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Papillary necrosis [keywords]
- Vascular endothelial cell function in catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: a case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Hematol 2013.:710365.
Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is a rare autoimmune condition, which has been associated with a high mortality rate. However, with current management that includes a combination of anticoagulation, glucocorticoid administration, and plasma exchange, mortality rate has declined. Despite survival improvement with new generation immunosuppressive agents, their mechanisms of action are poorly defined, and CAPS is still considered a high-risk complication in patients known with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Herein, we present a case of a 79-year-old male who presented with a myocardial infarct and renal failure secondary to CAPS following a splenectomy for immune thrombocytopenia. Regardless of rapid combination of first-line treatment and rituximab therapy, the patient developed lethal cardiogenic shock secondary to mitral valve papillary muscle necrosis. Discussion of the pathophysiology and avenues of future therapies in CAPS are reported.
- Recognizing breast ductal carcinoma in situ on fine-needle aspiration: A Diagnostic Dilemma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Diagn Cytopathol 2013 Jun 1.
In this study, we evaluated cytomorphologic features of different subgroups of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); we compared seven cytologic features between DCIS and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) aspirates to determine whether diagnosis of stromal invasion can be made based on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) findings. There were 142 cases of DCIS and 1,978 cases of IDC enrolled in our study. FNA analysis revealed 80.3% sensitivity for DCIS and 94.7% sensitivity for IDC. High and intermediate grade DCIS exhibited marked nuclear abnormality (92.1% vs. 35.7%, 30.0%; P1 < 0.001, P2 < 0.001) and necrosis (69.7% vs. 0%, 10.0%; P1 < 0.001, P2 = 0.001) in a higher percentage of cases compared to low grade DCIS and intraductal/intracystic papillary carcinoma. The rates of background macrophages (71.3% for DCIS and 21.9% for IDC, P < 0.001) and extensive necrosis (54.0% for DCIS and 16.7% for IDC, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in DCIS compared to IDC. Lymphocytes were observed in conjunction with tumor cells more frequently in IDC (81.3%) compared to DCIS (36.8%, P < 0.001). Stromal fragments associated with tumor cells were only observed in invasive lesions (11.9% micro-invasive DCIS and 52.1% IDC). Tubular structures were found exclusively in IDC (11.5%). Cytologic criteria for diagnosis of high and low grade DCIS are different. The suspicion of DCIS is raised when background macrophages and extensive necrosis are observed. Stromal invasion is suggested by FNA if lymphocytes are entwined around tumor cells or if stromal fragments associated with tumor cells or tubular structures are observed. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Cutaneous Findings in a Case of Mediterranean Spotless Fever Due to Rickettsia conorii, With Gangrene of Multiple Toes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Dermatopathol 2013 May 28.
: Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is a tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia conorii conorii. Some rare cases present without a rash, and they are known as "spotless." This fact is important; although the mortality rates for MSF are low and generally range from 0% to 3%, the absence of a rash usually leads to a delay in the diagnosis and, therefore, an increase in the rates of morbidity and mortality. Necrosis of the digits is one of the complications of MSF that has occasionally been reported in the literature. However, very few reports have studied the morphological changes seen in the cutaneous necrotic lesions. In this report, we describe the morphological changes found through examining a biopsy taken from a necrotic cutaneous lesion in a 69-year-old man who had been diagnosed with Mediterranean spotless fever due to R. conorii. The main morphological changes included areas of collagen degeneration in the papillary dermis, necrotic eccrine glands, and hypodermal collagen with a smudged homogeneous appearance.
- Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation: a clinicopathologic study of 14 cases. [Journal Article]
- Anal Quant Cytol Histol 2013 Apr; 35(2):77-84.
To investigate the clinicopathologic features of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation.A search was made through the surgical pathology and expert consult files of two major academic institutions from 2003 to 2011 for cases of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation.Fourteen patients were identified. The patients included 9 males (64%) and 5 females (36%). The mean patient age was 60.4 years (range, 40-82 years). There was a left-sided predominance: left (9 patients) and right (5 patients). The mean tumor size was 14.6 cm (range, 9.5-28.0 cm), and the mean percentage sarcomatoid differentiation was 67% (range, 30-99%). All tumors exhibited moderate to extensive areas of necrosis. The nonsarcomatoid component in all cases demonstrated classic features of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Nine patients (64%) had pT3 disease and 5 patients (36%) had pT4 disease. Five patients (36%) had positive surgical margins. Three patients (21%) had tissue diagnosis of metastatic disease at the time of initial surgery. Six patients (43%) had subsequent pathologic and/or radiologic evidence of multiple or isolated metastatic disease. Follow-up information was available in all 14 patients. Mean follow-up time was 16 weeks (range, 2-84 weeks). Ten of 14 patients (71%) died of disease, 9 of those within 6 months (mean survival time of 10 weeks), 3 patients (21%) were alive with disease, and only 1 patient (7%) was alive with no evidence of disease.This study is one of the largest series to date specifically examining the clinicopathologic features of sarcomatoid chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in radical nephrectomy specimens and confirms the observation that these tumors behave more aggressively than conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma or papillary renal cell carcinoma.
