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Pericardial effusion [keywords]
- Primary cardiac angiosarcoma in a 25-year-old man: excision, adjuvant chemotherapy, and multikinase inhibitor therapy. [Journal Article]
- Tex Heart Inst J 2013; 40(2):186-8.
Primary cardiac tumors do not occur frequently, and only one quarter of them, chiefly sarcomas, are malignant. Patients with angiosarcoma typically have a shorter survival time than do patients with other sarcomas, and the prognosis for survival depends strictly on the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis and the possibility of complete surgical excision. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have well-established postoperative roles because of the high probability of metastasis. We report the case of a 25-year-old man who presented with pericardial effusion and echocardiographic evidence of an intracavitary right atrial mass but without the bulky, infiltrative growth typical of this location of the disease. Malignancy was suggested by the clinical presentation, the location of the mass in the right side of the heart, and the absence of conditions favoring thrombus formation. After complete surgical excision, the mass was confirmed to be an angiosarcoma. Conventional adjuvant chemotherapy and maintenance therapy with inhibitors of CD117 (c-kit) and vascular endothelial growth factor relieved the patient's clinical symptoms and enabled his long-term, disease-free survival. In addition to reporting this case, we discuss aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of angiosarcoma.
- Anticoagulation Management in the Perioperative Phase of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Circ J 2013 May 15.
Background:According to the current guidelines, substitution of warfarin with heparin is recommended as perioperative management in patients with high risk of thromboembolism. Optimal management of oral anticoagulation in patients undergoing implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation, however, remains controversial.
Methods and Results:Bleeding complications among 273 consecutive patients undergoing initial ICD implantation were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were grouped according to medication at the time of device implantation: neither antiplatelet nor anticoagulation (N group, n=121); antiplatelet only (AP group, n=59); warfarin (W group, n=59); and heparin bridging (H group, n=34). The rate of the major bleeding complications, defined as hematoma requiring reoperation, cardiac tamponade, and pericardial effusion requiring additional hospital stay, was 1.7% in the N group, 0% in the AP group, 5.1% in the W group, and 17.6% in the H group (P<0.001, N group vs. H group). After multivariate adjustment, heparin bridging was a significant predictor of major bleeding complications (odds ratio, 7.44; 95% confidence interval: 2.06-26.89; P=0.0022). The international normalized ratio of 3 patients in the W group with major bleeding complications was 1.98±0.10, and was significantly higher than in patients without them (1.31±0.05, n=26, P<0.001).
Conclusions:Heparin bridging increased the risk of bleeding complications at the time of ICD implantation.
- Clinically suspected acute myopericarditis with cardiac tamponade associated with peripheral blood eosinophilia presenting in early pregnancy: a case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Med Case Rep 2013 May 13; 7(1):129.
INTRODUCTION:The clinical presentation of eosinophilic myocarditis may vary from asymptomatic to the manifestation of severe symptoms, including cardiac tamponade and arrhythmias. In pregnant patients with this condition, drugs must be used cautiously up to approximately the 4th month of pregnancy because drug use should be limited during the period of fetal organogenesis.
CASE PRESENTATION:A 30-year-old Asian woman at 14 weeks of pregnancy with progressive malaise was hospitalized. The electrocardiogram revealed ST elevation and low QRS voltage. Echocardiography revealed massive pericardial effusion and myocardial swelling. A laboratory examination revealed an increase in her white blood cell count, with a predominance of neutrophils. Pericardial drainage was performed for relief of the cardiac tamponade. The pericardial effusion revealed an abundance of eosinophils. Subsequently, the peripheral blood eosinophil count began to rise, and the patient was clinically diagnosed with eosinophilic myopericarditis. The patient's condition improved rapidly following the initiation of prednisolone treatment, and she finally delivered a full-term normal infant.
CONCLUSIONS:A patient with clinically suspected myopericarditis in the early stage of pregnancy who improved rapidly with pericardial drainage and prednisolone therapy, and successfully delivered a normal full-term infant; the diagnosis was made in the early stage of the disease, based on the detection of an abundance of eosinophils in the pericardial effusion preceding the subsequent development of peripheral blood eosinophilia.
- Balloon valvuloplasty for critical aortic stenosis in a fetus: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2013 Mar; 41(2):161-5.
The mortality and morbidity of fetal aortic stenosis (AS) depend on the degree of the hemodynamic effects of the stenosis, and left ventricular (LV) adaptation, development and function during fetal life. In the case of critical AS, the development of hydrops and death in utero are well recognized entities. A 23-week gestation fetus was diagnosed with critical severe AS, cardiomegaly, a dilated LV with very poor contractility, and mitral regurgitation. There was a reversal of flow in the aortic arch through the ductus arteriosis and a reversed a-wave in the ductus venosus on Doppler examination. The fetus had hydrops with ascites, and massive scalp, face and skin edema. Fetal amniocentesis was normal. Aortic valvuloplasty was performed under general anesthesia and echocardiographic guidance. Pericardial effusion was not observed after the procedure. However, LV function could not be ameliorated and continued to diminish. There was no cardiac activity in the fetus two hours after the intervention. Aortic valvuloplasty in utero for AS is technically feasible. Mortality is mainly associated with technical errors, LV function, and the degree of endofibroelastosis in the effected fetuses.
- Chronic pericardial effusion secondary to a influenza virus A (H1N1)/2009 infection. [Journal Article]
- Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2013 Mar; 41(2):157-60.
We report, to our knowledge, the first successful treatment of novel Influenza A (H1N1)/2009 chronic pericardial effusion in an adult. This patient presented on admission respiratory failure and cardiac tamponade which required non invasive ventilation and drainage. Pericardial fluid polymerase chain reaction sequences were positive for Influenza A (H1N1)/2009 virus. Any other etiologies were discarded. Recidivating pericardial effusion after medical treatment, firstly with Oseltamivir, and afterwards, with colchicine and corticosteroids during six months, was solved with pericardiectomy.
- Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Closure with the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug Device in Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation and Contraindications for Anticoagulation Therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Am Coll Cardiol 2013 May 8.
OBJECTIVE:s: To evaluate the results associated with left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) with the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug (ACP) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and absolute contraindication for anticoagulation therapy.
BACKGROUND:Little data exist on the late outcomes following LAAC in patients with absolute contraindication for warfarin.
METHODS:A total of 52 patients underwent LAAC using the ACP device in 7 Canadian centers. Most patients received short-term (1-3 months) dual antiplatelet therapy following the procedure and single antiplatelet therapy thereafter. A transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was performed in 74% of patients at 6-month follow-up. No patient was lost to follow-up (≥12 months in all patients).
RESULTS:Mean age and median CHADS2 score were 74± 8 years and 3 [2-4], respectively. The procedure was successful in 98.1% of the patients and the main complications were device embolization (1.9%) and pericardial effusion (1.9%), with no cases of periprocedural stroke. At a mean follow-up of 20 ± 5 months, the rates of death, stroke, systemic embolism, pericardial effusion, and major bleeding were 5.8%, 1.9%, 0%, 1.9%, and 1.9%, respectively. The presence of mild peridevice leak was observed in 16.2% of patients at 6-month follow-up as evaluated by TEE. There were no cases of device thrombosis.
CONCLUSION:In patients with NVAF at high risk for cardioembolic events and absolute contraindication for anticoagulation, LAAC using the ACP device followed by dual/single antiplatelet therapy was associated with a low rate of embolic and bleeding events after a mean follow-up of 20 months. No cases of severe residual leak or device thrombosis were observed at 6-month follow-up.
- [A review of Kawasaki disease, a perspective from the articles published in Mexico since January 1977 to May 2012.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Cardiol Mex 2013 May 7.
Kawasaki disease was described in 1967 by Tomisu Kawasaki. It affects children aged between one and 5 years, and it evolves with fever and small vessel vasculitis, which leads to cardiovascular complications, including coronary aneurisms, myocarditis, valve injuries, pericardial effusion and myocardial infarction; eventually involving many others organs. The etiology actually is not well known, as the exactly pathogenic mechanisms; however, now there are important advances. If the clinical signs and symptoms are identify early and the children received treatment with aspirin and intravenous immunoglobulin, the patients evolves without sequels. The Kawasaki disease is an infrequent disease in Mexico.
- Delayed pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade following penetrating chest trauma. [Journal Article]
- CJEM 2013 May 1; 15(3):186-9.
ABSTRACTWe present the case of a 20-year-old man who was stabbed in the left chest and was diagnosed with a large pericardial effusion by focused emergency department (ED) ultrasonography. After placement of a left chest tube for presumed tension pneumothorax, the pericardial effusion had resolved. The patient's postinjury course was complicated by pericarditis and recurrent tamponade, which required repeated pericardiocentesis for management. This case illustrates the role of focused ED ultrasonography for diagnosis of pericardial effusion in penetrating trauma and the potential for delayed pericardial effusion and tamponade in such patients. Although the pathophysiology of delayed pericardial effusion is unclear, autoimmune postpericardiotomy syndrome has been proposed as the cause of this rare condition. Our case underscores the importance of close monitoring of patients with known or suspected pericardial injuries due to their potential for the development of life-threatening complications.
- Acute cardiorenal syndrome by high flow arteriovenous fistula after kidney transplantation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Access 2013 May 8; 0(0):0.
Purpose:</b> The aim of this work was to increase recognition of high flow arteriovenous fistulas in kidney transplant patients. <b>Case:</b> Here, we report the case of a 22-year-old man with repeated hospitalizations for cardiomegaly and chronic pericardial effusion after kidney transplantation. Eventually, high flow of his arteriovenous fistula was recognized 5.5 years after transplantation when he developed acute cardiorenal syndrome. Access flow reduction markedly improved kidney graft function along with reversion of cardiomegaly, which was impressively demonstrated by follow-up chest-x-rays. <b>
Conclusion:</b> Arteriovenous fistulas should be monitored regularly after kidney transplantation to avoid congestive heart failure and other serious complications.
- A giant left ventricular pseudoaneurysm in Behçet's disease: a case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cardiol Young 2013 May 10.:1-2.
Behçet's disease is a chronic autoimmune disease with vascular complications that are most frequently manifested as thromboembolism in veins and pseudoaneurysm in arteries. We report the case of a 13-year-old boy admitted for clinical and biological signs of rheumatic fever associated with chest pain. The clinical examination found heart sounds with a discrete systolic murmur of mitral regurgitation. The electrocardiogram showed a microvoltage with diffuse repolarisation disorder. Biologically, he had inflammatory syndrome. Transthoracic echocardiography showed circumferential pericardial effusion with anterosepto-apical hypokinesia of the left ventricle with systolic dysfunction, and a minimal mitral regurgitation. The patient was treated by corticotherapy and antibiotherapy. The outcome was marked by orogenital aphthous ulceration and decreased visual acuity related to intermediate uveitis. The retinal angiography showed a vasculitis. The late appearance of this symptom led to the right diagnosis of Behçet's syndrome. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a hypokinetic dilated cardiomyopathy left ventricular with septo apical and anterior akinesia and severe systolic dysfunction, with a defect of the inferior septal with a collar communicating the left ventricle with a giant pseudo aneurysm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a giant pseudoaneurysm communicating with the left ventricle. The coronary computed tomography was normal. The patient had undergone surgical treatment for the pseudoaneurysm with good outcomes.