- Venous Sinus Stenting in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: Results of a Prospective Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroophthalmol 2016 Aug 23.
Our goal was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of stenting of venous sinus stenosis (VSS) in patients with medically-refractory, medically-intolerant or fulminant idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) in a prospective, observational study.Thirteen patients with IIH who were refractory or intolerant to medical therapy or who presented with fulminant visual field (VF) loss underwent stenting of VSS at the transverse-sinus sigmoid sinus junction, using a Precise Pro carotid stent system (Cordis). Inclusion criteria included papilledema-related VF loss with mean deviation (MD) worse than or equal to -6.00 dB, elevated opening pressure (OP) on lumbar puncture (LP), VSS (either bilateral or unilateral in a dominant sinus), and an elevated (≥8 mm Hg) trans-stenotic gradient (TSG). The main outcome measures were pre- to post-stent change in symptoms related to intracranial hypertension, MD (in dB) on automated (Humphrey) VFs, grade of papilledema (1-5), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), TSG (mm Hg), and OP on LP (cm H20).Improvement or resolution of headaches occurred in 84.7% of patients, pulse-synchronous tinnitus in 100%, diplopia in 100%, and transient visual obscuration in 100%. Out of 26 eyes, 21 showed an improvement in MD, with an average improvement of +5.40 dB. Of 24 eyes with initial papilledema, 20 showed an improvement in Frisen grade, (mean change in grade of 1.90). Of 23 eyes undergoing SD-OCT, 21 (91.3%) demonstrated a reduction in RNFL thickness, with a poststent mean thickness of 90.48 μm. Mean change in OP was -20 cm H2O (reduction in mean from 42 to 22 cm H20) with all subjects demonstrating a reduction, although a second stenting procedure was necessary in one patient. Complications of the stenting procedure included one small, self-limited retroperitoneal hemorrhage, transient head or pelvic pain, and one allergic reaction to contrast. No serious adverse events occurred.Stenting of VSS is safe and results in reduction of intracranial pressure in patients with IIH. This is associated with improvement in papilledema, RNFL thickness, VF parameters, and symptoms associated with intracranial hypertension.
- Neurological Manifestations of Brucellosis in an Indian Population. [Journal Article, Review]
- Cureus 2016; 8(7):e684.
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease causing serious public health problems in countries of the Middle-East and developing countries like India. Neurobrucellosis is one of the devastating complications of this re-emerging zoonosis. The objective of this review was to identify the neurological manifestations of Brucellosis in an Indian population and bring into light the effective modalities used for treating neurobrucellosis. A systematic review of the scientific literature reported in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Three databases (PubMed, IndMed, and ScienceDirect) were used to analyze retrospectively case reports of sufficient quality for data extraction (from the last 15 years, 2002-2016), and relevant literature was reviewed. Most of the cases had a definite history of exposure to Brucella through occupational contact with cattle, drinking raw milk, or living near unhygienic abattoir or even trips to epidemic areas outside India. The common presentations include fever, meningitis, brisk deep-tendon reflexes, extensor plantars, sensory deficit usually below the twelfth thoracic vertebral level, weakness of lower limbs, ocular signs of papilledema, and retrobulbar neuritis. The usual systemic findings associated were hepatosplenomegaly and weight-loss. Neurobrucellosis needs to be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin involving neurological symptoms and systemic involvement. Prognosis is good if there is a combination of antibiotics, each with different mechanisms of action given in full dose. Suitable measures for its prevention are also suggested.
- Visual outcomes following optic nerve sheath fenestration via the medial transconjunctival approach. [Journal Article]
- Orbit 2016 Oct; 35(5):271-7.
This article determines the safety of optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) for the treatment of patients with intracranial hypertension in the immediate 6-month post-operative period and its efficacy in reducing optic disk edema. Retrospective, non-comparative interventional case series. 207 eyes in 104 patients undergoing ONSF between the years 2005 and 2014. Papilledema grade based on modified Frisen scale and mean deviation of Humphrey visual field. 207 eyes of 104 patients (102 IIH, 2 IH due to dural sinus thrombosis) were included in the study. The patients were 96.1% female (N = 100) and 3.9% male (N = 4). The average patient age was 28.8 years (SD ± 9.5 years) and had a mean opening pressure of 39.85 cmH2O (SD ± 8.4 cmH2O). Mean follow-up period was 6.0 months (SD ± 5.9 months). Papilledema resolved in 76.1% of eyes at 1 week (N = 102 eyes), 75% of eyes at 1 month (N = 90 eyes), and 71% of eyes at 6 months (N = 94 eyes). Visual field comparison had a mean of the paired differences in MD at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months of 1.59dB (P = 0.006), 2.53dB (P < 0.001), and 1.30dB (P = 0.016), respectively. ONSF is effective in reducing optic disk edema and does not cause vision loss in the 6-month post-operative period regardless of severity of IIH (as judged by elevation of opening pressure measured at pre-operative assessment).