- Histologic features associated with metastatic potential in invasive adenocarcinomas of the lung. [Journal Article]
- Am J Surg Pathol 2013 Jul; 37(7):1100-8.
: The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) recently reclassified adenocarcinomas of the lung on the basis of histologic patterns. However, there is lack of consensus about a grading system for these tumors. We studied a series of invasive lung adenocarcinomas and correlated histologic features with lymph node and distant metastases. A series of invasive lung carcinomas resected over a 5-year period were retrospectively reviewed and classified by the IASLC system. The proportion of each histologic subtype was estimated at 5% increments, and cytologic features were blindly recorded and subsequently correlated with lymph node and distant metastases. The 125 tumors were classified on the basis of the predominant pattern as lepidic predominant (LPA) (n=9), acinar (n=71), solid (n=23), papillary (n=11), and mucinous (n=11). The acinar pattern was heterogenous, in that a cribriform subgroup (n=34) was significantly more likely to demonstrate lymph node metastases compared with a tubular subgroup (n=37) and had a higher mitotic rate, rate of necrosis, vascular invasion, and prominent nucleoli. Mucinous tumors were LPA (n=3), tubular (n=4), and cribriform predominant (n=4). The rate of lymph node metastasis was greatest in the solid type (P=0.02). The rate of distant metastasis was greatest in the mucinous and solid groups (P<0.02). Mitotic activity (≥1/HPF), desmoplasia >20% of the tumor, prominent nucleoli, and vascular invasion, along with a solid growth pattern ≥20%, were independently associated with metastatic potential and considered poor prognostic histologic features. A 3-tiered grading system separated tumors into well differentiated (predominantly LPA, papillary, and tubular patterns), moderately differentiated (predominantly cribriform tumors), and poorly differentiated (≥20% solid growth pattern). Tumors in the well-differentiated group were elevated to moderately differentiated if there were poor prognostic histologic features. Using this system, there was a stepwise increase in the rate of lymph node metastasis (P<0.0001) and distant metastasis (P=0.0004) from well-differentiated, moderately differentiated, to poorly differentiated tumors, the rate being 40, 46, and 39, respectively. Application of the IASLC classification in this series resulted in a predominance of acinar adenocarcinomas. To stratify tumors into clinically relevant grades, grading by pattern (tubular, cribriform, solid), mitotic activity, and nuclear features is useful.
- Papillary meningioma: clinical and histopathological observations. [Journal Article]
- Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2013; 6(5):878-88.
Papillary meningioma is a rare subtype of malignant meningiomas, which is classified by the World Health Organization as Grade III. Because of lack of large sample size case studies, many of the specific characteristics of papillary meningioma are unclear. This study investigated by retrospective analysis the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings of 17 papillary meningioma patients who underwent surgical resection or biopsy, to assess the characteristics of papillary meningioma. Eight female and nine male patients were included, with a mean age of 40 (range: 6 to 55) years. Tumors were mostly located in the cerebral convexity and showed irregular margins, absence of a peritumoral rim, heterogeneous enhancement and severe peritumoral brain edema on preoperative images. Brain invasion was often confirmed during the operations, with abundant to exceedingly abundant blood supply. Intratumoral necrosis and mitosis was frequently observed on routinely stained sections. The average MIB-1 labeling index was 6.9%. Seven cases experienced tumor recurrence or progression, while seven patients died 6 to 29 months after operation. Radiation therapy was given in 52.9% of all cases. Univariate analysis showed that only the existence of intratumoral necrosis and incomplete resection correlated with tumor recurrence. The 3-year progression free survival was 66.7% after gross total resection and 63.6% for other cases. The 3-year mortality rate was 50% after gross total resection and 63.6% for other cases. Papillary meningioma has specific clinical and histopathological characteristics. Tumor recurrence (or progression) and mortality are common. Gross total tumor resection resulted in less recurrence and mortality.
- The effect of microneedling with a roller device on the viability of random skin flaps in rats. [Journal Article]
- Plast Reconstr Surg 2013 May; 131(5):1024-34.
In a random pattern skin flap, distal flap necrosis occurs as a result of inadequate blood flow. Microneedling with a handheld roller device is a new treatment modality, especially for facial rejuvenation. In this study, the authors used microneedling to increase flap viability.Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups of 20. The study group was exposed to McFarlane flap elevation and repositioning. The microneedling procedure was performed four times: 3 days before, on the day of, and on the third and sixth days after surgery. The control group was only exposed to surgery. The skin flap necrosis area was measured on the seventh postoperative day topographically by digital imaging and scintigraphy. After determination of necrosis area, the amount of neovascularization and number of vascular structures within the papillary dermal layer were counted histopathologically.The mean percentages of necrosis in the flap area as determined by the Digimizer analysis program were 37.51 ± 5.08 in the control group and 29.42 ± 7.37 in the study group. The mean percentages of flap necrosis of the control group and the study group as determined by radionuclide scintigraphy were 31.4 ± 4.1 and 22.8 ± 5.0, respectively. The comparison of flap necrosis percentages showed that the study group had significantly lower values (p < 0.001). Vessel counts in the study group also showed significant increase (p < 0.05).The authors' study showed that the microneedling method applied directly on the flap could be a faster, safer, and more effective therapy modality to increase flap viability.
