(Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) articles in PubMed
- ''PCOS remains a diagnosis of exclusion: a concise review of key endocrinopathies to exclude''. [Journal Article]
- Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2016 Sep 24CE
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous disorder associated with clinical, endocrine and ultrasonographic features that can also be encountered in a number of other diseases. It has trad...
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous disorder associated with clinical, endocrine and ultrasonographic features that can also be encountered in a number of other diseases. It has traditionally been suggested that prolactin excess, enzymatic steroidogenic abnormalities and thyroid disorders need to be excluded before a diagnosis of PCOS is made. However, there is paucity of data regarding the prevalence of PCOS-phenotype in some of these disorders, whereas other endocrine diseases that exhibit PCOS-like features may elude diagnosis and proper management if not considered. The present article reviews the data of currently included entities that exhibit a PCOS-phenotype and those that potentially need to be looked for, and attempts to identify specific features that distinguish them from idiopathic PCOS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- The prevalence and phenotypic features of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- Hum Reprod 2016 Sep 22HR
- CONCLUSIONS: The reported overall prevalence of PCOS (95% CI) according to diagnostic criteria of the NIH, Rotterdam and the AE-PCOS Society is 6% (5-8%, n = 18 trials), 10% (8-13%, n = 15 trials) and 10% (7-13%, n = 10 trials), respectively.The effects of ethnic differences, particularly, on the presence or severity of hirsutism cannot be ruled out in any way. In addition, there was a lack of standardization in defining phenotypes of the syndrome and selection bias was evident in most of the studies regarding recruitment of the cohorts.Geographical differences in frequencies of the components of the syndrome, such as oligo-anovulation and clinical/biochemical androgen excess, must be taken into account in the development and implementation of regional diagnostic and precision treatment strategies. Further efforts and resources are required to increase standardization of the methods and comparability of the study results on prevalence and phenotypic characterization of PCOS around the globe.
- Should we individualize lipid profiling in women with polycystic ovary syndrome? [Journal Article]
- Hum Reprod 2016 Sep 22HR
- CONCLUSIONS: Lipid profiling is required when women with PCOS develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) or hypertension, but rarely changes clinical care before the age of 35 years.Findings can only be generalized to countries with low cardiovascular mortality rates.Lipid profiling is required when women with PCOS develop T2D or hypertension. However, lipid profiling rarely changes the clinical care of low risk PCOS patients before the age of 35, especially in the normal-weight women.
- RHOG-DOCK1-RAC1 Signaling Axis Is Perturbed in DHEA-Induced Polycystic Ovary in Rat Model. [Journal Article]
- Reprod Sci 2016 Sep 22RS
- The function of RHOG, a RAC1 activator, was explored in the ovary during ovarian follicular development and pathological conditions. With the help of immunoblotting and immunolocalization, we determi...
The function of RHOG, a RAC1 activator, was explored in the ovary during ovarian follicular development and pathological conditions. With the help of immunoblotting and immunolocalization, we determined the expression and localization of RHOG in normal (estrous cycle) and polycystic ovaries using Sprague Dawley (SD) rat model. Employing polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, we analyzed the transcript and expression levels of downstream molecules of RHOG, DOCK1, and RAC1 in the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) ovary along with normal antral follicular theca and granulosa cells after dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation. The effect of RHOG knockdown on DOCK1, VAV, and RAC1 expression was evaluated in the human ovarian cells (SKOV3), theca cells, and granulosa cells from SD rats with the help of flow cytometry. Oocyte at secondary follicles along with stromal cells showed optimal expression of RHOG. Immunoblotting of RHOG revealed its maximum expression at diestrus and proestrus, which was downregulated at estrus stage. Mild immunostaining of RHOG was also present in the theca and granulosa cells of the secondary and antral follicles. Polycystic ovary exhibited weak immunostaining for RHOG and that was corroborated by immunoblotting-based investigations. RHOG effectors DOCK1 and ELMO1 were found reduced in the ovary in PCOS condition/DHEA. RHOG silencing reduced the expression of DOCK1 and RAC1 in the theca and granulosa cells from SD rat antral follicles and that was mirrored in the human ovarian cells. Collectively, RHOG can mediate signaling through downstream effectors DOCK1 and RAC1 during ovarian follicular development (theca and granulosa cells and oocyte), but DHEA downregulated them in the PCOS ovary.
- Associations of Vitamin D with Insulin Resistance, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome. [Review]
- J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2016 Sep 20JS
- The aim of this study to determine the relationships of vitamin D with diabetes, insulin resistance obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Intra cellular vitamin D receptors and the 1-α hydroxylase enzyme ...
