- T-cell Expression of IL10 Is Essential for Tumor Immune Surveillance in the Small Intestine. [Journal Article]
- Cancer Immunol Res 2015; 3(7):806-14CI
- IL10 is attributed with immune-suppressive and anti-inflammatory properties, which could promote or suppress cancer in the gastrointestinal tract. Loss of IL10 exacerbates colonic inflammation, leadi...
IL10 is attributed with immune-suppressive and anti-inflammatory properties, which could promote or suppress cancer in the gastrointestinal tract. Loss of IL10 exacerbates colonic inflammation, leading to colitis and cancer. Consistent with this, transfer of IL10-competent regulatory T cells (Treg) into mice with colitis or hereditary polyposis protects against disease, while IL10-deficient mice are predisposed to polyposis with increased colon polyp load. Little is known about the protective or pathogenic function of IL10 in cancers of the small intestine. We found CD4(+) T cells and CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs to be the major sources of IL10 in the small intestine and responsible for the increase in IL10 during polyposis in the APC(Δ468) mouse model of hereditary polyposis. Targeted ablation of IL10 in T cells caused severe IL10 deficiency and delayed polyp growth. However, these polyps progressively lost cytotoxic activity and eventually progressed to cancer. Several observations suggested that the effect was due to the loss of IFNγ-dependent immune surveillance. IL10-incompetent CD4(+) T cells failed to secrete IFNγ when stimulated with polyp antigens and were inefficient in T-helper-1 (TH1) commitment. By contrast, the TH17 commitment was unaffected. These findings were validated using mice whose T cells overexpress IL10. In these mice, we observed high intra-polyp cytotoxic activity and attenuation of polyposis. Thus, expression of IL10 by T cells is protective and required for immune surveillance in the small intestine.
- GLP-1R agonists promote normal and neoplastic intestinal growth through mechanisms requiring Fgf7. [Journal Article]
- Cell Metab 2015 Mar 3; 21(3):379-91CM
- Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from enteroendocrine L cells promotes nutrient disposal via the incretin effect. However, the majority of L cells are localized to the distal gut, suggesting ...
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from enteroendocrine L cells promotes nutrient disposal via the incretin effect. However, the majority of L cells are localized to the distal gut, suggesting additional biological roles for GLP-1. Here, we demonstrate that GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling controls mucosal expansion of the small bowel (SB) and colon. These actions did not require the epidermal growth factor (EGF) or intestinal epithelial insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) receptors but were absent in Glp1r(-/-) mice. Polyp number and size were increased in SB of exendin-4-treated Apc(Min/+) mice, whereas polyp number was reduced in SB and colon of Glp1r(-/-):Apc(Min/+) mice. Exendin-4 increased fibroblast growth factor 7 (Fgf7) expression in colonic polyps of Apc(Min/+) mice and failed to increase intestinal growth in mice lacking Fgf7. Exogenous exendin-4 and Fgf7 regulated an overlapping set of genes important for intestinal growth. Thus, gain and loss of GLP-1R signaling regulates gut growth and intestinal tumorigenesis.
- Paediatric surgical pathology - a profile of cases from Western India and review of literature. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2015; 9(1):EC08-11JC
- CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric surgical specimens, unlike adults, represent significant number of developmental and congenital conditions in addition to acquired lesions; accounting for wide spectrum of morphological and histological features. Study provides insight into the trends of paediatric surgical lesions in the western region of India.
- Characterization of LGR5 stem cells in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2015; 5:8654SR
- LGR5 is known to be a stem cell marker in the murine small intestine and colon, however the localization of LGR5 in human adenoma samples has not been examined in detail, and previous studies have be...
LGR5 is known to be a stem cell marker in the murine small intestine and colon, however the localization of LGR5 in human adenoma samples has not been examined in detail, and previous studies have been limited by the lack of specific antibodies. Here we used in situ hybridization to specifically examine LGR5 mRNA expression in a panel of human adenoma and carcinoma samples (n = 66). We found that a small number of cells express LGR5 at the base of normal colonic crypts. We then showed that conventional adenomas widely express high levels of LGR5, and there is no evidence of stereotypic cellular hierarchy. In contrast, serrated lesions display basal localization of LGR5, and the cellular hierarchy resembles that of a normal crypt. Moreover, ectopic crypts found in traditional serrated adenomas show basal LGR5 mRNA, indicating that they replicate the stem cell organization of normal crypts with the development of a cellular hierarchy. These data imply differences in the stem cell dynamics between the serrated and conventional pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis. Furthermore we noted high LGR5 expression in invading cells, with later development of a stem cell niche in adenocarcinomas of all stages.
