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Pneumonia, community-acquired [keywords]
- Community-acquired pneumonia and welding. [Journal Article]
- Clin Med 2013 Apr; 13(2):214-5.
- Legionella pneumonia cases over a five-year period: a descriptive, retrospective study of outcomes in a UK district hospital. [Journal Article]
- Clin Med 2013 Apr; 13(2):152-9.
As the recent outbreaks in Edinburgh and Camarthen, UK, have shown, Legionella pneumonia (LP) remains a significant public health problem, which is not only confined to those who have travelled abroad. In both outbreaks and sporadic cases, diagnosis can go unrecognised. We reviewed the demographics, comorbidities, diagnosis, treatment and clinical outcome of LP cases over five years in a district general hospital in northwest England. Over half of LP cases were UK acquired and 'classic' clinical features were common. Clinical criteria for diagnosing LP were confirmed, but few sputum samples were sent to reference laboratories, limiting further essential epidemiological mapping of UK cases. Following current UK community-acquired pneumonia guidance would have missed nearly one quarter of LP cases in our series, potentially leading to further morbidity and mortality.
- Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Crit Care 2013 Apr 25; 17(2):223.
Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has proved to be an excellent technique in selected critically ill patients with different forms of acute respiratory failure. However, NIV can fail on account of the severity of the disease and technical problems, particularly at the interface. The helmet could be an alternative interface compared to face mask to improve NIV success. We performed a clinical review to investigate the main physiological and clinical studies assessing the efficacy and related issues of NIV delivered with a helmet. A computerized search strategy of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 2000 to May 2012) and EMBASE (January 2000 to May 2012) was conducted limiting the search to retrospective, prospective, nonrandomized and randomized trials. We analyzed 152 studies from which 33 were selected, 12 physiological and 21 clinical (879 patients). The physiological studies showed that NIV with helmet could predispose to CO2 rebreathing and increase the patients' ventilator asynchrony. The main indications for NIV were acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (community-acquired pneumonia, postoperative and immunocompromised patients) and hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. In 9 of the 21 studies the helmet was compared to a face mask during either continous positive airway pressure or pressure support ventilation. In eight studies oxygenation was similar in the two groups, while the intubation rate was similar in four and lower in three studies for the helmet group compared to face mask group. The outcome was similar in six studies. The tolerance was better with the helmet in six of the studies. Although these data are limited, NIV delivered by helmet could be a safe alternative to the face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure.
- Clinical and microbiological efficacy of tigecycline for complicated skin-soft-tissue and intra-abdominal infections in a Turkish university hospital. [Journal Article]
- Int J Clin Pract 2013 Jun; 67(6):505-11.
Objective:Tigecycline, a new glycylcycline antimicrobial agent, is indicated for the treatment of complicated skin structure infection (cSSTI), intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) and community acquired pneumonia. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and microbiological data together about tigecycline therapy.
Methods:Patients with cIAIs and cSSTIs were included in a prospective, observational follow-up. Patient follow-up forms were developed and clinical and microbiological data were recorded.
Results:Of the 107 patients, 67 had cSSTIs, 40 had cIAIs. Tigecycline was used empirically in 37.5% of cIAIs and in 50.7% of cSSTIs. In 85.0% of the patients with cIAI and in 73.1% of the patients with cSSTI, clinical and/or microbiological response could be achieved. A drug change was made in 26.9% and 7.5% of the patients with cSSTI and cIAI respectively. Superinfection was detected in 14.9% of the cSSTI and 7.5% of the cIAI patients.
Conclusion:As a result, tigecycline can be safely used in the treatment of different infections. Compared with cSSTIs, the treatment response is better and the duration of treatment is shorter in cIAIs. However, MIC value must be determined at any rate if tigecycline is to be used in the treatment of Acinetobacter (MDR Acinetobacter, in particular) infections. Clinical cure and microbiological eradication rate of tigecycline therapy changes according to different clinical diagnosis and microorganism.
- A urine pneumococcal antigen test for the diagnosis of community acquired Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia: Systematic review and meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Microbiol 2013 May 15.
