Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Personal health [keywords]
- Successfully integrating aged care services: a review of the evidence and tools emerging from a long-term care program. [Journal Article]
- Int J Integr Care 2013 Jan.:e003.
Providing efficient and effective aged care services is one of the greatest public policy concerns currently facing governments. Increasing the integration of care services has the potential to provide many benefits including increased access, promoting greater efficiency, and improving care outcomes. There is little research, however, investigating how integrated aged care can be successfully achieved. The PRISMA (Program of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy) project, from Quebec, Canada, is one of the most systematic and sustained bodies of research investigating the translation and outcomes of an integrated care policy into practice. The PRISMA research program has run since 1988, yet there has been no independent systematic review of this work to draw out the lessons learnt.Narrative review of all literature emanating from the PRISMA project between 1988 and 2012. Researchers accessed an online list of all published papers from the program website. The reference lists of papers were hand searched to identify additional literature. Finally, Medline, Pubmed, EMBASE and Google Scholar indexing databases were searched using key terms and author names. Results were extracted into specially designed spread sheets for analysis.Forty-five journal articles and two books authored or co-authored by the PRISMA team were identified. Research was primarily concerned with: the design, development and validation of screening and assessment tools; and results generated from their application. Both quasi-experimental and cross sectional analytic designs were used extensively. Contextually appropriate expert opinion was obtained using variations on the Delphi Method. Literature analysis revealed the structures, processes and outcomes which underpinned the implementation. PRISMA provides evidence that integrating care for older persons is beneficial to individuals through reducing incidence of functional decline and handicap levels, and improving feelings of empowerment and satisfaction with care provided. The research also demonstrated benefits to the health system, including a more appropriate use of emergency rooms, and decreased consultations with medical specialists.Reviewing the body of research reveals the importance of both designing programs with an eye to local context, and building in flexibility allowing the program to be adapted to changing circumstances. Creating partnerships between policy designers, project implementers, and academic teams is an important element in achieving these goals. Partnerships are also valuable for achieving effective monitoring and evaluation, and support to 'evidence-based' policy-making processes. Despite a shared electronic health record being a key component of the service model, there was an under-investigation of the impact this technology on facilitating and enabling integration and the outcomes achieved.PRISMA provides evidence of the benefits that can arise from integrating care for older persons, particularly in terms of increased feelings of personal empowerment, and improved client satisfaction with the care provided. Taken alongside other integrated care experiments, PRISMA provides further evidentiary support to policy-makers pursuing integrated care programs. The scale and scope of the research body highlights the long-term and complex nature of program evaluations, but underscores the benefits of evaluation, review and subsequent adaptation of programs. The role of information technology in supporting integration of services is likely to substantially expand in the future and the potential this technology offers should be investigated and harnessed.
- 'The intention may not be cruel... but the impact may be': understanding legislators' motives and wider public attitudes to a draft HIV Bill in Malawi. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sex Transm Infect 2013 Jun; 89(4):285-289.
OBJECTIVES:The law in relation to HIV has prominence in the formation and regulation of moral norms-in regard to human rights, and in regard to criminalisation, the policing of sexuality and intimate behaviours, and the production of stigma. The research focuses on the potential and impotence of the law to govern for, and enable, the human right to health in the context of HIV in Malawi.
METHODS:This one-country qualitative case study (Malawi) action research involved data collection during a 6-month period (October 2010-March 2011). Datasets include interviews with law commissioners (n=10), opinion leaders (n=22), life story participants who were people living with and closely affected by HIV (n=20), reflections of the action research team (n=6), and a review of the proposed HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Management) Bill, legal and policy documents.
RESULTS:The analysis of the perspectives of the law commissioners, who formed the Special Law Commission and drafted the Bill, revealed that stigma was consciously invoked to delineate social norms and guide governance of notions of personal responsibility. The analysis of the perspectives of the life story participants, whose lives would be most directly impacted if these provisions came into force, reveals the extent to which the stigma associating criminality and HIV is falling on fertile ground through its engagement and generation of internalised stigma; unearthing an uneasy link between stigma and the law in response to HIV in Malawi.