- Evaluation of preventive and therapeutic activity of novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, CG100649, in colon cancer: Increased expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors enhance the apoptotic response to combination treatment with TRAIL. [Journal Article]
- Oncol Rep 2015; 33(4):1947-55OR
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been suggested as the potential new class of preventive or therapeutic antitumor agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor...
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been suggested as the potential new class of preventive or therapeutic antitumor agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor activity of the novel NSAID, CG100649. CG100649 is a novel NSAID dual inhibitor for COX-2 and carbonic anhydrase (CA)-I/-II. In the present study, we investigated the alternative mechanism by which CG100649 mediated suppression of the colon cancer growth and development. The anchorage‑dependent and -independent clonogenic assay showed that CG100649 inhibited the clonogenicity of human colon cancer cells. The flow cytometric analysis showed that CG100649 induced the G2/M cell cycle arrest in colon cancer cells. Animal studies showed that CG100649 inhibited the tumor growth in colon cancer xenograft in nude mice. Furthermore, quantitative PCR and FACS analysis demonstrated that CG100649 upregulated the expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors (DR4 and DR5) but decreased the expression of decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2) in colon cancer cells. The results showed that CG100649 treatment sensitized TRAIL‑mediated growth suppression and apoptotic cell death. The combination treatment resulted in significant repression of the intestinal polyp formation in APCmin/+ mice. Our data clearly demonstrated that CG100649 contains preventive and therapeutic activity for colon cancer. The present study may be useful for identification of the potential benefit of the NSAID CG100649, for the achievement of a better treatment response in colon cancer.
- NKD1 marks intestinal and liver tumors linked to aberrant Wnt signaling. [Journal Article]
- Cell Signal 2015; 27(2):245-56CS
- The activity of the Wnt pathway undergoes complex regulation to ensure proper functioning of this principal signaling mechanism during development of adult tissues. The regulation may occur at severa...
The activity of the Wnt pathway undergoes complex regulation to ensure proper functioning of this principal signaling mechanism during development of adult tissues. The regulation may occur at several levels and includes both positive and negative feedback loops. In the present study we employed one of such negative feedback regulators, naked cuticle homolog 1 (Nkd1), to follow the Wnt pathway activity in the intestine and liver and in neoplasia originated in these organs. Using lineage tracing in transgenic mice we localized Nkd1 mRNA to the bottom parts of the small intestinal crypts and hepatocytes surrounding the central vein of the hepatic lobule. Furthermore, in two mouse models of intestinal tumorigenesis, Nkd1 expression levels were elevated in tumors when compared to healthy tissue. We utilized a collection of human intestinal polyps and carcinomas to confirm that NKD1 represents a robust marker of neoplastic growth. In addition, expression analysis of NKD1 in liver cancer showed that high expression levels of the gene distinguish a subclass of hepatocellular carcinomas related to aberrant Wnt signaling. Finally, our results were confirmed by bioinformatic analysis of large publicly available datasets that included gene expression profiling and high-throughput sequencing data of human colon and liver cancer specimens.
- Multilabel region classification and semantic linking for colon segmentation in CT colonography. [Journal Article]
- IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2015; 62(3):948-59IT
- Accurate and automatic colon segmentation from CT images is a crucial step of many clinical applications in CT colonography, including computer-aided detection (CAD) of colon polyps, 3-D virtual flyt...
Accurate and automatic colon segmentation from CT images is a crucial step of many clinical applications in CT colonography, including computer-aided detection (CAD) of colon polyps, 3-D virtual flythrough of the colon, and prone/supine registration. However, the existence of adjacent air-filled organs such as the lung, stomach, and small intestine, and the collapse of the colon due to poor insufflation, render accurate segmentation of the colon a difficult problem. Extra-colonic components can be categorized into two types based on their 3-D connection to the colon: detached and attached extracolonic components (DEC and AEC, respectively). In this paper, we propose graph inference methods to remove extracolonic components to achieve a high quality segmentation. We first decompose each 3-D air-filled object into a set of 3-D regions. A classifier trained with region-level features can be used to identify the colon regions from noncolon regions. After removing obvious DEC, we remove the remaining DEC by modeling the global anatomic structure with an a priori topological constraint and solving a graph inference problem using semantic information provided by a multiclass classifier. Finally, we remove AEC by modeling regions within each 3-D object with a hierarchical conditional random field, solved by graph cut. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms a purely discriminative learning method in detecting true colon regions, while decreasing extra-colonic components in challenging clinical data that includes collapsed cases.