The aim of this study to determine the relationships of vitamin D with diabetes, insulin resistance obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Intra cellular vitamin D receptors and the 1-α hydroxylase enzyme are distributed ubiquitously in all tissues suggesting a multitude of functions of vitamin D. It plays an indirect but an important role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as reflected by its association with type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome, insulin secretion, insulin resistance, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and obesity. Peer-reviewed papers, related to the topic were extracted using key words, from PubMed, Medline, and other research databases. Correlations of vitamin D with diabetes, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome were examined for this evidence-based review. In addition to the well-studied musculoskeletal effects, vitamin D decrease the insulin resistance, severity of T2D, prediabetes, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Vitamin D exert a direct intra-cellular effect via its receptors and the local production of 1,25(OH)2D3, especially in muscle and pancreatic β-cells. It also regulates calcium homeostasis and calcium flux through cell membranes, and activation of a cascade of key enzymes and cofactors associated with metabolic pathways. Cross-sectional, observational, and ecological studies reported inverse correlations between vitamin D status with hyperglycemia and glycemic control in patients with T2D, decrease the rate of conversion of prediabetes to diabetes, and obesity. However, no firm conclusions can be drawn from current studies, because (A) studies were underpowered; (B) few were designed for glycemic outcomes, (C) the minimum (or median) serum 25(OH) D levels achieved are not measured or reported; (D) most did not report the use of diabetes medications; (E) some trials used too little (F) others used too large, unphysiological and infrequent doses of vitamin D; and (G) relative paucity of rigorous clinical data on the effects of vitamin D sufficiency on non-calcium endpoints. Although a large number of observational studies support improving T2D, insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome with vitamin D adequacy, there is a lack of conclusive evidence from randomized control clinical trials that, these disorders are prevented following optimization of serum levels of 25(OH)D. Thus, specifically designed, new clinical studies need to be conducted in well-defined populations, following normalizing the serum vitamin D levels in vitamin D deficient prediabetes, to test the hypothesis that hypovitaminosis D worsens these disorders and correction is beneficial.
- miR-483 is Down-Regulated in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Inhibits KGN Cell Proliferation via Targeting Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1). [Journal Article]
- Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:3383-3393MS
- BACKGROUND Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic disorder in premenopausal woman, characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligoanovulation, and insulin resistance. microRNAs play pivota...
BACKGROUND Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic disorder in premenopausal woman, characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligoanovulation, and insulin resistance. microRNAs play pivotal roles in regulating key factors of PCOS. However, relevant research remains limited. This study aimed to reveal the role and potential mechanism of miR-483 in PCOS. MATERIAL AND METHODS PCOS patients (n=20) were recruited for detecting miR-483 expression in lesion and normal ovary cortex. Human granulosa-like tumor cell line KGN was used to alter miR-483 expression by cell transfection. Cell viability and proliferation were analyzed by MTT assay and colony formation assay, and cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. Interaction between miR-483 and IGF1 was verified by luciferase reporter assay. KGN cells were further treated by insulin to investigate the relationship between miR-483 and insulin. RESULTS miR-483 was significantly down-regulated in lesion ovary cortex from PCOS patients (P<0.001). In KGN cells, overexpression of miR-483 inhibited cell viability and proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest. miR-483 also inhibited CCNB1, CCND1, and CDK2. miR-483 sponge induced the opposite effects. miR-483 directly targeted IGF1 3'UTR, and IGF1 promoted KGN cell proliferation and reversed miR-483-inhibited cell viability. Insulin treatment in KGN cells inhibited miR-483, and promoted IGF1 and cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that miR-483 is a PCOS suppressor inhibiting cell proliferation, possibly via targeting IGF1, and that it is involved in insulin-induced cell proliferation. miR-483 is a potential alternative for diagnosing and treating PCOS.
- Erratum to: Metformin improved health-related quality of life in ethnic Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. [PUBLISHED ERRATUM]
- Health Qual Life Outcomes 2016; 14(1):135HQ
- Comparison of the Effect of Clomiphene- Estradiol Valerate vs Letrozole on Endometrial Thickness, Abortion and Pregnancy Rate in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2016; 10(8):QC10-3JC
- CONCLUSIONS: Letrozole increased endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate in infertile women, therefore its administration is recommended.
- Sexual function and hormonal profiles in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome: a population-based study. [Journal Article]
- Int J Impot Res 2016 Sep 22IJ
- There is no consensus regarding the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its hormonal profile on sexual function of affected women; majority of data documented are not population based and ...
There is no consensus regarding the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its hormonal profile on sexual function of affected women; majority of data documented are not population based and there is a lack of studies investigating the association between hormonal profiles with sexual function in women with PCOS. We aimed to compare the sexual function of PCOS women with controls in a population-based study based on their hormonal profiles. In this cross-sectional study, sexual function (using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire) and hormonal profiles were determined in 63 PCOS subjects and 216 healthy women (controls); aged 18-45 years. A comparison of PCOS women and controls showed no statistically significant difference in total FSFI and each of its specific domain scores. There were significant positive correlations between dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and total FSFI, orgasm and satisfaction domains in controls (r=0.156, r=0.206, r=0.275, respectively). No significant correlations between hormonal profiles and FSFI scores were found in the PCOS group, except for prolactin and orgasm (r=-0.250). In conclusion, sexual function did not differ between PCOS women and controls. High levels of androgens in women with PCOS were not associated with an improvement in sexual function.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 22 September 2016; doi:10.1038/ijir.2016.35.
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- Endocrine and Metabolic Profile of Different Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- J Obstet Gynaecol India 2016; 66(Suppl 1):560-6JO
- CONCLUSIONS: All phenotypes of PCOS had deranged endocrine and metabolic profile compared to controls, but prevalence of IR and metabolic syndrome was maximum in hyperandrogenic phenotypes which require a strict surveillance for prospective metabolic disorders as compared to O + P phenotype.