DISCUSSION:The results indicated that the proposed HIV Bill in Malawi manifests a tension between intention and impact. By incorporating criminal sanctions as part of the proposed HIV Bill, the lawmakers actively seek to use stigma to shape social attitudes and attempt to guide normative behaviour.
- Social Support Needs Identified by Mothers Affected by Intimate Partner Violence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Interpers Violence 2013 May 17.
In order to offer optimal supports and services for mothers affected by intimate partner violence (IPV), an understanding of these mothers' perceptions of support needs, resources, barriers to support, and preferences for support intervention is warranted. Moreover, the growing recognition of the effects of IPV on maternal-infant relationships and of the importance of these early relationships to long-term child health outcomes suggests interventions are needed to support optimal maternal-infant relationships in these families. Thus, 64 mothers exposed to IPV when their infants were below 12 months of age participated in a retrospective qualitative study to identify mothers' support needs, resources, barriers to support, and preferences for specific support interventions to promote optimal mother-infant relationships. Participants identified both personal needs (including needs for leaving or staying with the violent partner), along with intertwined needs to care for, and help, their infants cope with the experience of violence. Mothers reported that integrated services that include information and practical support from professionals with emotional and affirmation support from peers would promote positive, nurturing mother-infant relationships and healthy child development.
- Why Culture Matters in Health Interventions: Lessons From HIV/AIDS Stigma and NCDs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Health Educ Behav 2013 May 17.
Theories about health behavior are commonly used in public health and often frame problems as ascribed or related to individuals' actions or inaction. This framing suggests that poor health occurs because individuals are unable or unwilling to heed preventive messages or recommended treatment actions. The recent United Nations call for strategies to reduce the global disease burden of noncommunicable diseases like diabetes requires a reassessment of individual-based approaches to behavior change. We argue that public health and health behavior intervention should focus more on culture than behavior to achieve meaningful and sustainable change resulting in positive health outcomes. To change negative health behaviors, one must first identify and promote positive health behaviors within the cultural logic of its contexts. To illustrate these points, we discuss stigma associated with obesity and human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We conclude that focusing on positive behaviors and sustaining cultural and personal transformations requires a culturally grounded approach to public health interventions, such as that provided by the PEN-3 model.
- Online social network use by health care providers in a high traffic patient care environment. [Journal Article]
- J Med Internet Res 2013; 15(5):e94.
The majority of workers, regardless of age or occupational status, report engaging in personal Internet use in the workplace. There is little understanding of the impact that personal Internet use may have on patient care in acute clinical settings.The objective of this study was to investigate the volume of one form of personal Internet use-online social networking (Facebook)-generated by workstations in the emergency department (ED) in contrast to measures of clinical volume and severity.The research team analyzed anonymous network utilization records for 68 workstations located in the emergency medicine department within one academic medical center for 15 consecutive days (12/29/2009 to 1/12/2010). This data was compared to ED work index (EDWIN) data derived by the hospital information systems.Health care workers spent an accumulated 4349 minutes (72.5 hours) browsing Facebook, staff cumulatively visited Facebook 9369 times and spent, on average, 12.0 minutes per hour browsing Facebook. There was a statistically significant difference in the time spent on Facebook according to time of day (19.8 minutes per hour versus 4.3 minutes per hour, P<.001). There was a significant, positive correlation between EDWIN scores and time spent on Facebook (r=.266, P<.001).Facebook use constituted a substantive percentage of staff time during the 15-day observation period. Facebook use increased with increased patient volume and severity within the ED.
- Prediction of socially desirable and discreet hand hygiene behaviors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Infect Control 2013 May 16.
To investigate hand hygiene in settings with fewer policies regulating hygiene practice, self-reported hand hygiene behavior and personal orientation data were collected from 353 college students. Hypothesizing that in this context some behaviors would show more variability, 2 dimensions of hand hygiene behavior were created. This proved useful because socially desirable practices were predicted by health promotion focus and individual identity, whereas discreet practices were predicted by health prevention focus and collective identity.
- An international internship on social development led by Canadian nursing students: Empowering learning. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nurse Educ Today 2013 May 16.
