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Polyps of colon and small intestine [keywords]
- Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy: training the next generation. [Journal Article]
- Surg Endosc 2013 May; 27(5):1784-90.
Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC) is touted to be an improved approach for minimally invasive surgery although no data currently exists regarding the acquisition of skills for the safe performance of this technique. The authors report their early experience with proctoring of surgical residents in SILC by experienced colorectal surgeons.Data regarding patient demographics, operative data, and short-term outcomes were prospectively collected at two surgical training hospitals. Residents and staff independently rated individual components of this technique to compare them with learning standard multiport colectomy (MP).A total of 31 SILC cases (15 men; mean age 53 years) were managed. The average BMI was 26.5 kg/m(2) (range 16-39 kg/m(2)). The surgical indications included cancer (n = 13), polyps (n = 8), diverticular disease (n = 4), Crohn's disease (n = 2), familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 2), volvulus (n = 1), and rectal prolapse (n = 1). The average operative time was 164 ± 86 min, and the mean blood loss was 80 ± 83 mL. The mean incision length was 4.1 ± 1.1 cm. One case required additional trocar placement (stoma creation), and three cases required conversion to open procedure because of failure to progress, difficult colorectal anastomosis, or poor visualization. The median hospital stay was 5.7 ± 1.3 days. The 30-day morbidity included minor wound infections (9.7 %), ileus (6.5 %), blood transfusion (3.2 %), and intraabdominal abscess (3.2 %). No deaths occurred. Residents rated vascular pedicle isolation, mobilization, critical structure exposure, instrument conflict/handling, and ergonomics as significantly more difficult with SILC.Senior-level residents can safely perform SILC under appropriate experienced supervision. The required advanced skills reflect complex laparoscopic training occurring during residency. Opportunities exist for better preparation and training of surgical residents to perform this complex surgery independently and safely at completion of residency.
- Peutz-Jegher syndrome in childhood: need for updated recommendations? [Journal Article]
- J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2013 Feb; 56(2):191-5.
We reviewed our institution's experience with Peutz-Jegher syndrome (PJS) in children to determine whether current recommendations on timing of screening and follow-up should be modified.We reviewed the charts of all of the children with a diagnosis of PJS at our institution from 2000 to 2011 abstracting data on intussusceptions events, polyp characteristics, Sertoli cell (SC) tumors, family history, imaging, and interventions.Of 14 children identified, 10 were boys. Median age at first clinical evaluation was 4.5 years, and family history and/or mucocutaneous pigmentation were the 2 most common factors stimulating screening. Median age at first screening test was 5 years (range 1-16), and at first polyp identification, 5 years (range 1 to 18). There were 7 intussusception events in 5 children, with median age of 10 and range 5 to 16 for first event. Two boys had SC tumors at 8 and 11 years. Polyps were identified during initial screening in 9 of 14 patients. Polyps were found in the stomach or duodenum in 5 (36%), small bowel in 7, (50%) and colon in 3 (21%) children. Large polyps were identified in 9 children at median age of 7 years.Polyps causing significant clinical consequences can occur frequently in children with PJS younger than 8 years. Revised guidelines should consider initial screening at age 4 to 5 with capsule endoscopy and upper and lower endoscopy as well as evaluation for SC tumors and re-evaluation whenever symptoms suggest polyp-associated complications.
- Suture marker lesion detection in the colon by self-stabilizing and unmodified capsule endoscopes: pilot study in acute canine models. [Evaluation Studies, Journal Article]
- Gastrointest Endosc 2013 Feb; 77(2):272-9.
Capsule endoscopy is a noninvasive method for examining the small intestine. Recently, this method has been used to visualize the colon. However, the capsule often tumbles in the wider colon lumen, resulting in potentially missed pathology. In addition, the capsule does not have the ability to distend collapsed segments of the organ. Self-stabilizing capsule endoscopy is a new method of visualizing the colon without tumbling and with the ability to passively distend colon walls.To quantitatively compare the detection rate of intraluminal suture marker lesions for colonoscopy by using a custom-modified, self-stabilizing capsule endoscope (SCE); an unmodified capsule endoscope (CE) of the same brand; and a standard colonoscope.Four mongrel dogs underwent laparotomy and the implantation of 5 to 8 suture markers to approximate colon lesions. Each dog had both capsule endoscopy and self-stabilizing capsule endoscopy, administered consecutively in random order. In each case, the capsule was inserted endoscopically into the proximal lumen of the colon followed by pharmacologically induced colon peristalsis to propel it distally through the colon. Blinded standard colonoscopy was performed by an experienced gastroenterologist after the capsule endoscopies.Experimental study in a live canine model.Four dogs.Laparotomy, capsule endoscopy, colonoscopy.Comparison of the marker detection rate of the SCE to that of the unmodified MiroCam CE and a colonoscope.The average percentages of the marker detection rate for unmodified capsule endoscopy, self-stabilizing capsule endoscopy, and colonoscopy, respectively, were 31.1%, 86%, and 100% (P < .01), with both self-stabilizing capsule endoscopy and colonoscopy performing significantly better than the unmodified capsule endoscopy.Acute canine model, suture markings poorly representative of epithelial polyps, limited number of animals.The proposed self-stabilizing capsule endoscope delivered a significant improvement in detection rates of colon suture markings when compared with the unmodified capsule endoscope.
