (I) and expiration (E) volumes (I-E), and a relative measure of volume changes, (I-E)/I.Mean absolute collapsibility (I-E) decreased in all lung lobes with increasing disease severity defined by GOLD classification. Relative collapsibility (I-E)/I showed a similar trend. Upper lobes had lower volume collapsibility across all GOLD categories and lower lobes collectively had the largest volume collapsibility. Whole lung and left lower lobe collapsibility measures tended to have the highest correlations with PFT measures. Collapsibility of lung lobes and whole lung was also negatively correlated with the degree of air trapping between expiration and inspiration, as measured by mean lung density. All measured associations were statistically significant (P < 0.01).Severity of COPD appears associated with increased collapsibility in the upper lobes, but change (decline) in collapsibility is faster in the lower lobes. KEY POINTS : • Inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography allows assessment of lung collapsibility • Lobe volume collapsibility is significantly correlated with measures of lung function. • As COPD severity increases, collapsibility of individual lung lobes decreases. • Upper lobes exhibit more severe disease, while lower lobes decline faster.
- Pulmonary Function and Flow Volume Loop Patterns in Patients with Tracheobronchomalacia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respir Care 2013 Mar 12.
Background:Patterns of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and flow-volume loops (FVLs) among patients with clinically significant tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) are not well described. Small studies suggest four main FVL morphologies: low maximal forced expiratory flow (FEFmax), biphasic expiratory curve, flow oscillations and notching.
Objective:To describe common pulmonary function test (PFT) and FVL patterns among the largest prospective series of patients to date undergoing clinical evaluation for symptomatic moderate to severe TBM.
Methods:We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from patients who were referred to the Chest Disease Center from January 2002 to December 2008 with respiratory symptoms that were attributed primarily to TBM. PFT results of 90 patients with symptomatic moderate to severe TBM were evaluated.
Results:By PFTs, 40 (44.4%) patients had an obstructive ventilatory defect, 16 (17.8%) had a definite or highly likely restrictive ventilatory defect, 15 (16.7%) had a mixed defect, and 19 (21.1%) were within normal limits. Among 76 patients with available FVLs, the most frequent finding was low FEFmax in 62 (81.6%) cases, followed by biphasic morphology 15 (19.7%), notched expiratory loop 7 (9.2%) and expiratory oscillations 2 (2.6%).The balance of 13 patients (17.1%) had no distinctive FVL abnormality.
Conclusion:PFTs and FVLs are normal in a significant number of patients with moderate to severe TBM and should not be used to decide whether tracheobronchomalacia is present or clinically significant.
- An infant with pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis: Clinical improvement is associated with improvement in the pulmonary diffusion capacity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Pulmonol 2013 Feb 8.
Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) is an idiopathic interstitial lung disease of infants. The underlying pulmonary pathophysiology of PIG has not been well characterized. Herein we report a term-gestatation infant who presented with persistent tachypnea and hypoxia. A chest CT scan demonstrated a diffuse ground glass appearance and lung biopsy demonstrated increased alveolar septae cellularity with glycogen-containing cells, consistent with a diagnosis of PIG. At 3 months of age, pulmonary function testing included: pre- and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory flows using the raised-volume technique and the ratio of pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide to alveolar volume (DL(CO) /V(A) ). He was prescribed 5 days of oral prednisolone (2 mg/kg/day) and pulmonary function testing (PFT) was repeated at 5, 13, and 20 months of age. Initial PFTs demonstrated reduced forced vital capacity (FVC: Z-score = -2.36) and an increased ratio of forced expiratory volume in 0.5 sec to FVC (FEV0.5/FVC: Z-score = 1.15) with no significant change following an inhaled bronchodilator. There was also a marked reduction in DL(CO) /V(A) (Z-score = -4.74) compared to age-matched controls. Follow-up demonstrated progressive clinical improvement as well as an increase in Z-FVC and normalization of DL(CO) /V(A) . Our in vivo physiological findings are consistent with previous reports that symptom resolution correlated with histological thinning of the alveolar septae upon repeat lung biopsy. The restrictive lung disease we observed is consistent with expected reduced compliance of an alveolar interstitial lung process like PIG, whereas the absence of a reduction in FEV0.5/FVC confirms the absence of obstructive airway disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Assessment of COPD severity by combining pulmonary function tests and chest CT images. [Journal Article]
- Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2013 May; 8(3):353-63.
Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitations. Physicians frequently assess the stage using pulmonary function tests and chest CT images. This paper describes a novel method to assess COPD severity by combining measurements of pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the results of chest CT image analysis. Methods The proposed method utilizes measurements from PFTs and chest CT scans to assess COPD severity. This method automatically classifies COPD severity into five stages, described in GOLD guidelines, by a multi-class AdaBoost classifier. The classifier utilizes 24 measurements as feature values, which include 18 measurements from PFTs and six measurements based on chest CT image analysis. A total of 3 normal and 46 abnormal (COPD) examinations performed in adults were evaluated using the proposed method to test its diagnostic capability. Results The experimental results revealed that its accuracy rates were 100.0 % (resubstitution scheme) and 53.1 % (leave-one-out scheme). A total of 95.7 % of missed classifications were assigned in the neighboring severities. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the proposed method is a feasible means to assess COPD severity. A much larger sample size will be required to establish the limits of the method and provide clinical validation.
- A Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chest 2012 Nov 22.
BACKGROUNDChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease affecting millions worldwide. As disease pathogenesis includes both chronic pulmonary and systemic inflammation, anti-inflammatory effects of systemically administered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may decrease inflammation resulting in improved lung function and quality of life. The goal of this study was to assess safety and to perform initial evaluation of potential efficacy of systemic MSC administration to patients with moderate-severe COPD.
METHODSSixty-two patients at six sites were randomized to double-blinded intravenous infusions of either allogeneic MSCs (Prochymal®, Osiris Therapeutics, Inc.) or vehicle control. Patients received four monthly infusions (100×106 cells/infusion) and were subsequently followed for two years after the first infusion. Endpoints included comprehensive safety evaluation, pulmonary function testing (PFTs), quality of life indicators including questionnaires, six minute walk evaluation, and assessments of systemic inflammation.
RESULTSAll study patients completed the full infusion protocol and 74% completed the two year follow-up. There were no infusional toxicities and no deaths or serious adverse events deemed related to MSC administration. There were no significant differences in the overall number of adverse events, frequency of COPD exacerbations, or worsening of disease in MSC-treated patients. There were no significant differences PFTs or quality of life indicators; however an early significant decrease in levels of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) was observed in MSC-treated patients who had elevated CRP levels at study entry.
CONCLUSIONSSystemic MSC administration appears to be safe in patients with moderate-severe COPD and provides a basis for subsequent cell therapy investigations.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00683722.
- Chemotherapeutic agents increase the risk for pulmonary function test abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2012 Oct; 12(5):325-9.
Case reports of pulmonary toxicity have been published regarding bortezomib, lenalidomide, and thalidomide but there are no published reports looking at the possible long-term pulmonary effects of these medications. This article describes a possible relationship between the administration of bortezomib and thalidomide and the development of pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities. It also suggests that routine pulmonary function testing may be required in patients receiving these medications until larger studies can be performed to confirm this observation.Multiple myeloma is a common malignancy accounting for approximately 1% of all malignancies worldwide. Bortezomib, lenalidomide, and thalidomide are immunomodulatory derivatives that are used in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). There have been case reports of pulmonary disease associated with these agents, but the effect of these agents on pulmonary function test (PFT) results is unknown.We reviewed the records of 343 patients with MM who underwent PFTs before autologous stem cell transplantation. One hundred nine patients had not received any of the 3 medications, whereas 234 had received 1 or more of these agents.Patients exposed to bortezomib were more likely to have obstructive PFT results (P = .015) when compared with patients not exposed to this medication. Restrictive PFT results were more likely after exposure to thalidomide (P = .017). A logistic regression model was performed and when adjusted for age, sex, Durie-Salmon (DS) stage, body mass index (BMI), time from diagnosis to transplantation in days, and smoking history, the odds of obstruction were 1.96 times higher for patients who received bortezomib. The odds of restriction were 1.97 times higher after exposure to thalidomide.There appears to be a risk of PFT abnormalities developing in patients treated with bortezomib and thalidomide.
- Three-dimensional airway lumen volumetry: comparison with bronchial wall area and parenchymal densitometry in assessment of airway obstruction in pulmonary emphysema. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Br J Radiol 2012 Dec; 85(1020):1525-32.
