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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome [keywords]
- Correlation between serum adiponectin and clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters in Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2014 Mar; 18(2):221-5.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder. PCOS women are at a high risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). Adiponectin is positively related to insulin sensitivity. It has a preventive role in atherogenesis and MS. The present work was conducted to study the correlation between serum adiponectin levels and clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters in PCOS patients.A prospective study in 49 newly diagnosed (as per Rotterdam criteria) Indian PCOS women was conducted. PCOS women were clinically examined and investigated for biochemical parameters.The mean serum adiponectin was 12 ± 9.4 μg/mL (range 0.47-45). Hypoadiponectinemia (serum adiponectin <4 μg/mL) was present in 22% patients. Age and adiponectin correlated significantly and inversely (r = -0.42, P = 0.027). Overweight/obese patients had lower mean adiponectin levels than normal weight (11.62 ± 9.5 vs 13.58 ± 9.5, P = 0.56). It was significantly lower in patients with acanthosis nigricans (AN) as compared with those without AN (8.4 ± 5.9 vs 15 ± 11, P = 0.038). Hirsute patients showed lower mean adiponectin levels than nonhirsute (10 ± 7.3 vs 13 ± 10, P = 0.57). A positive, insignificant correlation was observed between serum adiponectin and cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone, levels. A negative insignificant correlation existed between serum adiponectin and luteinizing hormone (LH), LH: FSH ratio, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment.Hypoadiponectinemia is present in one-fifth of women with PCOS. Adiponectin levels decrease as age advances. Low levels of adiponectin possibly contributes to the development of dermal manifestation (AN) of insulin resistance.
- Comparative evaluation of sonographic ovarian morphology of Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome versus those of normal women. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2014 Mar; 18(2):180-4.
To study ovarian morphology by ultrasound in women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to establish cut-off values of these parameters in Indian women with PCOS.A total of 119 consecutive women diagnosed PCOS and 77 apparently healthy women were enrolled. Transabdominal ultrasound examination was carried out to assess ovarian volume, stromal echogenecity, follicle number and size. Cut-off values of the above ovarian parameters with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated.Sensitivity of 79.49% and specificity of 90.67% was achieved with a cut-off of 8 mL as ovarian volume. A cut-off value of 9 follicles to distinguish between PCOS and control women yielded a sensitivity of 82.35% and specificity of 92.0% while as a follicular size of 5 mm yielded sensitivity and specificity of 74.67% and 78.15% respectively. With all the three parameters sensitivity was 87.39% and specificity 87.84% with 92.04% PPV and 81.25% NPV.Using two or three sonographic criteria in combination improves sensitivity and helps diagnose additional patients with PCOS. Our results are at variance with the established cut-off values highlighting the fact that American Society for Reproductive Medicine consensus cut-off values are not reproducible in Indian context.
- Correlation between Expression of Glucose Transporters in Granulosa Cells and Oocyte Quality in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2014 Mar; 29(1):40-7.
The glucose transporters (GLUTs) exhibit different tissue-specific expression. This study aimed to investigate the types of GLUTs expressed in human granulosa cells (GCs) obtained from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and their relationship with insulin resistance (IR) and the outcomes of in vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes.Expression of GLUTs was evaluated in GCs from women with PCOS with or without IR. Thirty-six women with PCOS undergoing an IVM program were included. Differential gene expression between the insulin sensitive (IS) and IR group was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.Expression of GLUTs 1, 3, 5, 8, and 13 was constitutive, whereas expression of GLUTs 2 and 7 was not observed in human GCs. The remaining GLUTs, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12, were differentially expressed among patients according to metabolic status, such as insulin sensitivity. A higher number of GCs from patients with IR (92%) expressed GLUT6 than GCs from IS PCOS patients (46.3%). Logistic regression showed that expression of GLUTs 9, 11, and 12 correlates with rates of IVM at 48 hours, fertilization, and implantation, respectively.This is the first report describing the expression pattern of all 13 members of the GLUT family in human GCs. Results of the present study suggest that patients' insulin sensitivity regulates GLUT expression in GCs in PCOS patients, and this may control oocyte quality for IVM and subsequent processes such as fertilization and implantation in patients taking part in an in vitro fertilization program.
