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Post traumatic stress disorder [keywords]
- Stellate ganglion block improves refractory post-traumatic stress disorder and associated memory dysfunction: a case report and systematic literature review. [Journal Article]
- Mil Med 2013 Feb; 178(2):e260-4.
The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has reached epidemic proportions among U.S. veterans, many of whom also have concurrent alcohol use disorder. This case report describes improvements in PTSD symptom severity and memory dysfunction in a combat-exposed veteran with persistent PTSD and alcohol use disorder following two treatments of stellate ganglion block (SGB). PTSD severity was measured using the PTSD Checklist, Military Version. Memory function was evaluated using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. One month after the first SGB, a 43.6% reduction in PTSD severity was observed along with increases in immediate memory (50%), recent memory (28%), and recognition memory (25%). Following a second SGB, PTSD severity decreased by 57.7% and memory function substantially improved, with pronounced changes in immediate memory (50%), recent memory (58%), and recognition memory (36%). One year after SGB treatments, the patient has stopped drinking alcohol, continues to have sustained relief from PTSD, has improved memory function, and has become gainfully employed. Future studies that employ robust epidemiologic methodologies are needed to generate confirmatory evidence that would substantiate SGB's clinical utility as an adjunctive treatment option for PTSD.
- Group Therapy Among OEF/OIF Veterans: Treatment Barriers and Preferences. [Journal Article]
- Mil Med 2013 Jan; 178(1):e146-9.
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) combat Veterans are at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many are seeking treatment from the Veterans Health Administration; yet, it is an ongoing challenge to engage some Veterans in sustained mental health services, especially group therapy for PTSD. This pilot study assessed OEF/OIF Veterans' prior use of mental health treatment and perceived barriers to and interest in group therapy for PTSD using a survey distributed in one outpatient OEF/OIF PTSD specialty clinic in the Midwest. The 110 OEF/OIF Veterans reported experience with a range of mental health treatment services and most frequently identified perceptions of the group process to be barriers to engaging in group therapy. Specifically, OEF/OIF Veterans endorsed concerns about taking part in a group, expressing emotions, being misunderstood, and disliking the group composition. A clear preference for individual over group therapy for PTSD treatment was reported with 57% reporting disinterest in group therapy. Data suggest that Veterans are apprehensive about taking part in group therapy for PTSD. Awareness of barriers and treatment preferences can inform clinical practice and aid in developing patient-centered Veterans Health Administration services.
- Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Sleep Res 2013 Jun 14.
A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82) = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82) = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement duration (F(3,82) = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement percentage (F(3,82) = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82) = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with impairment in the homeostatic function of sleep, especially in men with the disorder. These findings suggest that group × sex interaction effects on rapid eye movement may occur with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder or with post-traumatic stress disorder comorbid with major depressive disorder.
- The Role of Intelligence in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Does it Vary by Trauma Severity? [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(6):e65391.
Only a small minority of trauma victims develops post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suggesting that victims vary in their predispositions to the PTSD response to stressors. It is assumed that the role of predispositions in PTSD varies by trauma severity: when stressors are less severe, predispositions play a bigger role. In this study, we test whether the role of intelligence in PTSD varies by trauma severity. Specifically, does low intelligence plays a bigger part among victims of lower magnitude stressors than among victims of extreme stressors?Data come from a longitudinal study of randomly selected sample in Southeast Michigan (n = 713). IQ was measured at age 6. PTSD was measured at age 17, using the NIMH-DIS for DSM-IV. Stressors were classified as extreme if they involved assaultive violence (e.g. rape, sexual assault, threatened with a weapon); other stressors in the list (e.g. disaster, accidents) were classified as lower magnitude. Assaultive violence victims had experienced assaultive violence plus other event types or only assaultive violence. Victims of other stressors were participants who had never experienced assaultive violence. We compared the influence of age 6 IQ on PTSD among persons exposed to assaultive violence vs. other stressors, using multinomial logistic regression.Relative risk ratio (RRR) for PTSD associated with a one point drop in age 6 IQ among victims of assaultive violence was 1.04 (95% CI 1.01, 1.06); among victims of other stressors, it was 1.03 (95% CI 0.99, 1.06). A comparison of the two RRRs indicates no significant difference between the two estimates (p = 0.652). IQ does not play a bigger role in PTSD among victims of other stressors than it does among victims of assaultive violence.Lower IQ exerts an adverse PTSD effect on trauma victims, with no evidence of variability by the severity of trauma they have experienced.
- What kind of diagnosis in a case of mobbing: post-traumatic stress disorder or adjustment disorder? [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
Over the last decade a consistent increase in stress-related psychological consequences at the workplace, usually called 'mobbing', has been seen. It claimed physical, psychical and social distress as its victims, leading to an increased incidence of many illnesses, such as psychosomatic disorders (ache, high blood pressure, chronic fatigue and insomnia) and psychiatric disturbances (high level of anxiety, depression and suicidal attempts). It was recently demonstrated that mobbing is significantly widespread among healthcare workers, especially among female nurses. In this report, we illustrate the case of a nurse who, after a brilliant career, underwent mobbing at the workplace, showing depression, anxiety and sleep disorders that required hospitalisation and a substantial intervention.
- Using Multidimensional Grief Theory to Explore the Effects of Deployment, Reintegration, and Death on Military Youth and Families. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2013 Jun 12.
