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Pharyngitis Sinusitis Otitis and Other Upper Respiratory Tract Infections [keywords]
- Otolaryngological complications in patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012 Mar; 146(3):478-82.
To describe bacterial upper respiratory infections in patients with influenza A (H1N1) virus during the 2009 pandemic.Case series with chart review.May 17 to July 17, 2009, Clinica Las Condes, Santiago, Chile.Patients with clinical and/or laboratory diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1) who presented to the emergency department or other medical specialists with bacterial upper respiratory infection requiring antibiotic treatment within 2 months of influenza diagnosis.A total of 10,048 cases of influenza A (H1N1) were identified by the emergency department. All patients received oseltamivir. Fifty-four patients (0.55%) who presented with bacterial upper respiratory infection within 2 months after the diagnosis of influenza were selected. The median time to presentation with bacterial respiratory infection was 12 days. Median age was 12 years, and 51.8% were male. The most common bacterial upper respiratory infections were acute rhinosinusitis (46.4%; median age, 17 years), acute otitis media (33.9%; median age, 5 years), and pharyngotonsillitis (14.3%; median age, 17 years). Four patients were hospitalized: 3 with streptococcal tonsillitis with prolonged fever and 1 with acute otitis media who later developed pansinusitis and otomastoiditis. There were no deaths in this group of patients.There were few bacterial upper respiratory infections associated with influenza A (H1N1) (0.55%). The most common infections were acute otitis media in young children and acute rhinosinusitis and pharyngotonsillitis in young adults. These complications were more often seen during the 2 months following the influenza infection than at the time of diagnosis with influenza. Outcome was favorable for all patients.
- Phytotherapeutic and naturopathic adjuvant therapies in otorhinolaryngology. [Journal Article, Review]
- Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2012 Feb; 269(2):389-97.
Phytotherapeutic pharmaceuticals and herbal medicinal products with its roots in classical phytotherapeutic medicine have a well-established role in otolaryngological therapy, especially for diseases of the upper airways and acute and chronic infections. A thorough selection and application could mean huge benefit for the patient, in particular in cases with contraindications, chemo- and antibiotic resistance or patient request. Besides, it might spare other medications. Phytotherapeutic pharmaceuticals must fulfil the same criteria of quality, effectiveness and harmlessness of evidence-based medicine like chemical pharmaceuticals, although they are often prescribed due to its well established or traditional based use. This review focuses on phytotherapeutic therapies well established within the European Community for otolaryngologic disease patterns by referring to clinical studies or meta-analysis.
- Human bocavirus as an important cause of respiratory tract infection in Taiwanese children. [Journal Article]
- J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2011 Oct; 44(5):323-7.
Human bocavirus (HBoV), first described in September 2005, was considered a causative agent of previously unexplained respiratory tract diseases. However, only few reports provide the evidence for an association between HBoV and respiratory tract diseases. We conducted a prospective clinical and molecular study of HBoV in Taiwan.We enrolled 705 children who visited our outpatient pediatric clinics in a medical center because of symptoms and signs of respiratory tract infections from November 2008 to October 2009. Throat swab was performed and HBoV polymerase chain reaction and viral culture were done simultaneously.Positive viral results were confirmed in 159 (22.6%) of the 705 children. HBoV was found in 35 samples and it was supposed to be as a single virus in 32 samples because viral isolation of these 32 samples did not identify other virus. The other three patients had coinfection with another virus. One child got HBoV reinfection 6 months after the first infection. Seventy-one percentage of these HBoV infections occurred between November and March. Of the 34 children with positive HBoV, 26 (76%) patients were younger than 5 years; their common symptoms were cough, rhinorrhea, and fever; the most common diagnoses were bronchitis (34%, 12/35) and sinusitis (31%, 11/35) followed by pharyngitis (29%, 10/35) and asthma exacerbation (26%, 9/35). Three of the 34 patients needed hospitalization.HBoV is an emerging human parvovirus that may cause respiratory tract infection in young children. Diseases associated with HBoV may range from pharyngitis, sinusitis, acute otitis media to bronchitis, asthma, and even pneumonia.