- [Papilledema with visual loss]. [JOURNAL ARTICLE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT]
- Ophthalmologe 2016 Aug 18.
SERIAL CASE REPORTS OF THREE MEN WITH PAPILLEDEMA AND VISUAL LOSS: The patients developed primarily visual loss on one or both sides with angiographically and clinically diagnosed papilledema. The neurological and internistic examinations were unsuspicious; however, serology ultimately confirmed the suspected papillitis in acute syphilis.Papillitis with visual loss can be a symptom of syphilis. Not only the known placoid chorioretinitis syphilis has to be considered but also a detailed medical history and diagnostic measures are essential to determine the cause. The guiding principle is usually also the relatively young age of the patients, male gender, sexual orientation and the lack of classic risk factors for anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) or neurological causes of blurred edge swollen papilla as an intracranial mass lesion (papilledema).
- Neurosarcoidosis in Pediatric Patients: A Case Report and Review of Isolated and Systemic Neurosarcoidosis. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Neurol 2016 Jun 27.
Neurosarcoidosis occurs in fewer than 5% of adults with systemic sarcoid. However, only 53 examples of neurosarcoidosis have been reported in the pediatric population, with nine of those cases being isolated neurosarcoidosis. We present the tenth case of a child with an initial presentation of isolated neurosarcoidosis and a review of the literature.We searched the Ovid Medline database from 1946 to May 28, 2015. The Mesh terms "neurosarcoidosis," "pediatric," and "child" were exploded, and the Boolean "AND" was used to combine "neurosarcoidosis" with "pediatric" or "child." Articles that were not available in the English language were not included.A literature search revealed 53 children with neurosarcoidosis. The most common manifestations included cranial neuropathy (21%), papilledema or optic neuritis (15%), seizures (24.5%), and hypothalamic dysfunction (17%), with the latter two being more likely in younger children. Diagnosis is made by biopsy, but imaging and laboratory tests can aid in diagnosis. Treatment includes corticosteroids or other immunosuppressants.Neurosarcoidosis in children is rare, and our patient is only the tenth child with isolated neurosarcoidosis. These patients highlight the importance of considering a noninfectious diagnosis in the setting of clinical and radiographic findings suggestive of neurosarcoidosis.
- Three cases of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome with different clinical manifestations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Ophthalmol 2016 Aug 10.
We here describe three different clinical manifestations of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome. We examined and diagnosed the following 3 patients: a 15-year-old boy with bilateral anterior uveitis (Case 1), a 14-year-old girl with bilateral papilledema (Case 2), and a 49-year-old woman with panuveitis (Case 3). The findings are presented herein. Case 1: The patient had bilateral anterior uveitis. Urinalysis revealed markedly increased β2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase levels. As the patient was pathologically diagnosed with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), we diagnosed TINU based on the presence of both uveitis and TIN. He was treated with oral corticosteroids. Case 2: This patient showed anterior uveitis and papilledema in both eyes. On initial examination, the urine test results did not show any abnormality. Three months later, high β2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase levels were detected. As the patient was clinically diagnosed with TIN, we subsequently diagnosed TINU. Both the ocular and renal findings improved without treatment. Case 3: The patient developed bilateral panuveitis, retinal vasculitis, and macular edema, which were initially suspected to be sarcoidosis. However, she was pathologically diagnosed with TIN 12 months before the onset of uveitis; therefore, she was finally diagnosed with TINU. She recovered with local corticosteroid administration only. TINU may present with fundal features in addition to anterior uveitis. Detailed history taking and urinalysis are important to determine the presence of tubular disorders in similar patients.
- [OP.8D.06] OCULAR FUNDUS PHOTOGRAPHY WITH A SMARTPHONE DEVICE IN ACUTE HYPERTENSION. [Journal Article]
- J Hypertens 2016 Sep.:e106-7.