- Localized ileal giant pseudopolyposis in Crohn's disease: a case report. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Pathologica 2012 Aug; 104(4):198-200.
Localized giant pseudopolyposis is a rare complication in inflammatory bowel disease defined as a pseudopolyp (isolated or clustered) larger than 1.5 cm in size. Giant pseudopolyps are more commonly found in ulcerative colitis compared to Crohn's disease and mainly involve the left colon. A 26-year-old male patient with a two-year history of Crohn's disease was admitted with increasing abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss and fever. On physical examination, the abdomen was diffusely tender. Computed tomography showed diffuse irregular thickening of the ileal wall and stenosis of the terminal ileum. The patient underwent ileo-cecal resection with re-anastomosis. The ileal portion of the resected specimen harboured multiple finger-like pedunculated polyps, with the smallest measuring 0.5 cm and the largest measuring 1.8 cm. Histologically, the polyps were consistent with granulation tissue. No evidence of dysplasia or malignancy was found. The post-operative course was uneventful considering one month follow-up. This report illustrates an unusual case of giant pseudopolyposis involving the ileum in a patient with Crohn's disease. The natural history of these lesions, as well as their optimal management, remain uncertain.
- Chemoprevention of intestinal adenomatous polyposis by acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid in APC(Min/+) mice. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int J Cancer 2013 Jun 1; 132(11):2667-81.
Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) is a derivative of boswellic acid, which is an active component of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata. AKBA has been used as an adjuvant medication for treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of AKBA as a chemopreventive agent against intestinal adenomatous polyposis in the adenomatous polyposis coli multiple intestinal neoplasia (APC(Min/+) ) mouse model. APC(Min/+) mice were administered AKBA by p.o. gavage for 8 consecutive weeks. The mice were sacrificed and the number, size and histopathology of intestinal polyps were examined by light microscopy. AKBA decreased polyp numbers by 48.9% in the small intestine and 60.4% in the colon. An even greater AKBA effect was observed in preventing the malignant progression of these polyps. The number of large (>3 cm) colonic polyposis was reduced by 77.8%. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of dysplastic cells and in the degree of dysplasia in each polyp after AKBA treatment. There was no evidence of high grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma in any of the polyps examined within the treated group. More interestingly, interdigitated normal appearing intestinal villi were observed in the polyps of the treated group. During the course of the study, AKBA was well tolerated by the mice with no obvious signs of toxicity. Results from immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that the chemopreventive effect of AKBA was attributed to a collection of activities including antiproliferation, apoptosis induction, antiangiogenesis and anti-inflammation. AKBA was found to exert its chemopreventive action through the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB/cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that AKBA could be a promising regimen in chemoprevention against intestinal tumorigenesis.
- Genetics, inheritance and strategies for prevention in populations at high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). [Journal Article, Review]
- Recent Results Cancer Res 2013.:157-83.
Hereditary forms of colorectal cancer account for less than 5 % of colorectal cancer but attract disproportionate attention because they offer an opportunity for effective surgical prophylaxis, influence the health of the wider family and give insight into the critical pathways of carcinogenesis. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) due to loss of the APC gene and Lynch syndrome or Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC) due to breakdown in MisMatch Repair are the principal syndromes of broader interest and both have been the subject of chemoprevention trials. There has been a longstanding interest in non-steroidal anti inflammatories in FAP where trials have shown regression of polyps with the "pro drug"sulindac and the selective COX2 inhibitors though impact on long-term cancer risk is not confirmed. The CAPP1 trial focused on two interventions in a factorial design, aspirin and resistant starch or fermentable fibre. Resistant starch is not absorbed in the small intestine and undergoes colonic fermentation to short-chain fatty acids including butyrate which have anti-cancer effects. Polyposis registry clinicians across Europe recruited adolescents with FAP to receive aspirin (600 mg as 2 tablets/d) and/or 30 g as 2 sachets/d in a 1:1 blend of potato starch and high amylose maize starch [Hylon VII]) with placebo control for at least a year or until surgery before age 21. Fifty-nine percent (133/227) of recruits had a baseline and at least one other endoscopy. After a median of 17 months , the primary endpoint of a risk of an increased polyp number in the rectum and sigmoid colon was not significantly reduced in either treatment group with relative risks of 0.77 (aspirin; 95 % CI, 0.54-1.10;) and 1.05 (RS; 95 % CI, 0.73-1.49. The diameter of the largest polyp detected tended to be smaller in the aspirin arm. The planned subgroup analyses of patients who elected to continue on study for more than one year found a significant reduction in the size of the largest polyp in the aspirin versus non-aspirin group (p = 0.02), Mean crypt length decreased significantly over time on study in the two combined RS groups, compared with the two combined non-RS groups (p < 0.0001 for interaction), in a model of the interaction between intervention and time. In CAPP2, 1009 Lynch syndrome gene carriers were recruited from 43 international centres. 