- KRAS mutations are associated with solid growth pattern and tumor-infiltrating leukocytes in lung adenocarcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mod Pathol 2013 Apr 26.
KRAS mutations define a clinically distinct subgroup of lung adenocarcinoma patients, characterized by smoking history, resistance to EGFR-targeted therapies, and adverse prognosis. Whether KRAS-mutated lung adenocarcinomas also have distinct histopathological features is not well established. We tested 180 resected lung adenocarcinomas for KRAS and EGFR mutations by high-sensitivity mass spectrometry-based genotyping (Sequenom) and PCR-based sizing assays. All tumors were assessed for the proportion of standard histological patterns (lepidic, acinar, papillary, micropapillary, solid, and mucinous), several other histological and clinical parameters, and TTF-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Among 180 carcinomas, 63 (35%) had KRAS mutations (KRAS+), 35 (19%) had EGFR mutations (EGFR+), and 82 (46%) had neither mutation (KRAS-/EGFR-). Solid growth pattern was significantly over-represented in KRAS+ carcinomas: the mean±s.d. for the amount of solid pattern in KRAS+ carcinomas was 27±34% compared with 3±10% in EGFR+ (P<0.001) and 15±27% in KRAS-/EGFR- (P=0.033) tumors. Furthermore, at least focal (≥20%) solid component was more common in KRAS+ (28/63; 44%) compared with EGFR+ (2/35; 6%; P<0.001) and KRAS-/EGFR- (21/82; 26%; P=0.022) carcinomas. KRAS mutations were also over-represented in mucinous carcinomas and were significantly associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes and heavier smoking history. EGFR mutations were associated with non-mucinous non-solid patterns, particularly lepidic and papillary, lack of necrosis, lack of cytological atypia, hobnail cytology, TTF-1 expression, and never/light smoking history. In conclusion, extended molecular and clinicopathological analysis of lung adenocarcinomas reveals a novel association of KRAS mutations with solid histology and tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells and expands on several previously recognized morphological and clinical associations of KRAS and EGFR mutations. Solid growth pattern was recently shown to be a strong predictor of aggressive behavior in lung adenocarcinomas, which may underlie the unfavorable prognosis associated with KRAS mutations in these tumors.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 26 April 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.74.
- The presence of clusters of plasmacytoid dendritic cells is a helpful feature for differentiating lupus panniculitis from subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma. [Journal Article]
- Histopathology 2013 Jun; 62(7):1057-66.
Both lupus panniculitis (LP) and subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) are characterized by subcutaneous lobular lymphocytic infiltrates, and they are sometimes difficult to differentiate. Recently, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) were found to be present in various types of cutaneous lupus erythematosus lesions, including LP, and are supposed to play important pathogenetic roles. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PDCs are differentially present in these two diseases and can be utilized to differentiate them. Conventional histopathological features were also compared.Initial biopsies from 21 LP and 11 SPTCL patients were analysed. Our results showed that the presence of lymphoid follicles, dermal mucin deposition and lack of moderate to marked nuclear atypia or adipocyte rimming were more suggestive of LP. Several distinct patterns of fat necrosis, i.e. hyaline/lipomembranous and fibrinoid/coagulative in LP and SPTCL, respectively, were also diagnostically useful. Also, clusters of PDCs were characteristically seen in LP lesions (17/21, 81%) but not in SPTCL lesions (2/11, 18.2%). In LP lesions, but not in SPTCL lesions, the presence of epidermal interface change correlated perfectly with the presence of PDCs in the papillary dermis.We conclude that the presence of clusters of PDCs and certain histological features are helpful for the differential diagnosis.
- The spectrum of histopathologic patterns secondary to the topical application of EMLA® on vulvar epithelium: clinicopathological correlation in three cases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cutan Pathol 2013 Mar 27.
EMLA(®) (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, 2.5% each of lidocaine and prilocaine in an oil and water emulsion) is used as a topical anesthetic. We report three cases of EMLA(®) -induced histopathologic changes on the vulvar epithelium. While there are some similar histopathologic features to those reported in extragenital skin, we describe additional findings on vulvar epithelium, which, to our knowledge, have not been reported previously. The patients presented with clinical signs suggestive of lichen sclerosus or erosive lichen planus (LP), but were all confirmed histopathologically as LP. The biopsy was taken after 15 min of EMLA(®) application and intradermal injection of 1% lidocaine. Blistering prior to intradermal lidocaine and the biopsy procedure was observed in two patients. The histopathologic changes observed in the epithelium included pallor of the upper epidermis, mild spongiosis, intraepidermal subcorneal and suprabasal acantholysis, congestion of the papillary dermal capillaries and extravasated erythrocytes. Basophilic granules were present, but rare, while the necrosis with multifocal clefting was more marked than in extragenital skin. It is important to be aware of these changes occurring on genital mucosa; these may occur in the absence of clinical signs and may obscure the primary underlying pathology, thus representing a diagnostic pitfall.