To date, the US military has made major strides in acknowledging and therapeutically addressing trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in service members and their families. However, given the nature of warfare and high rates of losses sustained by both military members (e.g., deaths of fellow unit members) and military families (e.g., loss of a young parent who served in the military), as well as the ongoing threat of loss that military families face during deployment, we propose that a similar focus on grief is also needed to properly understand and address many of the challenges encountered by bereaved service members, spouses, and children. In this article, we describe a newly developed theory of grief (multidimensional grief theory) and apply it to the task of exploring major features of military-related experiences during the phases of deployment, reintegration, and the aftermath of combat death-especially as they impact children. We also describe implications for designing preventive interventions during each phase and conclude with recommended avenues for future research. Primary aims are to illustrate: (1) the indispensable role of theory in guiding efforts to describe, explain, predict, prevent, and treat maladaptive grief in military service members, children, and families; (2) the relevance of multidimensional grief theory for addressing both losses due to physical death as well as losses brought about by extended physical separations to which military children and families are exposed during and after deployment; and (3) a focus on military-related grief as a much-needed complement to an already-established focus on military-related PTSD.
- Mental health, childhood abuse and HIV sexual risk behaviour among university students in Ivory Coast. [Journal Article]
- Ann Gen Psychiatry 2013; 12(1):18.
Little focus has been paid to the role of poor mental health and childhood abuse among young people with regard to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviour and HIV prevention in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the association between mental health, childhood abuse and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university students in Ivory Coast.A cross-sectional survey was conducted with undergraduate students that were recruited randomly from classes at the Félix Houphouët Boigny University of Cocody. The sample included 824 university students (50% men and 50% women), with a mean age of 23.7 years (SD = 2.7).Of the 824 university students who completed the survey, 17.6% reported depression, 10.8% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder, 8.3% reported at least monthly heavy episodic drinking, 13.5% reported childhood physical abuse and 4.7% sexual abuse, 33.9% had two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months, 66.3% had inconsistent condom use, 23.6% had alcohol use in the context of sex and 16.7% had a history of a sexually transmitted infection In multivariable analysis among men, lack of religiousness and alcohol use in the context of sex were associated with HIV risk behaviour, and among women, poorer family background, experience of sexual and physical partner violence, alcohol use in the context of sex and depression were associated with HIV risk behaviour.Poor mental health (depression) including alcohol use and partner violence was found to be associated with HIV risk behaviour. Coordinated mental health and sexual and reproductive health services to meet the needs of university students would be desirable.
- Effects of Schedule I drug laws on neuroscience research and treatment innovation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Rev Neurosci 2013 Jun 12.
Many psychoactive drugs are used recreationally, particularly by young people. This use and its perceived dangers have led to many different classes of drugs being banned under national laws and international conventions. Indeed, the possession of cannabis, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA; also known as ecstasy) and psychedelics is stringently regulated. An important and unfortunate outcome of the controls placed on these and other psychoactive drugs is that they make research into their mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic uses - for example, in depression and post-traumatic stress disorder - difficult and in many cases almost impossible.
- Psychiatric Outcome after Severe Cardio-Respiratory Failure Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Case-Series. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychosomatics 2013 Jun 4.
BACKGROUND:Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly used to save patients with severe cardiopulmonary failure at high risk of dying, but the long-term psychiatric outcome of the treatment has not been studied.
METHODS:Twenty-eight adults who survived ECMO were subjected to psychiatric assessment 5 years after ECMO by means of interviews (MINI-Neuropsychiatric Interview and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale) and psychometrics [Neuroticism and social conformity (EPQ-N+L); General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale; Aggression Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Giessener somatic symptom checklist (GBB)].
RESULTS:Fifteen patients (54%) suffered lifetime psychiatric disorders prior to ECMO. After ECMO, 11 subjects (39%) developed new psychiatric disorders, mostly organic mental (18%), obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) 15%, and/or post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) 11%. These 11 patients reported higher scores on Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), GHQ, EPQ-N, and GBB. Disregarding the presence of psychiatric disorders at follow-up, ECMO patients reported high levels of distress, physical aggression, anger, and alexithymic traits.
CONCLUSIONS:Severe life-threatening cardiovascular or pulmonary failure with subsequent ECMO is associated with an increased prevalence of long-term psychiatric disorders and distress. Studies addressing the etiology and prevalence of psychiatric consequences after ECMO are needed.
- Psychometric evaluation of the moral injury events scale. [Journal Article]
- Mil Med 2013 Jun; 178(6):646-52.
Literature describing the phenomenology of the stress of combat suggests that war-zone experiences may lead to adverse psychological outcomes such as post-traumatic stress disorder not only because they expose persons to life threat and loss but also because they may contradict deeply held moral and ethical beliefs and expectations. We sought to develop and validate a measure of potentially morally injurious events as a necessary step toward studying moral injury as a possible adverse consequence of combat. We administered an 11-item, self-report Moral Injury Events Scale to active duty Marines 1 week and 3 months following war-zone deployment. Two items were eliminated because of low item-total correlations. The remaining 9 items were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis, which revealed two latent factors that we labeled perceived transgressions and perceived betrayals; these were confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis on an independent sample. The overall Moral Injury Events Scale and its two subscales had favorable internal validity, and comparisons between the 1-week and 3-month data suggested good temporal stability. Initial discriminant and concurrent validity were also established. Future research directions were discussed.