Background:Standard culture methods for diagnosis of streptococcal pneumoniae (SP) pneumonia take at least 24 hours. The BinaxNOW urine test for SP (BinaxNOW-SP) takes only 15 minutes to conduct, potentially enabling earlier diagnosis and targeted treatment.
Purpose:To assess whether BinaxNOW-SP at the time of hospital admission would provide adequate sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adult patients.
Methods:We searched PubMed, EMBASE/OVID, Cochrane Collaboration, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, INAHTA, and CADTH, for diagnostic or etiologic studies of hospitalized predominately adult patients with clinically-defined CAP, which reported diagnostic performance of BinaxNOW-SP against cultures. Two authors independently extracted study details and diagnostic 2×2 tables.
Results:Twenty-seven studies met our inclusion criteria and used three different reference standards between them. A bivariate meta-analysis of 12 studies using a composite of culture tests as the reference standard, estimated the sensitivity of BinaxNOW-SP as 68.5% (95% CrI 62.6%, 74.2%) and specificity as 84.2% (95% CrI 77.5%, 89.3%). A meta-analysis of all 27 studies adjusting for the imperfect and variable nature of the reference standard gave a higher sensitivity of 74.0% (66.6%, 82.3%) and specificity of 97.2% (92.7%, 99.8%). The analysis showed substantial heterogeneity across studies, which did not decrease with adjustment for covariates.
Conclusions:The higher pooled sensitivity (compared to culture) and high specificity of BinaxNOW-SP suggest it would be a useful addition to the diagnostic work-up for community acquired pneumonia. More research is needed regarding the impact of BinaxNOW-SP on clinical practice.
- Readmission Following Hospitalization for Pneumonia: The Impact of Pneumonia Type and Its Implication for Hospitals. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Infect Dis 2013 May 15.
Background.Readmission rates following discharge after pneumonia are thought to represent the quality of care. Factors associated with readmission, however, remain poorly described. It is unclear if readmission rates vary based on pneumonia type. Methods. We retrospectively identified adults admitted to an index hospital with non-nosocomial pneumonia (January through December 2010) and who survived to discharge. We only included patients with bacterial evidence of infection. Readmission in the 30 days following discharge to any of 9 hospitals comprising the index hospital's healthcare system served as the primary end point. We recorded demographics, severity of illness, comorbidities, and infection-related factors. We noted whether the patient had healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) versus community-acquired pneumonia. We utilized logistic regression analysis to determine factors independently associated with readmission.
Results.The cohort included 977 subjects; 78.9% survived to discharge. The readmission rate equaled 20%. Neither disease severity nor the rate of initially inappropriate antibiotic therapy correlated with readmission. Subjects with HCAP were 7.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6-15.7) times more likely to be readmitted. Four HCAP criteria were independently associated with readmission: admission from long-term care (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.2 [95% CI, 1.4-3.4]); immunosuppression (AOR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.3-2.9]); prior antibiotics (AOR, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.2-2.6]); and prior hospitalization (AOR, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.5]).
Conclusions.Readmission for pneumonia is common but varies based on pneumonia type. The variables associated with readmission do not reflect factors that hospitals directly control. Use of one rule to guide payment that fails to account for HCAP and the HCAP criteria on readmission seems inappropriate.
- Canadian Pediatricians' Prescribing Practices for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2013 May 15.
- Subtherapeutic Linezolid Concentrations in a Patient with Morbid Obesity and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia: Case Report and Review of the Literature (June). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Pharmacother 2013 May 14.
OBJECTIVE:To report a case of subtherapeutic linezolid concentrations in a patient with morbid obesity.
CASE SUMMARY:A 34-year-old male with morbid obesity (265 kg, body mass index 82 kg/m(2)) was admitted for severe sepsis due to respiratory failure requiring emergent intubation and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Admission tracheal aspirate culture revealed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for which vancomycin was prescribed. Therapy subsequently was changed to linezolid, because the patient's clinical status worsened, with significant hypoxia (partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen [PaO2/FiO2] ratio 145), increasing leukocytosis (white blood cell count from 10,800/μL on admission to 15,400/μL on hospital day 6), and persistent fever (38.3 °C). After 48 hours of linezolid monotherapy, the patient remained febrile with continued leukocytosis, worsening hypoxemia, and a persistently positive MRSA culture from a repeat endotracheal aspirate. Linezolid serum concentrations were obtained and vancomycin was reinstituted, after which the patient began to improve (afebrile, improving PaO2/FiO2 ratio, decreasing leukocytosis). On hospital day 12, the patient removed his endotracheal tube, and a sputum sample was obtained for culture. The patient's clinical status subsequently declined, prompting addition of cefepime to his antibiotic regimen. This sputum culture revealed not only MRSA, but also quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli. After completing treatment for both organisms the patient was discharged home.
