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Paraneoplastic Hyponatremia [keywords]
- SEOM guidelines on hydroelectrolytic disorders. [Journal Article]
- Clin Transl Oncol 2014 Dec; 16(12):1051-9.
Hydroelectrolytic disorders are one of the most common metabolic complications in cancer patients. Although often metabolic alterations affecting various ions are part of the manifestations of the oncological disease, even in the form of paraneoplastic syndrome, we must not forget that very often, these disorders could be caused by various drugs, including some of the antineoplastic agents most frequently used, such as platin derivatives or some biologics. These guidelines review major management of diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of the most common alterations of sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium in cancer patients. Aside from life-sustaining treatments, we have reviewed the role of specific drug treatments aimed at correcting some of these disorders, such as intravenous bisphosphonates for hypercalcemia or V2 receptor antagonists in the management of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion-related hyponatremia.
- [Symptomatic therapy of SIADH in small cell lung cancer by tolvaptan]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2014 Oct; 139(41):2077-9.
A 69-year-old woman with small cell lung cancer presented in the emergency ward because of severe back pain. She had received tolvaptan treatment in hospital for paraneoplastic SIADH but had discontinued the drug after discharge from hospital 3 days ago. Restriction of fluid intake was not tolerated.Consistent with SIADH, there were profound hyponatraemia, elevated urine osmolality and urine sodium.After a generalized seizure triggered by hyponatraemia, tolvaptan was reintroduced in addition to radiochemotherapy. Serum sodium concentration increased and finally returned to normal.If restriction of fluid intake is not tolerated by the patients the vasopressin antagonist tolvaptan provides an alternative symptomatic treatment of paraneoplastic SIADH.
- [Hyponatremia in the course of small cell lung cancer--a case report]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Pol Merkur Lekarski 2014 Jul; 37(217):49-52.
Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder occurring in patients with malignancy. Typically, it runs in the form of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Among malignant diseases it is often ascertained from small cell lung cancer. In the form of paraneoplastic syndrome it may precede clinical and radiological symptoms malignant disease. Hyponatremia requires special attention because of the neurological consequences and the risk of death. We present a case of a patient in whom the occurrence of hyponatremia preceded the appearance of clinical symptoms of lung cancer and has been the reason to start the diagnosis. The normalization of serum sodium was the first signal response to chemotherapy. In contrast, a statement confirmed the recurrence of hyponatremia progression of the disease in the form of metastases to the central nervous system. Speeches hyponatremia refractory symptomatic treatment should be a cause of further investigation into the neoplastic process. Recurrent hyponatremia during or after treatment may suggest its progression. Therefore, monitoring the sodium level is required not only during treatment, but also after the oncological treatment.
- Tolvaptan. [Journal Article]
- South Asian J Cancer 2014 Jul; 3(3):182-4.
Hyponatremia is a common and often under-recogonised clinical problem in oncologic practice. The recogonition of the cause of hyponatremia and initiation of appropriate and timely intervention can prevent morbidity and improve treatment tolerance. This drug review aims at discussing the currently approved oral vaptanagent Tolvaptan. Vaptans including Tolvaptan act as "aquaretic" agents cousing excretion of water while retaining the sodium. Administration of this agent for prescribed periods result in improvement of serum sodium levels. The drug can be used in many clinical situations resulting in hyponatremia including congestive heart failure, cirrhosis and syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) including SIADH related to malignancies.
- Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix presenting as intractable hyponatremic seizures due to paraneoplastic SIADH-a rare case report and brief review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- Ecancermedicalscience 2014.:450.
Herein is presented an interesting case of small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix which initially manifests as seizures due to hyponatremia caused by paraneoplastic syndrome of inappropriate anti diuretic hormone (SIADH). Awareness of a paraneoplastic syndrome at presentation can lead to early diagnosis and early initiation of treatment. The management is also unique in that it combines treating the paraneoplastic aspects as well as targeting the tumour itself. Multimodality treatment gives the best outcome in this aggressive tumour.
- Amiodarone induced hyponatremia masquerading as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion by anaplastic carcinoma of prostate. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Urol 2014.:136984.
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is one of the most common causes of hyponatremia. The usual causes are malignancies, central nervous system, pulmonary disorders, and drugs. Amiodarone is a broad spectrum antiarrhythmic agent widely used in the management of arrhythmias. The different side effects include thyroid dysfunction, visual disturbances, pulmonary infiltrates, ataxia, cardiac conduction abnormalities, drug interactions, corneal microdeposits, skin rashes, and gastrointestinal disturbances. SIADH is a rare but lethal side effect of amiodarone. We describe a 62-year-old male who was suffering from advanced prostatic malignancy, taking amiodarone for underlying heart disease. He developed SIADH which was initially thought to be paraneoplastic in etiology, but later histopathology refuted that. This case emphasizes the importance of detailed drug history and the role of immunohistochemistry in establishing the diagnosis and management of hyponatremia due to SIADH.