The ocular fundus (FO) examination is infrequently and poorly performed in the emergency department (ED) clinical settings, placing patients at risk for missed diagnosis of hypertensive emergencies.to investigate the feasibility of the FO photography with a smartphone small optical device (D-Eye; J Ophtalmol. 2015) in a ED setting and to compare it to a traditional FO examination.The study included 41 consecutive patients (mean age 69 ± 16 years, 50% women) presenting to an hospital ED with an acute increase in blood pressure (SBP >180 and/or DBP >100 mmHg). When admitted to the ED all patients had mydriatic FO examination obtained by an Emergency physician (EP) using both a traditional ophtalmoscope and a commercially available FO smartphone device (D-Eye, Si14 S.p.A., Padova). All FO images and videos recorded with the D-Eye system were analysed by 2 independent expert (ophthalmologist) and inexpert (EP) observers. A quantitative score of hemorrages, exudates and/or papillary edema was used (0 absent, 1 early, 2 moderate, 3 severe, 4 very severe). The Cohen K coefficient (Ki) was used to assess the inter-observer concordance index.Six patients had headache, 6 had focal neurologic symptoms, and 4 had acute visual changes. The mean duration of FO examination was 130 ± 39 and 74 ± 31 seconds for traditional ophtalmoscopy and for smartphone D-Eye, respectively. No relevant abnormalities of their FO were detected by traditional ophthalmoscopy, performed by the EP, while a signifcant number of abnormal FO findings were detected by the use of the D-eye device in 17 and 19 patients by the EP and ophthalmologist, respectively. The Ki value ranged from 0,66 to 0,77 (good concordance) for the assessment of hemorrages and exudates, and from 0,89 to 0,90 (optimal concordance) for the evaluation of presence and severity of papilledema.Our results show that a new small smartphone device (D-Eye) may be feasible in an ED setting for the fundoscopic examination, detecting a signifcant number of abnormal FO. The reliability of relevant FO abnormalities seems to be superior in respect to traditional fundoscopy.
- A Prospective Study of the Clinical Profile, Outcome and Evaluation of D-dimer in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Jun; 10(6):OC07-10.
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis (CVT) is a well known disease with diverse clinical presentation and causes. With advances in neuroimaging and changing lifestyles, the clinical profile and causes of CVT are changing. D-dimer has been studied in early diagnosis of CVT with variable results. This prospective study was carried out to assess the clinical profile of CVT and role of D-dimer in diagnosis of CVT.To study various aspects of CVT and role of D-dimer.The study period was September 2012 to July 2014 and included 80 imaging proven patients of CVT. We also included 39 controls for assessing D-dimer. Data was collected according to a preformed format. D-dimer was assessed by a rapid semi-quantitative latex agglutination assay. Discharged patients were followed up to six months.Of the total 44 were women and 36 were men (F: M=1.2:1). The mean age of the patients was 29.5±9.68 years. Most common clinical features were headache 77 (96.25%), papilloedema (67.5%) and seizures 51 (63.75%). Pregnancy was the most common cause of CVT. Superior sagittal and transverse sinuses were the most common sinuses to be affected. The sensitivity and specificity of D-dimer for diagnosing CVT was 84.62% and 80% respectively. The risk factors for poor prognosis were altered sensorium, presence of sepsis, increased sinus involvement and deep sinus thrombosis.CVT affects both sexes equally. Puerperium still contributes to majority of the cases. Iron deficiency anaemia needs to be evaluated as a contributing factor for incidence of CVT. D-dimer is not useful in puerperal female with CVT. Positive D-dimer will strengthen the suspicion of CVT in patients with acute headache followed by a neurological deficit.
- New frontiers in venous sinus stenting: Illustrative cases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Neurosci 2016 Aug 2.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) occurs rarely, with severe patients recalcitrant to pharmacologic management often requiring cerebrospinal fluid diversion. We report two patients with variant IIH successfully treated with venous sinus stenting: 1) A 65-year-old man with severe vision loss, papilledema, and cognitive decline treated with four telescoped stents across a long, severely stenotic transverse-sigmoid system, and 2) a 58-year-old woman with headaches, vision loss, and papilledema secondary to a jugular paraganglioma causing severe jugular bulb stenosis that required contralateral venous sinus stenting. At 3-month and 1-month follow-up, respectively, ophthalmologic examinations showed vision improvement. The first patient also had improved cognition, and the second patient also had improved headaches.
- Pediatric pseudotumor cerebri. [Journal Article]
- Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2016 Sep; 27(5):416-9.
Recent findings in the literature regarding the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) are described. In the past, children with PTC have been treated like adult cases; however, the literature highlights important differences between children and adults with PTC.Revised diagnostic criteria define an opening cerebrospinal fluid pressure greater than 28 cm water as elevated in the pediatric population. Obesity is an important risk factor for primary and secondary PTC in post-pubertal children. Magnetic resonance imaging shows findings suggestive of elevated intracranial pressure in children with PTC, similar to those of adults with PTC. Diamox and weight loss are effective treatments for PTC patients with mild visual field loss. Severe papilledema, decreased vision, and optical coherence tomography measures at presentation identify patients at increased risk for subsequent visual loss.Findings summarized in the recent literature may change practice patterns in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric PTC. Although there are many similarities between the adult and pediatric populations, the differences should be considered when managing children with PTC.