- Reversal of cardiac vagal effects of physostigmine by adjunctive muscarinic blockade. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotoxicology 2016 Sep 28; 57:174-182
- Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted ...
Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted cardiac side effects, which could be negated by adjunctive anti-cholinergic therapy. The aims of the present study were to examine the concentration-dependent effects of physostigmine on cardiac responses to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), to test whether adjunctive treatment with hyoscine can reverse these effects and to assess the functional interaction and electrophysiological consequences of a combined pre-treatment. Studies were performed in an isolated innervated rabbit heart preparation. The reduction in heart rate with VNS was augmented by physostigmine (1-1000nmol/L), in a concentration-dependent manner - with an EC50 of 19nmol/L. Hyoscine was shown to be effective at blocking the cardiac responses to VNS with an IC50 of 11nmol/L. With concomitant perfusion of physostigmine, the concentration-response curve for hyoscine was shifted downward and to the right, increasing the concentration of hyoscine required to normalise (to control values) the effects of physostigmine on heart rate. At the lowest concentration of hyoscine examined (1nmol/L) a modest potentiation of heart rate response to VNS (+15±3%) was observed. We found no evidence of cardiac dysfunction or severe electrophysiological abnormalities with either physostigmine or hyoscine alone, or as a combined drug-therapy. The main finding of this study is that hyoscine, at concentrations greater than 10(-8)M, is effective at reversing the functional effects of physostigmine on the heart. However, low-concentrations of hyoscine may augment cardiac parasympathetic control.
- Physostigmine and Methylphenidate Induce Distinct Arousal States During Isoflurane General Anesthesia in Rats. [Journal Article]
- A&AAnesth Analg 2016; 123(5):1210-1219
- CONCLUSIONS: Unlike methylphenidate, physostigmine does not accelerate time to emergence from isoflurane anesthesia and does not restore righting during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. However, physostigmine consistently decreases BSP during deep isoflurane anesthesia, whereas methylphenidate does not. These findings suggest that activation of cholinergic neurotransmission during isoflurane anesthesia produces arousal states that are distinct from those induced by monoaminergic activation.
- Thiadiazolodiazepine analogues as a new class of neuromuscular blocking agents: Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling study. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2016 Sep 30; 126:15-23
- The synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling study of 6,7-dihydro-[1,3,4] thiadiazolo[3,2-a][1,3]diazepine analogues as new class of neuromuscular blocking agents are described. The ne...
The synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling study of 6,7-dihydro-[1,3,4] thiadiazolo[3,2-a][1,3]diazepine analogues as new class of neuromuscular blocking agents are described. The new compounds act via competitive mechanism with ACh which could be reversed by the anticholinesterase - Physostigmine. Compounds GS-53 (30) and AAH1 (33) induced dose-dependent neuromuscular blockade with onset time of 3 and 10 min, ED50 0.15 and 0.36 mmol/kg i.p., respectively, in rats. Compound 30 proved to be as twice as potent as 33 with rapid onset and shorter duration (P < 0.05). Docking profile of 30 and 33 closely resembles HIE-124 (3), in α7β2 nAChR receptor. Molecular modeling analysis indicated that hydrogen bonding to Thr120 and Thr124 beside hydrophobic interactions play effective role incorporating the active ligands to nAChR. The obtained model could be useful for further development of new skeletal muscle relaxants.
- The importance of physical examination findings and the use of physostigmine. [Letter]
- TJTurk J Pediatr 2015 Nov-Dec; 57(6):646-647
- Composition and cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of the oil of Piper aequale Vahl. [Journal Article]
- LHLipids Health Dis 2016 Oct 7; 15(1):174
- CONCLUSIONS: The higher cell growth inhibition induced by the oil of P. aequale is probably due to its primary terpene compounds, which were previously reported in the proliferation inhibition, in stimulation of apoptosis and induction of cell cycle arrest in malignant cells.
- Zebrafish is a predictive model for identifying compounds that protect against brain toxicity in severe acute organophosphorus intoxication. [Journal Article]
- ATArch Toxicol 2016 Sep 21
- Acute organophosphorus (OP) intoxication is a worldwide clinical and public health problem. In addition to cholinergic crisis, neurodegeneration and brain damage are hallmarks of the severe form of t...