- New concepts of mammalian ovarian development. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Endocrinol 2014 Apr 16.
Prenatal and early postnatal ovarian development has assumed increasing importance over recent years. The full effects of perturbations to ovarian development on adult fertility, through environmental changes or genetic anomalies, is only now being truly appreciated. Mitigation of these perturbations requires an understanding of the processes involved in the development of the ovary. Here we review some recent findings from mouse, sheep and cow on the key events involved in ovarian development. We discuss the key process of germ cell migration, ovigerous cord formation, meiosis, follicle formation and follicle activation. We also review the key contribution of mesonephric cells to ovarian development and propose roles for these cells. Finally, we discuss polycystic ovary syndrome, premature ovarian failure and prenatal under nutrition; three key areas where perturbations to ovarian development appear to have major impacts on postnatal fertility.
- Perioperative androstenedione kinetics in women undergoing laparoscopic ovarian drilling: a prospective study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrine 2014 Apr 17.
We evaluated perioperative androstenedione levels in laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and whether an intraoperative androstenedione change was predictive for spontaneous ovulation. In a prospective study, 21 anovulatory women with clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS who underwent LOD and eight female controls who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for infertility were included. Perioperatively, blood was drawn one day before surgery, directly before skin incision, ten minutes after surgery, and after two days. Within three months, spontaneous ovulation occurred in 15 women (71.4 %). For both the PCOS and the control group, an androstenedione increase was found from one day before surgery to skin incision (p < 0.05). In PCOS women, there was an intraoperative androstenedione decrease (median 3.5, IQR 2.2-4.8 vs. median 2.6, IQR 1.4-2.6 ng/ml, p = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, only higher preoperative androstenedione (odds ratio, OR 6.53) and luteinizing hormone levels (OR 7.31), as well as secondary infertility (OR 5.40), were associated with higher rates of postoperative spontaneous ovulation (p < 0.001). Androstendione declines significantly during LOD. However, intraoperative kinetics are not useful for the prediction of spontaneous ovulation after LOD, in contrast to preoperative androstenedione and LH levels, as well as a history of previous pregnancies.
- Clinical applications of LC-MS sex steroid assays: evolution of methodologies in the 21st century. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2014 Apr 16.
The purpose of this review is to summarize why and how liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is increasingly replacing other methodologies for the measurement of sex steroids.Measurement of sex steroids, particularly testosterone and estradiol, is important for diagnosis or management of a host of conditions (e.g. disorders of puberty, hypogonadism, polycystic ovary syndrome, amenorrhea, and tumors of ovary, testes, breast and prostate). Historically, metabolites of testosterone and estradiol were measured as ketosteroids in urine using colorimetric assays that lacked sensitivity and specificity due to endogenous and exogenous interferences. Extracted competitive manual radio-immunoassays provided improved, but still imperfect, specificity, and offered increased sensitivity. As testing demand increased, they were displaced by automated immunoassays. These offered better throughput and precision, but suffered worse specificity problems. Moreover, agreement between different immunoassays has often been poor and they are all compromised by a limited dynamic measurement range. To overcome these problems, LC-MS/MS methods have been developed and validated for quantitation of sex steroids. These methods reduce interferences, provide better specificity, improve dynamic range, and reduce between-method bias.Endocrine Society and Urology Society guidelines have highlighted the limitations of the immunoassays for sex steroids and have provided convincing evidence that mass spectrometric methods are preferable for measurement of sex steroid hormones. In this review, we describe LC-MS/MS methods for measurement of testosterone and estradiol.
- Plasma GDF-15 levels and their association with hormonal and metabolic status in women with polycystic ovary syndrome aged 25-35. [Journal Article]
- Minerva Endocrinol 2014 Jun; 39(2):89-97.
