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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome [keywords]
- The therapy of insulin resistance in other diseases besides type 2 diabetes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eat Weight Disord 2014 Jul 29.
Insulin resistance is a clinical condition shared by many diseases besides type 2 diabetes (T2DM) such as obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Experimental evidence, produced over the years, suggests that metformin has many benefits in the treatment of these diseases. Metformin is a first-line drug in the treatment of overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients, offering a selective pathophysiological approach by its effect on insulin resistance. Moreover, a number of studies have established the favorable effect of metformin on body weight, not only when evaluating BMI, but also if body mass composition is considered, through the reduction of fat mass. In addition, it reduces insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, lipid parameters, arterial hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. In particular, a new formulation of metformin extended-release (ER) is now available with different formulation in different countries. Metformin ER delivers the active drug through hydrated polymers which expand safe uptake of fluid, prolonging gastric transit and delaying drug absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In addition, Metformin ER causes a small, but statistically significant decrease in BMI, when added to a lifestyle intervention program in obese adolescents. Because of the suggested benefits for the treatment of insulin resistance in many clinical conditions, besides type 2 diabetes, the prospective exists that more indications for metformin treatment are becoming a reality.
- Association between retinol-binding protein 4 and polycystic ovary syndrome: A meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocr J 2014 Jul 25.
Studies have examined the association between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the results have been inconsistent. To investigate the association between RBP4 and PCOS, we performed a meta-analysis. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, the ISI Web of Science, and EMBASE were searched to identify all of the studies that examined the relationship between circulating RBP4 levels and PCOS. Standard mean difference (SMD) values and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated and pooled using meta-analysis methodology. A total of seven studies were involved in the meta-analysis, which included a total of 636 subjects (260 controls and 376 patients with PCOS). The RBP4 level was higher in PCOS patients than in non-PCOS patients (random effects MD (95% CI)=0.69, [0.20, 1.18], P=0.006). However, the RBP4 level was not higher in nonobese PCOS patients than in nonobese controls (random effects MD (95% CI)=0.38, [-0.21, 0.98], P=0.20). The effect size revealed that the RBP4 level was higher in overweight or obese PCOS patients than weight-matched controls (fixed effects MD (95% CI)=7.95, [5.96, 9.93], P<0.05). In the subgroup analysis by region, the RBP4 level was higher in PCOS patients in Asia than controls (random effects MD (95% CI)=0.85, [0.54, 1.15], P<0.05), but not in European PCOS patients compared with controls (random effects MD (95% CI)=0.34, [-1.12, 1.80], P=0.65). This subgroup analysis also showed that nonobese PCOS patients have higher RBP4 levels than controls in Asia. Our meta-analysis results indicated that RBP4 might be a useful tool for identifying PCOS women.
- [A meta-analysis on acupuncture treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2014 Jun; 39(3):238-46.
To evaluate the effect and safety of acupuncture treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by using systematic review in view of evidence-based medicine (EBM).Original articles about acupuncture treatment of PCOS published from the database-established year to November of 2013 were searched from the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), Chinese Biomedical Library (CBM), Wanfang Data, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library and the associated references-indicated papers by using keywords of polycystic ovary syndrome, randomization, acupoint, acupuncture, acupuncture plus moxibustion, acupuncture plus acupoint-embedment of catgut, and acupuncture plus otopoint application. Those articles about treatment of PCOS with simple abdominal acupuncture, simple acupoint-embedment of catgut, simple otopoint-pellet-pressure, and simple moxibustion treatment, and simple abstracts were excluded. If the articles re-published in both Chinese and English and in academic conferences and journals, one of them with higher quality was included. Two independent reviewers extracted data from located articles in a pre-defined structured way, and the Meta-analysis was conducted using software RevMan 5.2, otherwise using the qualitative analysis.A total of 31 articles (28 in Chinese, 3 in English) containing 2,321 cases of PCOS patients met the included criteria. Meta-analysis showed that the clinical efficacy of simple acupuncture was the same as that of western medicine, and the efficacy of acupuncture combined with Chinese herbal medicine interventions was obviously higher than that of western medicine (P < 0.05). In addition, simple acupuncture intervention and acupuncture combined with Chinese herbal medicines or with moxibustion treatment have advantages in reducing serum luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH), insulin resistance (IR), testosterone (T), and body mass index (BMI). However, the quality of the collected articles is generally lower due to unclear bias, no sample quantity estimation, incorrect randomization methods, no follow-up survey, etc.Acupuncture therapy may be effective for PCOS, but needs to be confirmed further by larger sample randomized controlled trials.
- Gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue differs in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and controls matched pair-wise for age, body weight, and body mass index. [Journal Article]
- Adipocyte 2014 Jul 1; 3(3):190-6.
Adipose tissue dysfunction may be a central factor in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in PCOS and its relation to metabolic and endocrine features of the syndrome have been fragmentarily investigated. The aim was to assess in subcutaneous adipose tissue the expression of genes potentially associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and to explore their relation to features of the syndrome. Twenty-one women with PCOS (body mass index [BMI] 18.2-33.4 kg/m(2)) and 21 controls (BMI 19.2-31.7 kg/m(2)) were matched pair-wise for age, body weight, and BMI. Tissue biopsies were obtained to measure mRNA expression of 44 genes (TaqMan Low Density Array). Differential expression levels were correlated with BMI, glucose infusion rate (GIR), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and sex steroids. In PCOS, expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (ADIPOR2), LPL, and twist-related protein 1 (TWIST1) was decreased, while expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and heme oxygenase (decycling 1) (HMOX1) was increased. TWIST1 and HMOX1, both novel adipokines, correlated with BMI and GIR. After BMI adjustment, LPL and ADIPOR2 expression correlated with plasma estradiol, and CCL2 expression correlated with GIR, in all women. We conclude that adipose tissue mRNA expression differed in PCOS women and controls and that two novel adipokines, TWIST1 and HMOX1, together with adiponectin, LPL, and CCL2, and their downstream pathways merit further investigation.
- Mixed form of hirsutism in an adolescent female and laser therapy. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014 Jun; 16(6):e9410.
Hirsutism is a common disorder of excess growth of terminal hair in an androgen-dependent male distribution in women, including the chin, upper lip, breasts, back, and abdomen. It is very important to identify the etiology of hirsutism and adequate treat is prior to any cosmetic therapy.The case was a 17-year-old female with severe hirsutism, oligomenorrhea, and obesity. She was evaluated to identify the etiology and diagnosed as a case of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH), and hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIR-AN) syndrome, which is a rare combination of hirsutism etiology. She was successfully treated according to the underlying pathology, and laser photoepilation was used as the preferred hair removal method.Establishing the etiology, using the evidence-based strategies to improve hirsutism, and treating the underlying disorder, are essential for proper management of women with hirsutism.
- Changes in hormones and biomarkers in polycystic ovarian syndrome treated with gastric bypass. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Obes Relat Dis 2014 Mar 15.
Small retrospective studies have demonstrated reduction in weight and co-morbid hirsutism and diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The objective of this study was to prospectively determine clinical improvements in obese women with PCOS treated with gastric bypass and identify postoperative biomarker changes.Data were collected on obese women with PCOS undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass over 1 year. Testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone, insulin, fasting glucose, and lipid levels were obtained preoperatively at baseline, and 6 and 12 months after surgery. Testosterone was used as the primary hormonal biomarker. A physical examination for body mass index (BMI) and hirsutism, and information on menstrual pattern were collected at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery.Data were available for 14 women. Mean BMI decreased from 44.8±5.9 kg/m(2) at baseline to 29.2±5.9 kg/m(2) at 12 months postoperatively. Significant improvements were seen in testosterone, fasting glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride at 12 months (P<.05). At baseline, irregular menses were reported in 10 patients; all patients were experiencing regular menses 6 and 12 months after surgery. Hirsutism was present in 11 patients at baseline and only 7 patients at 12 months. Improvements in biomarkers, menstrual cycling, and hirsutism was not correlated with degree of weight change.Gastric bypass achieved significant reductions in BMI, testosterone, and markers of glucose and lipid metabolism. These data confirm reports of previous retrospective studies showing weight reduction and health improvement in women with PCOS treated with gastric bypass.
- The role of androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol (androstenediol) in cell proliferation in endometrium of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Steroids 2014 Jul 24.
Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) show high prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. Endometrial proliferation is increased, evaluated by high levels of Ki67 (cell cycle marker) and low levels of p27 (negative regulator of cell cycle). Nevertheless, endometrial changes in cyclin D1 (positive regulator of cell cycle) in PCOS-women are not described. Androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol (androstenediol), steroid with estrogenic activity present in endometria, could be related to increased endometrial cell proliferation. The objective of this study was to determine protein content of cyclin D1 and androstenediol levels in endometria from PCOS and control-women and to evaluate the possible mechanism favoring cell proliferation associated with hormonal characteristics of patients. Therefore, cyclin D1 protein content in PCOS-women and control-endometrial tissue were assessed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The androstenediol levels were evaluated by ELISA. To further analyze the effect of steroids (androstenediol, 17β-estradiol, testosterone) in cell proliferation, levels of proteins cyclin D1, p27 and Ki67 were evaluated in an in vitro model of stromal endometrial cells T-HESC and St-T1b. An increase in cyclin D1 and androstenediol was observed in tissues from PCOS-women relative to control group (p<0.05). In the in vitro model, androstenediol exerted increase in cyclin D1 (p<0.05) and a decrease in p27 protein level (p<0.05), while Ki67 in St-T1b cells increased under this stimulus (p<0.05). Testosterone produces opposite effects in the levels of the above markers (p<0.05). Therefore, the hormonal imbalance associated with this syndrome could alter endometrial tissue homeostasis, promoting cell proliferation. Androstenediol is a molecule that could be involved by stimulating proliferation, whereas testosterone elicits a role of cell cycle repressor.
- The association of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Fertil Steril 2014 Jul 23.
To study the expression of insulin signaling-related genes and oxidative stress markers in the visceral adipose tissue obtained from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and healthy control subjects and to investigate the relationships among abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress at the tissue level.Case-control study.University teaching hospital.In total, 30 PCOS patients and 30 healthy control subjects, who underwent laparoscopic surgery, were included in the study.Abdominal obesity was defined based on waist circumference (WC). The homeostasis model index was used to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).Gene expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the parameters of oxidative stress, such as superoxide dismutase, enzyme glutathione reductase, and dimethylarginine, were measured, and the expression of protein oxidative damage product 3-nitro-tyrosine residues (nitrotyrosine) in VAT was identified with the use of immunohistochemistry.PCOS was associated with lower expression of GLUT4 and IRS1 and a higher level of oxidative stress in VAT, which was strongly correlated with WC and HOMA-IR. Presence of abdominal obesity further intensified the correlations observed in our measurements. The nitrotyrosine expression in VAT was stronger in PCOS patients.The strong correlation of insulin resistance with oxidative stress at the VAT level suggests that local oxidative stress and abnormalities of insulin signaling in adipose tissue play critical roles in the pathogenesis of PCOS.
- The effect of drospirenone (3mg) with ethinyl estradiol (30mcg) containing pills on ovarian blood flows in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case controlled study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2014 Jul 6.:93-99.
To evaluate whether oral contraceptive pill (OCP) therapy has any effects on ovarian stromal blood flow by using pulsed and color Doppler at the end of 3 months follow-up period of OCP-users and non-users with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).200 patients were included in the study. The patients were designed into four groups as follows; Group 1: PCOS patients that received OCP containing 30mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE) plus 3mg drospirenone for 3 months (DRP n=50); Group 2: PCOS patients that received no medication (n=50); Group 3: Healthy controls that received OCP (EE plus DRP) (n=50); Group 4: healthy controls that received no medication (n=50). Resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of both ovarian arteries, hormonal, anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed before and after 3 months.There was a significant increament in RI and PI of both ovarian arteries in healthy controls (Group 3) and in women with PCOS (Group 1) who received OCP (p<0.001). The increment rate in both Doppler parameters were significantly higher in women with PCOS (Group 1) than healthy controls (Group 3) (p<0.001). Whereas RI and PI values of both ovaries remained unchanged in all untreated women with or without PCOS (Groups 2 and 4).OCP therapy reduced ovarian vascularization in both PCOS and healthy users after 3 months of therapy and this decrease is especially noticeable in women with PCOS.
- [Importance of the interdisciplinary, evidence-based diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orv Hetil 2014 Jul 1; 155(30):1175-1188.
Polycystic ovary syndrome is recognized as the most common hormonal and metabolic disorder of women. This heterogeneous endocrinopathy characterized by clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, oligo- or amenorrhoea, anovulatory infertility, and polycystic ovarian morphology. The prevalence, clinical feature and the risk of co-morbidity vary depending on the accuracy of the diagnosis and the criteria used. Evidence suggests that those women are at high risk who fulfil the criteria based on National Institute of Health. The complex feature of the syndrome and the considerable practice heterogenity that is present with regards to diagnostic testing of patients who are suspected to have polycystic ovary syndrome require an interdisciplinary, evidence-based diagnostic approach. Such a method can ensure the patient safety and the effectiveness and efficiency of the diagnosis. This paper summarises the highest available evidence provided by well-designed studies, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of the clinical feature and the clinical implications of the diagnostic criteria of polycystic ovary syndrome. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(30), 1175-1188.