937 commenced intervention: 600 mg enteric coated aspirin and/or 30grams of the resistant starch Novelose in a 2 by 2 factorial placebo controlled design. After a mean of 29 months, intervention, there was no evidence that either agent influenced development of colonic neoplasia. However, the design included double blind follow-up for at least 10 years. After a mean of 55.7 months, and despite regular colonoscopy and polyp removal, 48 recruits developed CRC. Of these, 18 received aspirin and 30 received AP; the HR for CRC for aspirin was 0.63 (CI 0.35-1.13, p = 0.12). Five of the 48 people who developed CRC each had two primary colon cancers. Poisson regression analysis to allow for multiple primary events indicated a protective effect: IRR 0.56 (CI 0.32-0.99, p = 0.05). For those who took aspirin (or AP) for a minimum of 2 years (per protocol) the HR was 0.41 (CI 0.19-0.86 p = 0.02) and the IRR, 0.37 (CI 0.18-0.78 p = 0.008). Combined analysis of all LS cancers including CRC revealed a similar effect. On intention to treat analysis, the HR was 0.65 (CI 0.42-1.00, p = 0.05 and IRR was 0.59 (CI 0.39-0.90 p = 0.01), while the Per Protocol analysis HR was 0.45 (CI 0.26-0.79 p = 0.005,) and IRR was 0.42 (CI 0.25-0.72, p = 0.001). Adverse events in the aspirin and placebo groups were similar with 11 significant gastrointestinal bleeds or ulcers in the aspirin group and 9 in the placebo group. The evidence is now sufficient to recommend aspirin to all Lynch syndrome gene carriers. CAPP3 will recruit 3000 gene carriers into a dose inferiority study to test the relative benefits of 100mg, 300 or 600mg daily doses.
- Modifying effect of diallyl sulfide on colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6J-ApcMin/⁺ mice. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012; 13(4):1115-8.
Diallyl sulfide (DAS), a flavoring compound derived from garlic, is considered to have cancer chemopreventive potential in experimental animals and humans. This study was designated to examine possible chemopreventive effects of DAS on colon carcinogenesis using genetically engineered transgenic ApcMin/⁺ mice, a well-established animal model for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and sporadic colorectal cancer. Male C57BL/6J-ApcMin/⁺ mice were divided into three groups. Animals of group 1 were placed on the basal diet (AIN-76A) as non-treated controls. Animals of groups 2 and 3 were given DAS- containing diets (in doses of 100 and 300 ppm, respectively). All mice were sacrificed at the end of week 10 of the experiment. Histopathological investigation revealed that the incidence of colonic polyps was decreased dose-dependently by 19% (13/16) in group 2 and by 32% (13/20) in group 3 compared to the 100% incidence (10/10) in group 1. The multiplicity of colonic polyps per mouse was also slightly decreased by DAS treatment (1.88 ± 0.35 in group 2 and 1.63 ± 0.36 in group 3) compared to 2.00 ± 0.39 in group 1. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the numbers of total polyps per mouse in the small intestine between the groups. Taken together, we suggest that DAS may exert promising inhibitory effects on colon carcinogenesis in the transgenic ApcMin/⁺ mice.
- Explosion from argon cautery during proctoileoscopy of a patient with a colectomy. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012 Oct; 10(10):1176-1178.e2.
We report a unique case of a 70-year-old woman with Gardner's syndrome who had a subtotal colectomy with ileoproctostomy. Since then, she has undergone 12 uncomplicated proctoileoscopies, each time with argon plasma coagulation ablation of small polyps without any bowel preparation. However, during the most recent procedure, when we attempted to cauterize some rectal polyps, an immediate explosion occurred, leading to multiple rectal and ileal perforations that required surgical repair with a temporary end ileostomy. This event suggests that bacterial fermentation of colonic content or visible feces is not necessary for combustion because we observed a cautery-related explosion in the absence of a colon. This case shows the need for adequate bowel preparation if cautery is to be used, even in patients who have undergone a colectomy.
- Identification of five novel modifier loci of Apc(Min) harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Carcinogenesis 2012 Aug; 33(8):1589-97.
Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc ( Min ) mouse model carries a point mutation in the Apc gene and develops polyps along the intestinal tract. Inbred strain background influences polyp phenotypes in Apc ( Min ) mice. Several Modifier of Min (Mom) loci that alter tumor phenotypes associated with the Apc ( Min ) mutation have been identified to date. We screened BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains by crossing BXH RI females with C57BL/6J (B6) Apc ( Min ) males and quantitating tumor phenotypes in backcross progeny. We found that the BXH14 RI strain harbors five modifier loci that decrease polyp multiplicity. Furthermore, we show that resistance is determined by varying combinations of these modifier loci. Gene interaction network analysis shows that there are multiple networks with proven gene-gene interactions, which contain genes from all five modifier loci. We discuss the implications of this result for studies that define susceptibility loci, namely that multiple networks may be acting concurrently to alter tumor phenotypes. Thus, the significance of this work resides not only with the modifier loci we identified but also with the combinations of loci needed to get maximal protection against polyposis and the impact of this finding on human disease studies.