- [Analysis of clinical features for 8 patients with autoimmune dementia]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Feb 11; 94(5):359-63.
To explore the clinical features and therapeutic profiles of autoimmune dementia.Eight hospitalized patients with autoimmune dementia during March 2011 and May 2013 were recruited and retrospectively analyzed for clinical features, as well as therapeutic and prognosis profiles.There were 3 males and 5 females with a onset age range of 45-72 years. Their onsets varied from acute (n = 3), subacute (n = 1) to chronic (n = 4).Six of them had a fluctuating course. The diagnoses were multiple sclerosis (n = 3), paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (n = 2) and Hashimoto's encephalopathy (n = 1), microscopic polyangiitis (n = 1) and unclassified autoimmune encephalopathy (n = 1). Progressive memory loss without delirium was the main symptom.In addition, 3 patients suffered epilepsy, 2 with intractable hyponatremia, 4 with positive serum autoimmune or paraneoplastic antibodies, 7 with inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid, 4 with abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) and 8 with various changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two patients had concurrent Hashimoto's thyroiditis and another with small cell lung cancer. All patients improved after treatment with immunological and antineoplastic therapies.Autoimmune dementia has complex causes with a rapidly progressive and fluctuating course. The coexisting conditions include epilepsy, hyponatremia, organ-specific autoimmunity, inflammatory spinal fluid with abnormal EEG and brain MRI findings.Immunotherapy is recommended.
- Management of euvolemic hyponatremia attributed to SIADH in the hospital setting. [Journal Article]
- Minerva Endocrinol 2014 Mar; 39(1):33-41.
Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients. Acute and severe hyponatremia can be a life-threatening condition, but recent evidence indicates that also mild and chronic hyponatremia is associated with neurological and extra-neurological signs, such as gait disturbances, attention deficits, falls and fracture occurrence, and bone loss. The syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) is the most frequent cause of hyponatremia. Hyponatremia secondary to SIADH may result for instance from ectopic release of ADH in lung cancer, from diseases affecting the central nervous system, from pneumonia or other pneumopathies or as a side-effect of various drugs In SIADH, hyponatremia results from a pure disorder of water handling by the kidney, whereas external sodium balance is usually well regulated. Despite increased total body water, only minor changes of urine output and modest oedema are usually seen. Neurological impairment may range from subclinical to life-threatening, depending on the degree and mostly on the rate of serum sodium reduction. The management of hyponatremia secondary to SIADH is largely dependent on the symptomatology of the patient. This review briefly summarizes the main aspects related to hyponatremia and then discusses the available treatment options for the management of SIADH, including vaptans, which are vasopressin receptor antagonists targeted for the correction of euvolemic hyponatremia, such as that observed in SIADH.
- Isolated Chorea Associated with LGI1 Antibody. [Journal Article]
- Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2014 Jan 8.
Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibody produces a syndrome of limbic encephalitis, hyponatremia, and facio-brachial dystonic seizures that is non-paraneoplastic and responsive to corticosteroids. Parkinsonism, tremor, and generalized chorea are rare manifestations of LGI1, but, when present, commonly accompany other signs of limbic encephalitis.We present a case of LGI1-related isolated chorea in a 53-year-old Japanese male. His chorea responded to high-dose steroids, suggesting a potential role for this synaptic antibody in triggering chorea.This case highlights a new treatable etiology of chorea.
- Hyponatremia associated with unilateral hand weakness and numbness: a case report. [Journal Article]
- N Am J Med Sci 2013 Nov; 5(11):660-2.
The key clinical features in this case are to make the diagnosis apical lung cancer (Pancoast tumor) in a patient with brachial plexopathy and to recognize the association between syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) as a paraneoplastic syndrome and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).We herein describe a rare case of NSCLC presented as pancoast tumor complicated by brachial plexopathy and associated with SIADH as a paraneoplastic phenomena. There were no renal insufficiency, congestive cardiac failure, liver insufficiency, volume depletion, diuretic use, hypoadrenalism, and hypothyroidism in our patient. Furthermore, the findings of serum hyponatraemia and hypo-osmolality associated with an inappropriate high urinary osmolality indicate that the SIADH was present in our patient due to the NSCLC.Our case also emphasizes that early recognition and appropriate applied management may significantly improve symptoms and prevent complications of hyponatremia which may enhance quality of life in patients with paraneoplastic SIADH.