- The role of Mycoplasma in upper respiratory infections. [Journal Article]
- Curr Infect Dis Rep 2009 May; 11(3):198-206.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Pneumonia is the most clinically important manifestation, but tracheobronchitis and various nonspecific upper respiratory tract symptoms are more typically seen in clinical settings. M. pneumoniae can cause pharyngitis with or without concomitant lower respiratory tract involvement, but it is less commonly detected in other upper respiratory conditions such as otitis media, sinusitis, and the common cold. A variety of methods exist for laboratory diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection, including culture, serology, and the polymerase chain reaction assay, but each has limitations. This article provides a summary of recent studies that have evaluated the role of M. pneumoniae in upper respiratory tract infections; a brief discussion of its cell biology, pathogenic mechanisms, and epidemiology; and recommendations for laboratory diagnosis and management.
- The role of bacterial biofilms and the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis. [Journal Article, Review]
- Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2008 May; 8(3):227-33.
The earliest description of a bacterial biofilm is likely centuries old. However, only in the past few decades has a wealth of knowledge developed pertaining to this bacterial form of existence. Biofilms have been implicated mainly in chronic disease states, and the current available treatment modalities for infection have demonstrated limited efficacy against bacteria in this form. There is evidence associating bacterial biofilm formation in chronic infections of the upper airway, and therefore we examine the possible role of a bacterial biofilm in chronic rhinosinusitis while drawing parallels with recent data from other bodily regions. Lastly, directions for contemporary biofilm research are reviewed and highlighted in terms of their application to chronic rhinosinusitis.
- Faropenem medoxomil: A0026, BAY 56-6854, BAY 566854, faropenem daloxate, SUN 208, SUN A0026. [Journal Article, Review]
- Drugs R D 2008; 9(2):115-24.
Replidyne is developing faropenem medoxomil, the ester-type prodrug of faropenem, for the treatment of bacterial infections and respiratory tract infections, including acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB), acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Faropenem medoxomil is also being developed for the treatment of tonsillitis, pharyngitis and otitis media in children. Faronpenem medoxomil was discovered by scientists at Suntory Institute for Biomedical Research (now Asubio Pharma). The compound has significantly improved oral bioavailability and is dehydropeptidase-I stable. Following absorption, faropenem medoxomil is rapidly hydrolysed to the active drug faropenem. An NDA was filed in the US but was deemed not approvable by the US authorities. Following the termination of the license agreement between Replidyne and Forest Laboratories, Replidyne is now exploring other partnering opportunities for faropenem medoxomil. Daiichi Suntory Pharma (now Asubio Pharma) has granted Replidyne the exclusive rights to faropenem medoxomil for the US and Canada and an exclusive option to develop and commercialize the compound in the rest of the world, excluding Japan. Replidyne has rights to the preclinical and clinical data generated up to the time of the agreement (August 2004) and will complete clinical development of the drug. Replidyne is also developing a paediatric formulation for the treatment of common bacterial infections. In February 2006, Replidyne sublicensed development, commercialization and distribution rights of faropenem medoxomil in the US to Forest Laboratories Holdings (Forest Laboratories). However, the agreement was terminated in February 2007, following the US FDA's non-approvable letter for the product. Replidyne re-acquired all US adult and paediatric rights previously granted to Forest. Bayer AG previously licensed exclusive worldwide rights to develop faropenem medoxomil from Suntory (now Asubio Pharma) and conducted a number of phase III clinical trials. This agreement appears to have been superseded by the agreement with Replidyne in 2004. In April 2007, Daiichi Asubio Pharma was renamed as Asubio Pharma Co., Ltd. Daiichi Asubio Pharma was the name used by Daiichi Suntory Pharma after it became a wholly owned subsidiary of Daiichi