The purpose of this study was to compare three-dimensional airway lumen volumetry with bronchial wall area and parenchymal densitometry in the assessment of airway obstruction in pulmonary emphysema.56 patients, who were smokers, underwent CT examination and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). For quantitative assessments, the following parameters were computationally calculated: (1) percentage of voxels -950, -960 and -970 HU in the lung (%LAA(-950), %LAA(-960) and %LAA(-970), respectively); (2) percentage of partial bronchi luminal volumes per total luminal volumes (LV(main), main and distal bronchial volume/total luminal volume; LV(lobe), lobar and distal bronchial volume/total luminal volume); and (3) mean wall area percentages of segmental bronchi of the right apical and left apicoposterior segment (WA%(seg)) and of subsegmental bronchi (WA%(sub)) in the upper lobes. These parameters were correlated with PFTs and statistically compared between a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) group [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC)<70] and a non-COPD group.FEV1, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate and forced expiratory flow at 25% vital capacity had significant correlation with LV(main) (r>0.53, p<0.0001), LV(lobe) (r>0.52, p<0.0001), WA%(seg) (|r|>0.29, p<0.05) and WA%(sub) (|r|>0.31, p<0.05). FEV1/FVC had significant correlation with all parameters (0.27<|r|<0.52, p<0.05). LV(main) and LV(lobe) and WA%(seg) and WA%(sub) were significantly different between the two groups (LV(main) and LV(lobe); p<0.0001, WA%(seg) and WA%(sub); p<0.05).Bronchial luminal volumetric assessment better reflected the airflow limitation parameters. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Bronchial luminal volumetric assessment can potentially be used to gauge airflow limitation in pulmonary emphysema.
- Role of computed tomography in quantitative assessment of emphysema. [Journal Article]
- Pol J Radiol 2012 Jan; 77(1):28-36.
Pulmonary emphysema, together with chronic bronchitis is a part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is one of the leading causes of death in the United States and worldwide. There are many methods to diagnose emphysema. Unfortunately many of them, for example pulmonary function tests (PFTs), clinical signs and conventional radiology are able to detect emphysema usually in its late stages when a great portion of lung parenchyma has been already destroyed by the disease. Computed tomography (CT) allows for early detection of emphysema. CT also makes it possible to quantify the total amount of emphysema in the lungs which is important in order to precisely estimate the severity of the disease. Those abilities of CT are important in monitoring the course of the disease and in attempts to prevent its further progression. In this review we discuss currently available methods for imaging emphysema with emphasis on the quantitative assessment of emphysema. To date, quantitative methods have not been widely used clinically, however, the initial results of several research studies regarding this subject are very encouraging.
- Reassessment of declines in pulmonary function ≥1 year after stereotactic body radiotherapy. [Journal Article]
- Chest 2013 Jan; 143(1):130-7.
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is standard care for patients with inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. However, clinicians may hesitate to use SBRT in patients with severe COPD because of potential negative effects on pulmonary function. We quantitatively analyzed long-term declines in pulmonary function after SBRT to ascertain lifelong tolerability to SBRT.Between 2005 and 2010 at Ofuna Chuo Hospital, 292 patients with lung tumors were treated with SBRT. Among them, patients who underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs) both pretreatment and at ≥1 year after SBRT were evaluated in this retrospective analysis. The decline ratio in FEV(1) and FVC was assessed (ie, ΔFEV(1)/preFEV(1) and ΔFVC/preFVC). Predictors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses.The 141 eligible patients had follow-up PFTs at a median of 21.0 (range, 12.0-74.8) months after SBRT. Among groups with normal function, or mild to moderate or severe COPD, the median values for ΔFEV(1)/preFEV(1) were 7.9%, 7.9%, and 7.4%, respectively, and for ΔFVC/preFVC, 5.1%, 3.4%, and 0.5%, respectively. Low BMI was the only predictor for ΔFEV(1)/preFEV(1)> 10%. Low BMI, high lung volume receiving 20 Gy, and high pretreatment FVC were predictors for ΔFVC/preFVC > 10%.Declines in FEV(1) and FVC were small, but statistically significant in patients with normal function or mild to moderate COPD, but nonsignificant in patients with severe COPD. These declines were primarily due to physiologic aging. SBRT had a limited effect on decline in long-term pulmonary function and may be an acceptable alternative to surgery for patients with comorbid lung cancer and COPD.