We aimed to determine plasma levels of growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15 and their possible association with hormonal and metabolic status as well as echocardiographic profiles and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CAIMT) measurements in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Forty-two obese PCOS women aged 25-35 years, 23 women with idiopathic hirsutism and 20 healthy controls matched for age and body mass index were enrolled. Anthropometric, metabolic and hormonal patterns, plasma GDF-15 concentrations, CAIMT, and conventional echocardiographic parameters were measured.Metabolic/lipid profiles as well as GDF-15 levels were similar across the three groups. CAIMT tended to be higher in PCOS group but did not reach statistical significance. No between-group differences were found in the conventional echocardiographic parameters. Analysis of PCOS patients showed a significant correlation of GDF-15 concentrations with age and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (r=0.319, P<0.05, and r=0.312, P<0.05, respectively). In multiple linear regression analyses, GDF-15 was significantly associated with age (r2=0.102, P<0.05), and HOMA index (r2=0.10, P<0.05).Plasma GDF-15 levels, CAIMT and conventional echocardiographic parameters in obese subjects with PCOS (25-35 yrs old) were comparable to those in either subjects with idiopathic hirsutism or healthy controls with similar anthropometric and metabolic profiles, suggesting that PCOS alone could not impart an early and higher risk independent of associated risk factors. GDF-15 might provide a link between future diabetes and cardiovascular risk in PCOS women.
- Effects of hyperandrogenemia and increased adiposity on reproductive and metabolic parameters in young adult female monkeys. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2014 Apr 15.
Many patients with hyperandrogenemia are overweight or obese, which exacerbates morbidities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To examine the ability of testosterone (T) to generate PCOS-like symptoms, monkeys received T or cholesterol (control) implants (n=6/group) beginning prepubertally. As previously reported, T-treated animals had increased neuroendocrine drive to the reproductive axis (increased LH pulse frequency) at 5 years, without remarkable changes in ovarian or metabolic features. To examine the combined effects of T and obesity, at 5.5 years (human equivalent age: 17 years), monkeys were placed on a high-calorie, high-fat diet typical of Western cultures (Western style diet; WSD), which increased body fat from <2% (pre-WSD) to 15-19% (14 months WSD). By 6 months on WSD, LH pulse frequency in the controls increased to that of T-treated animals, whereas LH pulse amplitude decreased in both groups and remained low. The numbers of antral follicles present during the early follicular phase increased in both groups on the WSD, but maximal follicular size decreased by 50%. During the late follicular phase, T-treated females had greater numbers of small antral follicles than controls. T-treated monkeys also had lower progesterone during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Although fasting insulin did not vary between groups, T-treated animals had decreased insulin sensitivity after one year on WSD. Thus, while WSD consumption alone led to some features characteristic of PCOS, T+WSD caused a more severe phenotype with regards to insulin insensitivity, increased numbers of antral follicles at midcycle, and decreased circulating luteal phase progesterone levels.
- Live birth following vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes derived from sibling smaller follicles at follicle selection phase in the context of in vitro fertilization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2014 Apr 15.
Abstract In ovarian stimulation, a 31-year-old woman with polycystic ovary syndrome was at the risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, follicle aspiration was performed, and eight immature oocytes were collected from follicle fluids. After 28 h in vitro culture, six of them reached MII and were vitrified. The patient failed to conceive in her fresh in vitro fertilization cycle and next two replacement cycles. In the third replacement cycle, a successful pregnancy was obtained by vitrified-thawed oocytes. This case demonstrates that follicular aspiration during follicle selection phase has protective effects against developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and rescued immature oocytes are viable and could produce promising embryos for live birth.
- The utility of fasting plasma glucose to identify impaired glucose metabolism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2014 Apr 15.
Abstract We evaluated the utility of impaired fasting plasma glucose as defined by ADA to identify women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affected by impaired glucose metabolism (i.e. impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus). In 330 women with PCOS, according to ESHRE criteria, an oral glucose tolerance test was done. Impaired fasting glucose was present in 36 women (12%), impaired glucose tolerance in 29 women (8.8%) and diabetes mellitus in 10 women (3%), 4 of them have fasting glucose higher than 7 mmol/l. The combination of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance was seen in 5 women (1.5%). The sensitivity of impaired fasting glucose for the detection of impaired glucose tolerance was 24% and specificity 91.8%. When fasting glucose above 5.6 mmol/l was used as the screening criterion, 28/35 subjects (80%) would have been missed. We conclude that fasting plasma glucose is not sufficiently sensitive for the detection of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus type 2 in women with PCOS.