Pharmaceutical in September 2005. Daiichi Suntory Pharma was the joint venture company owned by Daiichi Pharmaceutical and Suntory. In April 2006, Daiichi Pharmaceutical merged with Sankyo to form Daiichi Sankyo Inc. The FDA issued a non-approvable letter in October 2006 for faropenem medoxomil in the treatment of ABS, CAP, AECB and uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections. Consequently, drug development has reverted back to phase III in the US. The agency has indicated that four phase III trials in three adult respiratory indications, ABS, CAP and AECB, will be required for a US marketing application. According to this advice, Replidyne may be required to conduct one superiority study (versus placebo) each for the ABS and AECB indications and two non-inferiority, active-controlled studies for the treatment of CAP. The required dose of faropenem medoxomil in future trials will be 600 mg, administered twice daily, and trials will involve approximately 1500 patients to ensure an acceptable database of safety information for review. Replidyne is continuing to work with the FDA on further trial details. Replidyne first filed the NDA seeking approval for faropenem medoxomil in December 2005. This submission marked the first marketing approval application for faropenem medoxomil worldwide. The NDA, which was accepted in February 2006, was primarily based on data from 11 phase III trials in patients with respiratory tract and skin infections; the safety data included information from more than 5000 patients treated with the drug. The proposed commercial name for faropenem medoxomil, Orapemtrade mark, was not approved by the FDA due to its similarity to another commercially approved drug. Replidyne and the FDA are working together to identify a suitable alternative. Two phase III trials have been conducted that demonstrated faropenem medoxomil was non-inferio o azithromycin and clarithromycin in the treatment of AECB. Replidyne's phase II trial evaluating an oral liquid formulation of faropenem medoxomil (7.5-40 mg/kg) in paediatric patients with acute otitis media (AOM), met its primary endpoint. The trial was completed in March 2007 and enrolled approximately 310 patients in Costa Rica and Israel. Replidyne intends to meet with the US authorities to discuss the design of the planned phase III trial in paediatric AOM. In addition to 5 years of Hatch-Waxman exclusivity granted upon approval, faropenem medoxomil is protected by an issued US composition of matter patent, which expires in 2015. Extension of exclusivity under Hatch-Waxman legislation is expected.
- Cephalosporins in overcoming beta-lactamase-producing bacteria and preservation of the interfering bacteria in the treatment of otitis, sinusitis and tonsillitis. [Journal Article, Review]
- Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2007 Dec; 5(6):939-50.
The treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) is complicated by the resurgence of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB) and the absence of interfering bacteria. BLPB can have a direct pathogenic impact in causing the infection as well as an indirect impact through their ability to produce the enzyme beta-lactamase. BLPB may not only survive penicillin therapy but can also protect other penicillin-susceptible bacteria from penicillin. In this review, the clinical in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting the role of these organisms in the increased failure rate of penicillin in eradication of otitis, sinusitis and pharyngo-tonsillitis is outlined and the implication of that increased rate on the management of infections is discussed. Bacteria with interference capability of potential respiratory pathogens can prevent colonization and subsequent invasion by these organisms. These include alpha-hemolytic streptococci, nonhemolytic streptococci and Prevotella and Peptostreptococcus spp. Treatment with antimicrobials can affect the balance between the interfering organisms and potential pathogens. The role of bacterial interference in URTIs and its effect on their treatment is discussed. The use of some of the cephalosporins that are able to overcome the effect of BLPB and preserve the beneficial interfering bacteria can overcome and modulate these phenomena and achieve better cure of URTIs.
- [Microbiological diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infections]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2007 Jun-Jul; 25(6):387-93.