Acute organophosphorus (OP) intoxication is a worldwide clinical and public health problem. In addition to cholinergic crisis, neurodegeneration and brain damage are hallmarks of the severe form of this toxidrome. Recently, we generated a chemical model of severe acute OP intoxication in zebrafish that is characterized by altered head morphology and brain degeneration. The pathophysiological pathways resulting in brain toxicity in this model are similar to those described in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive power of this zebrafish model by testing the effect of a panel of drugs that provide protection in mammalian models. The selected drugs included "standard therapy" drugs (atropine and pralidoxime), reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (huperzine A, galantamine, physostigmine and pyridostigmine), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists (MK-801 and memantine), dual-function NMDA receptor and acetylcholine receptor antagonists (caramiphen and benactyzine) and anti-inflammatory drugs (dexamethasone and ibuprofen). The effects of these drugs on zebrafish survival and the prevalence of abnormal head morphology in the larvae exposed to 4 µM chlorpyrifos oxon [1 × median lethal concentration (LC50)] were determined. Moreover, the neuroprotective effects of pralidoxime, memantine, caramiphen and dexamethasone at the gross morphological level were confirmed by histopathological and transcriptional analyses. Our results demonstrated that the zebrafish model for severe acute OP intoxication has a high predictive value and can be used to identify new compounds that provide neuroprotection against severe acute OP intoxication.
- Donepezil: It is time to replace physostigmine in Anesthesiology. [Letter]
- MHMed Hypotheses 2016; 94:23-4
- Anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of essential oils and their major constituents from four Ocimum species. [Journal Article]
- ZNZ Naturforsch C 2016 Aug 10
- Ocimum is a genus of considerable importance in traditional medicine worldwide. The goal of this study was to examine the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of Ocimum essential oils and to correlate ...
Ocimum is a genus of considerable importance in traditional medicine worldwide. The goal of this study was to examine the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of Ocimum essential oils and to correlate the activity with their chemical profiles using a metabolome based GC-MS approach coupled to chemometrics. Further, molecular docking was adopted to rationalize the activity of some essential oil isolates. Essential oil prepared from the four species O. basilicum, O. africanum, O. americanum, and O. minimum exhibited significant anti-acetylcholinesterase activity with (IC50 0.22, 0.175, 0.57 and 0.152 mg/mL, respectively) comparable to that of physostigmine (IC50 0.27 mg/mL). The phenylpropanoids (i.e. estragole) constituted the most dominant chemical group in O. basilicum (sweet basil) and O. minimum, whereas camphor (a ketone) was the most abundant in O. africanum and O. americanum. Supervised and unsupervised multivariate data analyses clearly separated O. africanum and O. americanum from other accessions, with estragole, camphor and, to less extent, β-linalool contributing to species segregation. Estragole was found the most active AchE inhibitor (IC50 0.337 µM) followed by cineole (IC50 2.27 µM), camphor (IC50 21.43 µM) and eugenol (IC50 40.32 µM). Molecular docking revealed that these compounds bind to key amino acids in the catalytic domain of AchE, similar to standard drugs.
- In vivo neurochemical evidence that delta1-, delta2- and mu2-opioid receptors, but not mu1-opioid receptors, inhibit acetylcholine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Oct 15; 789:402-10
- Cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens express delta- and mu-opioid receptors that are thought to inhibit neural activity. Delta- and mu-opioid receptors are divided into delta1- and delta2-opi...
Cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens express delta- and mu-opioid receptors that are thought to inhibit neural activity. Delta- and mu-opioid receptors are divided into delta1- and delta2-opioid receptors and mu1- and mu2-opioid receptors, respectively. We analysed the roles of delta- and mu-opioid receptor subtypes in regulating accumbal acetylcholine efflux of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Other than naloxonazine, given intraperitoneally, delta- and mu-opioid receptor ligands were administered intracerebrally through the dialysis probe. Doses of these compounds indicate total amount (mol) over an infusion time of 30-60min. To monitor basal acetylcholine, a low concentration of physostigmine (50nM) was added to the perfusate. The delta1-opioid receptor agonist DPDPE (3 and 300pmol) and delta2-opioid receptor agonist deltorphin II (3 and 30pmol) decreased accumbal acetylcholine in a dose-related manner. DPDPE (300pmol)- and deltorphin II (3pmol)-induced reductions in acetylcholine were each inhibited by the delta1-opioid receptor antagonist BNTX (0.3pmol) and delta2-opioid receptor antagonist naltriben (15pmol), respectively. The mu-opioid receptor agonists endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 (6 and 30nmol) decreased acetylcholine in a dose-related manner. Endomorphin-1- and endomorphin-2 (30nmol)-induced reductions in acetylcholine were prevented by the mu-opioid receptor antagonist CTOP (3nmol). The mu1-opioid receptor antagonist naloxonazine (15mg/kg ip), which inhibits endomorphin-1 (15nmol)-induced accumbal dopamine efflux, did not alter endomorphin-1- or endomorphin-2 (30nmol)-induced reductions in acetylcholine efflux. This study provides in vivo evidence for delta1-, delta2- and mu2-opioid receptors, but not mu1-opioid receptors, that inhibit accumbal cholinergic neural activity.
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- Best Practices for Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy: Troubleshooting. [Review]
- NNeuromodulation 2016; 19(6):632-41
- CONCLUSIONS: Orderly troubleshooting helps ensure patient safety.