DISCUSSION:Limited data on linezolid dosing in the morbidly obese population show lower serum drug concentrations than those in nonobese patients, but no clinical failure has been reported when treating MRSA skin and soft tissue infections or MRSA tracheitis. In our patient, low steady-state linezolid serum concentrations (peak 4.13 μg/mL [reference 15-27] and trough 1.27 μg/mL [reference 2-9]) were thought to contribute to his poor clinical response.
CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this is the first report of subtherapeutic linezolid concentrations correlated with decreased clinical effectiveness when during treatment of MRSA pneumonia in a patient with morbid obesity.
- Metabolomics in pneumonia and sepsis: an analysis of the GenIMS cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Intensive Care Med 2013 May 15.
PURPOSE:To determine the global metabolomic profile as measured in circulating plasma from surviving and non-surviving patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and sepsis.
METHODS:Random, outcome-stratified case-control sample from a prospective study of 1,895 patients hospitalized with CAP and sepsis. Cases (n = 15) were adults who died before 90 days, and controls (n = 15) were adults who survived, matched on demographics, infection type, and procalcitonin. We determined the global metabolomic profile in the first emergency department blood sample using non-targeted mass-spectrometry. We derived metabolite-based prognostic models for 90-day mortality. We determined if metabolites stimulated cytokine production by differentiated Thp1 monocytes in vitro, and validated metabolite profiles in mouse liver and kidney homogenates at 8 h in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis.
RESULTS:We identified 423 small molecules, of which the relative levels of 70 (17 %) were different between survivors and non-survivors (p ≤ 0.05). Broad differences were present in pathways of oxidative stress, bile acid metabolism, and stress response. Metabolite-based prognostic models for 90-day survival performed modestly (AUC = 0.67, 95 % CI 0.48, 0.81). Five nucleic acid metabolites were greater in non-survivors (p ≤ 0.05). Of these, pseudouridine increased monocyte expression of TNFα and IL1β versus control (p < 0.05). Pseudouridine was also increased in liver and kidney homogenates from CLP mice versus sham (p < 0.05 for both).
CONCLUSIONS:Although replication is required, we show the global metabolomic profile in plasma broadly differs between survivors and non-survivors of CAP and sepsis. Metabolite-based prognostic models had modest performance, though metabolites of oxidative stress may act as putative damage-associated molecular patterns.
- Clinical characteristics of children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection hospitalized during the Danish 2010-2012 epidemic. [Journal Article]
- Dan Med J 2013 May; 60(5):A4632.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumonia may be the most severe manifestation of respiratory M. pneumoniae infection. The most typical symptoms in children are cough and wheezing, which are often accompanied by upper respiratory tract manifestations mimicking viralrespiratory syndromes.This was a retrospective descriptive study. We included all children hospitalized at the Department of Paediatrics, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, from 1 August 2010 through May 2012 who tested positive for M. pneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical data were obtained from the medical charts.A total of 671 PCR analyses for M. pneumoniae were performed of which 102 tested positive (15%). Our study included 101 M. pneumoniae-positive children with a median age of six years (range: 57 days-16 years). The cases were distributed throughout the year, but with a peak from October to January. 43% were five years or younger, with 18% being 0-1 years old and almost 7% being less than one year old. Only 17% were 11-16 years old. 58% of the patients reported more than seven days of fever and/or cough prior to admission. In all, 65 of 101 M. pneumoniae-positive children were discharged within 24 hours of admission.M. pneumoniae should be kept in mind as a cause not only of community-acquired pneumonia, but also of milder respiratory infections in children younger than five years. PCR from a nasal or throat swap is an easy, reliable and quick diagnostic test in infants and children.not relevant.not relevant.