BACKGROUND:A Canadian nursing student-led knowledge dissemination project on health promotion for social development was implemented with local professionals and communities in Brazil.
OBJECTIVES:(a) to identify how student-interns contrasted Canadian and Brazilian cultural and social realities within a primary healthcare context from a social development perspective; (b) to examine how philosophical underpinnings, including social critical theory and notions of social justice, guided student-interns in acknowledging inequalities in primary healthcare in Brazil; and (c) to participate in the debate on the contribution of Canadian nursing students to the global movement for social development.
DESIGN AND SETTING:A qualitative appraisal of short-term outcomes of an international internship in the cities of Birigui & Araçatuba (São Paulo-Brazil).
PARTICIPANTS:Four Canadian fourth-year undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a metropolitan university program.
METHODS:Recruitment was through an email invitation to the student-interns, who accepted, and signed informed consent forms. Their participation was unpaid and voluntary. One-time individual interviews were conducted at the end of their internships. Transcriptions of the audio-recorded interviews were coded using the qualitative software program ATLAS ti 6.0. The findings were analyzed using thematic analysis.
RESULTS:Student-interns' learning unfolded from making associations among concepts, new ideas, and their previous experiences, leading to a personal transformation through which they established new conceptual and personal connections. The two main themes revealed by the thematic analysis were dichotomizing realities, that is, acknowledging the existence of "two sides of each situation," and discovering an unexpected reciprocity between global and urban health. Furthermore, the student-interns achieved personal and professional empowerment.
CONCLUSIONS:The knowledge gained from the international experience helped the student-interns learn how to collaborate with Brazilian society's sectors to improve the social conditions of a "marginalized population". Student-interns became aware of their inner power to promote change by making invisible inequity visible in their own terms.
- Using a robot to personalise health education for children with diabetes type 1: A pilot study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Patient Educ Couns 2013 May 16.
OBJECTIVE:Assess the effects of personalised robot behaviours on the enjoyment and motivation of children (8-12) with diabetes, and on their acquisition of health knowledge, in educational play.
METHODS:Children (N=5) played diabetes quizzes against a personal or neutral robot on three occasions: once at the clinic, twice at home. The personal robot asked them about their names, sports and favourite colours, referred to these data during the interaction, and engaged in small talk. Fun, motivation and diabetes knowledge was measured. Child-robot interaction was observed.
RESULTS:Children said the robot and quiz were fun, but this appreciation declined over time. With the personal robot, the children looked more at the robot and spoke more. The children mimicked the robot. Finally, an increase in knowledge about diabetes was observed.
CONCLUSION:The study provides strong indication for how a personal robot can help children to improve health literacy in an enjoyable way. Children mimic the robot. When the robot is personal, they follow suit. Our results are positive and establish a good foundation for further development and testing in a larger study.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:Using a robot in health care could contribute to self-management in children and help them to cope with their illness.
- Effectiveness of participatory training on improving occupational health in small and medium enterprises in China. [Journal Article]
- Int J Occup Environ Health 2013 Apr-Jun; 19(2):85-90.
Participatory training on occupational health is widely used in the world. Evaluations of local experiences are necessary to its successful performance.The project evaluated the effectiveness of participatory training on occupational health improvement in small and medium enterprises of China, and explored local practice experiences.Participatory training was provided to 525 welding workers from 25 small and medium enterprises in ship building and machinery manufacturing industries. This training consisted of interactive learning, worksite assessment and group discussion on laws/regulations, safety of machine operation, prevention of slips and trips, fire/explosion prevention, ergonomics, and recognition and prevention of other workplace hazards. Workers completed knowledge, attitude, and practice and worksite assessement questionnaires before and 3 months after intervention.Knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were significantly increased through the training. An inventory of workplace safety modifications was proposed by participants and many were fixed by workers and employers. Health management and personal protective equipment provision/use were most often improved, but improvements in engineering control and health-related accommodations remained unsatisfactory.Workers could recognize and fix workplace hazards after the participatory training. More efficient measures in China are to be explored to improve implementing solutions, especially on preventive engineering and human ergonomics.
- Differences in associations between cannabis and stimulant disorders in first admission psychosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Schizophr Res 2013 May 14.