Upper respiratory tract (URT) infections are common and account for more medical visits than any other type of infectious disease. Diagnostic procedures for the following syndromes are included in this report: Streptococcal and nonstreptococcal pharyngitis, laryngeal syndromes, otitis, sinusitis, and others caused by unusual and/or uncommon bacteria or fungi, including Lemierre's disease, Vincent's angina, pharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses, diphtheria, candidiasis, and zygomycoses. Detailed information is provided on specimen collection and processing, selection of laboratory tests, interpretation of findings, reporting results, additional procedures for uncommon infections, and the use of new techniques. All the information included in this article is contained in the Standard Operating Procedures for Clinical Microbiology (http://www.seimc.org/protocolos/microbiologia/).
- Cefdinir: an oral cephalosporin for the treatment of respiratory tract infections and skin and skin structure infections. [Journal Article, Review]
- Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2007 Feb; 5(1):29-43.
Cefdinir is an oral third-generation cephalosporin (also known as an advanced-spectrum or generation cephem) with good in vitro activity against the pathogens responsible for community-acquired respiratory tract infections and uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections. The drug distributes very well in respiratory tract tissues and fluids, as well as skin blisters and ear fluids; its pharmacokinetic profile allows once- or twice-daily administration. Oral cefdinir 300 mg twice daily or 600 mg once daily in adults and adolescents, or 14 mg/kg/day in one or two daily doses in pediatric patients, administered for 5 or 10 days, has shown good clinical and bacteriological efficacy, at least equivalent to that of other oral agents in randomized controlled trials conducted in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, sinusitis, acute otitis media, pharyngitis and uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections. Cefdinir is well tolerated and the oral suspension has shown superior taste or palatability over other comparator oral antimicrobial agents. Thus, cefdinir continues to represent an important cephalosporin option for the treatment of adult, adolescent and pediatric patients with mild or moderate respiratory tract or cutaneous infections, especially in areas with elevated rates of beta-lactamase production in Haemophilus influenzae and where resistance to other commonly used agents has emerged (e.g., macrolides, penicillins, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole).
- [Allergic rhinitis. Coexistent diseases and complications. A review and analysis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Rev Alerg Mex 2006 Jan-Feb; 53(1):9-29.
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is rarely found in isolation and needs to be considered in the context of systemic allergic disease associated with numerous comorbid disorders, including asthma, chronic middle ear effusions, sinusitis, and lymphoid hypertrophy with obstructive sleep apnea, disordered sleep, and consequent behavioral and educational effects. The coexistence of allergic rhinitis and asthma is complex. First, the diagnosis of asthma may be confused by symptoms of cough caused by rhinitis and postnasal drip. This may lead to either inaccurate diagnosis of asthma or inappropriate assessment of asthma severity with over treatment of the patient. The term "cough variant rhinitis" is therefore proposed to describe rhinitis that manifest itself primarily as cough that results from postnasal drip. Allergic rhinitis, however, has also a causal role in asthma; it appears both to be responsible for exacerbating asthma and to have a role in its pathogenesis. Postnasal drip with nasopharyngeal inflammation leads to a number of other conditions. Thus sinusitis is a frequent extension of rhinitis and is one of the most frequently missed diagnoses. Allergen exposure in the nasopharynx with release of histamine and other mediators can cause Eustachian tube obstruction possibly leading to middle ear effusions. Chronic allergic inflammation of the upper airway causes lymphoid hypertrophy with prominence of adenoidal and tonsillar tissue. This may be associated with poor appetite, poor growth, obstructive sleep apnea, mouth breathing, pharyngeal irritation and dental abnormalities. Allergic rhinitis is therefore part of a spectrum of allergic disorders that can profoundly affect the well being and quality of life of a child. Prospective cohort studies are required to assess the disease burden caused by allergic rhinitis in childhood, its consequences due to delay in diagnosis and treatment, and to further assess the potential educational impairment that may result. Because allergic rhinitis is part of a systemic disease process, its diagnosis and management require a coordinated approach by the specialist in allergy-immunology-rhinology rather than a fragmented, organ based approach. There are other clinical presentations such as recurrent infections of the upper respiratory tract, as well as pharyngeal and laryngeal disorders.