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- Neurofibromatosis type 1, pheochromocytoma with primary hyperparathyroidism: A rare association. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2013 Mar; 17(2):349-51.
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) with pheochromocytoma and neurofibromatosis type 1 is a rare clinical association. We present a case of PHP and pheochromocytoma occurring in a 33-year-old male with familial cutaneous neurofibromatosis.
- Graves' disease allied with multiple pheochromocytoma. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2013 Mar; 17(2):323-5.
Pheochromocytoma is an uncommon cause of high blood pressure touching adults. The combination of severe hypertension in the triad of headache, sweating, and tachycardia should suggest this diagnosis; this clinical picture is similar to that of hyperthyroidism. We report the case of a 22-year-old patient with multiple pheochromocytoma associated with Graves' disease revealed by malignant hypertension and discussed the difficulties of the diagnosis and the treatment approach.
- Aortoarteritis: Could it be a form of catecholamine-induced vasculitis? [Journal Article]
- Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2013 Jan; 17(1):163-6.
Catecholamine-induced vasculitis is a well known but rarely described entity. However, aortoarteritis as a manifestation of catecholamine-induced vasculitis is not described in the literature. We have reported two patients in whom pheochromocytoma coexisted with aortoarteritis. Both patients were young females with history of bilateral pheochromocytomas in more than one first-degree relative. Both patients also had bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas (second patient also had paraganglioma at left renal hilum) with elevation of plasma free normetanephrine levels. We conclude that there may be an association between pheochromocytoma and aortoarteritis, and that catecholamine excess may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of aortoarteritis in these patients.
- An unusual cause of toe necrosis. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2013 Jan; 17(1):160-2.
Peripheral vascular disease is a rare feature of pheochromocytoma. This potentially catastrophic but curable tumor should be suspected in combination of distal necrosis with hypertension and palpable pulses. We report such an unusual case of pheochromocytoma presenting as toe necrosis.
- Von Hippel-Lindau and myotonic dystrophy of Steinert along with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and renal clear cell carcinomal neoplasm: Case report and review of the literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Surg Case Rep 2013 Mar 29; 4(8):648-650.
INTRODUCTION:Myotonic dystrophy of Steinert, DM1, is the most common adult muscular dystrophy and generally is not associated to development on multiple site neoplasm. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome that is associated to tumors such as hemangioblastoma of the retina or central nervous system, clear-cell renal carcinoma (RCC) and endocrine tumors, most commonly pheochromocytoma and non-secretory pancreatic islet cell cancers. No data exist in literature describing the coexistence of both DM1 and VHL. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Herein we report a case of renal and pancreatic neoplasm in a young adult female affected by DM1 and VHL simultaneously.
DISCUSSION:DM1 is due to an unstable trinucleotide (CTG) expansion in the 30 antranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase (DMPK) gene, located on chromosome 19q13.3. Several molecular mechanisms thought to be determining the classical DM phenotype have been shown. VHL disease is characterized by marked phenotypic variability and the most common tumors are hemangioblastomas of the retina or central nervous system, clear-cell renal carcinoma (RCC) and endocrine tumors, most commonly pheochromocytoma and non-secretory pancreatic islet cell cancers. The pancreatic manifestations seen in patients with VHL disease are divided into 2 categories: pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) as solid tumors, and cystic lesions, including a simple cyst and serous cystadenoma. The surgical approach for these cistic lesions is to consider as golden standard. Blansfield has proposed 3 criteria to predict metastatic disease of PNET in patients with VHL disease: (1) tumor size greater than or equal to 3cm; (2) presence of a mutation in exon 3; and (3) tumor doubling time less than 500d. If the patient has none of these criteria the patient could be followed with physical examination and radiological surveillance on a 2/3 years base.(4) If the patient has 1 criterion, the patient should be followed more closely every 6 months to 1 year. If the patient has 2 or 3 criteria, the patient should be considered for surgery given the high risk of future malignancy. Our patient owned only one criterion but in presence of a second malignant tumor. Our hypothesis for this rare findings is that both DM and VHL might be derived from genetic aberration and these might be linked to a major cancer susceptibility. As far as we know this is the first confirmed case of RCC and neuroendocrine pancreatic cancer occurring concurrently with VHL and, at the same time, DM1. According to this case report and the literature data a VHL should be ruled out in the presence of RCC presenting along with pancreatic cysts/tumor.
CONCLUSION:As far as we know this is the first confirmed case of RCC and neuroendocrine pancreatic cancer occurring concurrently with VHL and, at the same time, DM1. Our hypothesis for the unusual findings is that both DM and VHL derived from genetic aberration and these are linked to a major cancer susceptibility.
- Lysophosphatidylcholine enhances NGF-induced MAPK and Akt signals through the extracellular domain of TrkA in PC12 cells. [Journal Article]
- FEBS Open Bio 2013.:243-51.
Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is one of the major lysophospholipids mainly generated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). We previously found that LPC displays neurotrophin-like activity in the rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and in cerebellar granule neurons, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We report here that LPC specifically enhances nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced signals in PC12 cells. When PC12 cells were treated with NGF, MAPK was phosphorylated, but this phosphorylation was significantly elevated when LPC was added together. In accordance, NGF-induced expression of immediate early genes, c-fos and NGF-IA, was upregulated by LPC. Phosphorylation of the upstream components, MEK and NGF receptor TrkA, was also promoted by LPC, which was in line with increased phosphorylation of Akt. In contrast, LPC did not enhance epidermal growth factor (EGF)-, basic fibroblast growth factor-, or insulin-like growth factor-1-induced signals. Studies using TrkA/EGF receptor chimeras demonstrated that the extracellular domain, but not the transmembrane or intracellular domains, of TrkA is responsible for the effect of LPC. Exogenously-added secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) enhanced NGF-induced MAPK phosphorylation at a comparable level to LPC, suggesting that LPC generated in situ by sPLA2-mediated hydrolysis of membrane PC stimulated NGF-TrkA signal. Taken together, these results indicate a specific role and function of LPC on NGF-TrkA signaling pathway.