- Cdx1 and Cdx2 function as tumor suppressors. [Journal Article]
- J Biol Chem 2014 Nov 28; 289(48):33343-54JB
- In humans, colorectal cancer is often initiated through APC loss of function, which leads to crypt hyperplasia and polyposis driven by unrestricted canonical Wnt signaling. Such polyps typically aris...
In humans, colorectal cancer is often initiated through APC loss of function, which leads to crypt hyperplasia and polyposis driven by unrestricted canonical Wnt signaling. Such polyps typically arise in the colorectal region and are at risk of transforming to invasive adenocarcinomas. Although colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, the processes impacting initiation, transformation, and invasion are incompletely understood. Murine APC(Min/+) mutants are often used to model colorectal cancers; however, they develop nonmetastatic tumors confined largely to the small intestine and are thus not entirely representative of the human disease. APC(Min/+) alleles can collaborate with mutations impacting other pathways to recapitulate some aspects of human colorectal cancer. To this end, we assessed APC(Min/+)-induced polyposis following somatic loss of the homeodomain transcription factor Cdx2, alone or with a Cdx1 null allele, in the adult gastrointestinal tract. APC(Min/+)-Cdx2 mutants recapitulated several aspects of human colorectal cancer, including an invasive phenotype. Notably, the concomitant loss of Cdx1 led to a significant increase in the incidence of tumors in the distal colon, relative to APC(Min/+)-Cdx2 offspring, demonstrating a previously unrecognized role for this transcription factor in colorectal tumorigenesis. These findings underscore previously unrecognized roles for Cdx members in intestinal tumorigenesis.
- Capsule endoscopy followed by single balloon enteroscopy in children with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: a combined approach. [Journal Article]
- Dig Liver Dis 2015; 47(2):125-30DL
- CONCLUSIONS: This algorithm achieves optimal levels of diagnostic yield (95%) and therapeutic outcome (82%). This approach deserves to be studied in a larger multicentre cohort of patients and for a longer follow-up period.
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- Multiple mucin depleted foci, high proliferation and low apoptotic response in the onset of colon carcinogenesis of the PIRC rat, mutated in Apc. [Journal Article]
- Int J Cancer 2015 Mar 15; 136(6):E488-95IJ
- PIRC rats (F344/NTac-Apc (am1137) ) mutated in the Apc gene spontaneously develop colon tumors thus mimicking familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) more closely th...
PIRC rats (F344/NTac-Apc (am1137) ) mutated in the Apc gene spontaneously develop colon tumors thus mimicking familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) more closely than Apc-based rodent models developing tumors mostly in the small intestine. To understand whether microscopic dysplastic lesions precede the development of macroscopic tumors, PIRC rat colon was examined for the presence of mucin depleted foci (MDF), microadenomas of the rodent and human colon. Few MDF (about 4/animal) were already present in 1-month-old rats and their number rapidly increases to about 250 in 8-month-old rats. These lesions showed Wnt signaling activation (nuclear β-catenin accumulation) and were dramatically decreased by sulindac (320 ppm), a drug with chemopreventive activity (MDF/rat at 4 months: 156 ± 8 and 38 ± 6 in controls and sulindac-treated rats, respectively, means ± SE, p < 0.001). Since altered proliferation and apoptosis could underlie the early phases of carcinogenesis, we studied these processes in the apparently normal colon mucosa (NM) of 1-month-old PIRC and wt rats. Colon proliferation (PCNA expression) was significantly higher in PIRC rats. Notably, PIRC rat NM showed resistance to apoptosis since it sustained proliferation and had lower apoptosis after a cytotoxic insult with 1,2 dimethylhydrazine. Gene expression of Myc, p21, Birc5, Ogg1, Apex1 and Sod2 were significantly up-regulated in the NM of PIRC rat. The overall results put forward PIRC rat as useful model of colon carcinogenesis, either to study the process itself or to test in vivo chemopreventive agents in both short- and long-term studies.