Paraneoplastic Hyponatremia [keywords]
- Tongue squamous cell carcinoma producing both parathyroid hormone-related protein and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: a case report and literature review. [Journal Article]
- World J Surg Oncol 2016; 14(1):161.
Paraneoplastic syndrome generally results from tumor-derived hormones or peptides that cause metabolic derangements. Common metabolic conditions include hyponatremia, hypercalcemia, hypoglycemia, and Cushing's syndrome. Herein, we report a very rare case of tongue carcinoma presenting with leukocytosis and hypercalcemia.A 57-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with tongue squamous cell carcinoma (cT4aN0M0, stage IV). He underwent radical resection following preoperative chemoradiotherapy, but locoregional recurrence was detected 2 months after surgery. He presented with marked leukocytosis and hypercalcemia with elevated serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). He was therefore managed with intravenous fluids, furosemide, prednisolone, elcatonin, and pamidronate. However, the patient died 1 month later of carcinomatous pleuritis following distant metastasis to the lung. Immunohistochemical analyses of the resected specimens revealed positive staining for PTHrP and G-CSF in the cancer cells.In this case, it was considered that tumor-derived G-CSF and PTHrP caused leukocytosis and hypercalcemia.
- Severe Hyponatremia Presenting as Paraneoplastic Syndrome in a Patient with Small Cell Carcinoma of Gallbladder. [Journal Article]
- J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016 May; 26(5):451-2.
- A Case of Morvan Syndrome Mimicking Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2016 Jun; 17(4):207-11.
Morvan syndrome is a rare autoimmune/paraneoplastic disorder involving antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel complex. It is defined by subacute encephalopathy, neuromuscular hyperexcitability, dysautonomia, and sleep disturbance. It may present a diagnostic dilemma when trying to differentiate from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with frontotemporal dementia.A 76-year-old man with a history of untreated prostate adenocarcinoma was evaluated for subacute cognitive decline, diffuse muscle cramps, and hyponatremia.MRI demonstrated atrophy most prominent in the frontal and temporal regions. Electromyography (EMG) demonstrated diffuse myokymia/neuromyotonia. Polysomnography lacked REM and N3 sleep. Paraneoplastic panel detected antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel complex (CASPR2 subtype).It is difficult to differentiate between Morvan syndrome and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with frontotemporal dementia with examination and neuroimaging alone. There may be a link between Morvan syndrome and prostate adenocarcinoma which could help with screening/diagnosis. The authors found that laboratory and neurophysiological tests are indispensable in diagnosing and treating Morvan syndrome.
- Rhabdomyolysis in hyponatremia and paraneoplastic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. [Journal Article]
- Acta Myol 2015 Dec; 34(2-3):139-40.
We report a 26-year-old woman admitted to our hospital for generalized tonic seizure. Laboratory investigations revealed severe hyponatremia possibly triggered by vomiting and diarrhea. 24 hours after correction of hyponatremia she developed diffuse myalgias and marked hyperCKemia. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) was suspected as cause of hyponatremia. Abnormal vaginal bleeding prompts gynecological evaluation and a small-cell carcinoma of uterine cervix was detected.
- Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) associated with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC): A case series of 8 patients highlighting different clinical manifestations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Am Acad Dermatol 2016 May 11.
Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) are commonly associated with neuroendocrine cancers, such as small cell lung cancer.We examined the association of PNS in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare neuroendocrine skin cancer.We identified PNS associated with MCC based on chart review of a Seattle-based repository and examined the incidence of MCC-associated hyponatremia in an independent cohort within Kaiser Permanente Northern California.Eight PNS cases were identified from the Seattle repository. Three distinct PNS types were observed: cerebellar degeneration (1 case), Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (2 cases), and malignancy-associated hyponatremia (5 cases). Moreover, the incidence of severe hyponatremia (serum sodium <125 mmol/L) coincident with MCC was identified among 4.3% (9 of 211) patients with MCC in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California cohort.We did not have access to complete medical records on all patients so it was not possible to determine the prevalence of PNS in MCC.MCC can be associated with PNS similar to those found in other neuroendocrine cancers. Clinicians should be aware of these presentations as PNS often precede the identification of the underlying malignancy and usually resolve with appropriate treatment of the cancer.
- Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas Presenting With Likely Paraneoplastic Features. [Journal Article]
- ACG Case Rep J 2016 Apr; 3(3):190-2.
Primary small cell carcinoma of the pancreas (SCCP) is a rare malignancy, and has been associated with paraneoplastic features in only 2 reported cases. We report a rare and fatal case of SCCP with likely paraneoplastic features in a previously well 67-year-old woman presenting with abdominal pain. She was found to have abnormal biochemical markers (hyperkalaemia and hyponatraemia) with a normal abdominal CT. Emergency laparotomy identified a mass at the head of the pancreas and liver metastases, she died soon after, and diagnosis was confirmed post-mortem.
- [Paraneoplastic endocrine syndrome]. [Journal Article]
- Rev Med Suisse 2016 Jan 27; 12(503):230-1.
- Jerking & confused: Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 receptor encephalitis. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- J Neuroimmunol 2015 Dec 15.:84-6.
This is a case of autoimmune encephalitis with features of faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) pathognomonic for Leucine Rich Glioma inactivated (LGI)1 antibody encephalitis. This voltage-gated potassium channel complex encephalitis is marked by rapid onset dementia, FBDS and hyponatremia, which is sensitive to management with immunotherapy including steroids, IVIG and other agents. In this case report we review the clinical features, imaging and management of this condition.
- Hyponatremia and Right Maxillary Sinus Mass. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015 Nov; 141(11):1021-2.
- [77-year-old female with hyponatremia, pruritus and papulous exanthema]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2015 Jun; 140(13):997-1000.
A 77 year old female patient was admitted for the evaluation of hyponatremia and a generalized papulous exanthema with severe pruritus.The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) could be diagnosed as cause for hyponatremia. Biopsy of a soft tissue tumor revealed a T-cell lymphoma with widespread skelettal dissemination.Chemotherapy caused a rapid response and improvement of general well-being. SIADH could be controlled by the specific vasopressin-2-receptor antagonist tolvaptan.In this patient, both the papulous exanthema and the SIADH are regarded as T-cell-lymphoma-associated paraneoplastic syndromes.