- Antioxidant Properties and Neuroprotective Effects of Isocampneoside II on Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Oxidative Injury in PC12 Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Chem Toxicol 2013 Jun 11.
Oxidative stress has been considered as a major cause of cell damage in various neurodegenerative disorders. One of the reasonable strategies for delaying the disease's progression is to prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated cellular injury by dietary or pharmaceutical augmentation of free radical scavengers. Isocampneoside II (ICD) is an active phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the medicinal hardwood genus Paulownia. This study was designed to explore free radical scavenging potential of ICD in different in vitro systems and its protective role in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic death in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The results showed ICD eliminated approximately 80.75% superoxide radical at the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml and inhibited metal chelating by 22.07% at 8 mg/ml. Additionally, ICD showed a strong ability on reducing power and provided protection against oxidative protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with ICD prior to H2O2 exposure elevated cell viability, enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decreased levels of malondialdehyde and intracellular ROS. Furthermore, ICD inhibited cell apoptosis and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio induced by H2O2. These findings suggested ICD may be considered as a potential antioxidant agent and should encourage for further research in neurodegenerative diseases.
- MAGI-1 acts as a scaffolding molecule for NGF receptor-mediated signaling pathway. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 Jun 13.
We have recently found that the membrane-associated guanylate kinase with inverted organization-1 (MAGI-1) was enriched in rat nervous tissues such as the glomeluri in olfactory bulb of adult rats and dorsal root entry zone in spinal cord of embryonic rats. In addition, we revealed the localization of MAGI-1 in the growth cone of the primary cultured rat dorsal root ganglion cells. These results point out the possibility that MAGI-1 is involved in the regulation of neurite extension or guidance. In this study, we attempted to reveal the physiological role(s) of MAGI-1 in neurite extension. We found that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of MAGI-1 caused inhibition of nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells. To clarify the involvement of MAGI-1 in NGF-mediated signal pathway, we tried to identify binding partners for MAGI-1 and identified p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), a low affinity NGF receptor, and Shc, a phosphotyrosine-binding adaptor. These three proteins formed an immunocomplex in PC12 cells. Knockdown as well as overexpression of MAGI-1 caused suppression of NGF-stimulated activation of the Shc-ERK pathway, which is supposed to play important roles in neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. These results indicate that MAGI-1 may act as a scaffolding molecule for NGF receptor-mediated signaling pathway.
- [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: the best surgical option]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Cir Cir 2013 May-Jun; 81(3):196-201.
Background:Laparoscopic approach has become the gold standard for the surgical treatment of suprarenal gland. Nevertheless there is still controversy about the laparoscopic treatment of adrenal carcinoma. Material and methods: From April 2005 to April 2012, 37 laparoscopic adrenalectomies were performed. We describe and analyze retrospectively: age, sex, side, indication for surgery, tumor size, length of hospital stay, complications and conversion rate.
Results:37 Patients, 19 male and 18 female, aged 51.72 ± 14.42 years, were operated on between 2005 and 2012. Twenty-two left-sided lesions (59.45%) and 15 right-sided lesions (40.54%) were operated on. The indications for surgery were non-functioning adenoma larger than 4 cm or rapid growth and hormone-secreting tumours. The diagnosis was confirmed in all the cases with computed tomography and or magnetic resonance imaging and also metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy if pheochromocytoma was suspected. In all the cases we realized a complete pre-operative hormonal study.
Conclusions:Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe procedure and gold standard technique for suprarenal surgery. Our experience is very satisfactory, with comparable results to the reference standard open approach.
- Assembly of Protein-based Hollow Spheres Encapsulating a Therapeutic Factor. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- ACS Chem Neurosci 2013 Jun 13.
Neurotrophins, as important regulators of neural development, function and survival, have a therapeutic potential to repair damaged neurons. However, a controlled delivery of therapeutic molecules to injured tissue remains one of the greatest challenges facing the translation of novel drug therapeutics field. This study presents the development of an innovative protein-protein delivery technology of nerve growth factor (NGF) by an electrostatically assembled protein-based (collagen) reservoir system that can be directly injected into the injury site and provide long term release of the therapeutic. A protein-based biomimetic hollow reservoir system was fabricated using a template method. The capability of neurotrophins to localise in these reservoir systems was confirmed by confocal images of fluorescently labelled collagen and NGF. In addition, high loading efficiency of the reservoir system was proven using ELISA. By comparing release profile from microspheres with varying crosslinking, highly cross-linked collagen spheres were chosen as they have the slowest release rate. Finally, biological activity of released NGF was assessed using rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line and primary rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cell bioassay where cell treatment with NGF-loaded reservoirs induced significant neuronal outgrowth, similar to that seen in NGF treated controls. Data presented here highlights the potential of a high capacity reservoir-growth factor technology as a promising therapeutic treatment for neuroregenerative applications and other neurodegenerative diseases.