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Premenopausal vaginal bleeding, abnormal [keywords]
- Committee opinion no. 601: tamoxifen and uterine cancer. [Journal Article]
- Obstet Gynecol 2014 Jun; 123(6):1394-7.
: Tamoxifen, a nonsteroidal antiestrogen agent, is widely used as adjunctive therapy for women with breast cancer, and it has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for adjuvant treatment of breast cancer, treatment of metastatic breast cancer, and reduction in breast cancer incidence in high-risk women. Tamoxifen use may be extended to 10 years based on new data demonstrating additional benefit. Women taking tamoxifen should be informed about the risks of endometrial proliferation, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer, and uterine sarcomas, and any abnormal vaginal bleeding, bloody vaginal discharge, staining, or spotting should be investigated. Postmenopausal women taking tamoxifen should be closely monitored for symptoms of endometrial hyperplasia or cancer. Premenopausal women treated with tamoxifen have no known increased risk of uterine cancer and require no additional monitoring beyond routine gynecologic care. Unless the patient has been identified to be at high risk of endometrial cancer, routine endometrial surveillance has not proved to be effective in increasing the early detection of endometrial cancer in women using tamoxifen and is not recommended. If atypical endometrial hyperplasia develops, appropriate gynecologic management should be instituted, and the use of tamoxifen should be reassessed.
- Uterine angioleiomyoma causing severe abnormal uterine bleeding. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2014; 41(1):102-4.
Angioleiomyoma or angiomyoma or vascular leiomyoma is an unusual benign mesenchymal neoplasm. The authors present a rare case of large uterine angioleiomyoma causing severe abnormal uterine bleeding.The patient, a 53-year-old, gravida 2, para 2, premenopausal Greek woman presented with a complaint of severe abnormal uterine bleeding. On gynecologic examination there was a palpable pelvic mass. Preoperative computer tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis revealed an intra-abdominal mass 25 x 15 cm with abnormally increased vascularization. She underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, total omentectomy and elective pelvic lymph node dissection. Histopathology revealed uterine angioleiomyoma. Follow up 84 months after initial surgery showed no evidence of recurrence.Despite the type of surgery, patients with uterine angioleiomyoma have very low risk of recurrence and excellent prognosis.
- The clinical significance of small endometrial polyps. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013 Oct; 170(2):497-500.
Small endometrial polyps are relatively common in asymptomatic women and may regress spontaneously. In symptomatic women, the finding of a small polyp (<1cm diameter) raises the question of the clinical pertinence and necessity of excision. Sparse data are available on the effectiveness of hysteroscopic excision of small polyps to manage abnormal uterine bleeding. The aim of this study was to assess outcome after hysteroscopic excision of small endometrial polyps in symptomatic patients.This was an observational cohort study enrolling 255 premenopausal women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding and a small endometrial polyp on office hysteroscopy, undertaken between January 2004 and February 2007. The study group was referred for polypectomy by operative hysteroscopy. The outcome of the procedure was reviewed 6-12 months later by a telephone interview to assess the pattern of uterine bleeding after the procedure and overall satisfaction.Significant improvement in the magnitude of bleeding was experienced by 70% of participants, but only 30% of them reported return to regular menses. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 80%. Younger patients reported a less favorable bleeding pattern and were found to be less satisfied with the outcome of the procedure.Symptomatic women with small endometrial polyps can be treated safely and efficiently with hysteroscopic excision. In the younger age group of patients, however, the outcome of the procedure may be less favorable and may necessitate the addition of endometrial ablation to improve outcome and increase patient satisfaction.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding after epidural steroid injection: a paired observation cohort study. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013 Sep; 209(3):206.e1-6.
The use of epidural steroid injections has increased dramatically, but knowledge of potential adverse effects is lacking. An association between steroid injection and subsequent abnormal vaginal bleeding has been suspected clinically, but evidence has been limited to anecdotal reports.Paired observational retrospective cohort study using electronic medical records from a large integrated health care system. Participants were all nonhysterectomized women who underwent epidural steroid injections in 2011. For each steroid injection, encounters for abnormal vaginal bleeding during the 60 days preceding and 60 days after the injection were compared as paired observations. For women found to have bleeding, medical records review was performed to examine menopausal status and bleeding evaluation outcomes.Among 8166 epidural steroid injection procedures performed on 6926 nonhysterectomized women, 201 (2.5%) procedures were followed by at least 1 outpatient visit for abnormal vaginal bleeding. Women were 2.8 times more likely to present with abnormal vaginal bleeding during the postinjection period compared with the preinjection period (P < .0001). Of the 197 women with postinjection bleeding, 137 (70%) were premenopausal and 60 (30%) were postmenopausal. Postinjection bleeding prompted endometrial biopsy evaluation in 103 (52%) cases, with benign findings for 100% of premenopausal women (59/59) and 95% of postmenopausal women (42/44).Epidural steroid injections are associated with subsequent abnormal vaginal bleeding for both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Women undergoing epidural steroid injection should be advised of abnormal bleeding as a potential adverse effect and providers should be aware of this association when evaluating abnormal bleeding.
- [Evaluation of endometrectomy by radiofrequency for premenopausal women: a retrospective study]. [English Abstract, Evaluation Studies, Journal Article]
- J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 2013 Sep; 42(5):458-63.
In present study, we are assessing the efficiency of endometrial ablation by radiofrequency (Novasure(®)) for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding.A total of 90 patients underwent an endometrial ablation by radiofrequency for uterine bleeding between 2009 and 2012. For the postoperative follow-up, symptoms amelioration and eventual adverse-events were evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire given to all patients after the surgery.Sixty-five patients (74%) responded to the questionnaire with an average of 17.5 months. Among them, endometrial bleeding decreased in 92% of the cases (IC 95%; 86-99). The amenorrhea rate was 55% (IC 95%; 43-67) and 36% of the patients presented a diminution of menstrual bleeding after treatment. Thirty-two patients (36%) presented dysmenorrhea before the radiofrequency and 78% of them experienced an amelioration of the symptoms after treatment (IC 95%; 64-93). In 19 patients (21%), the cause of uterine bleeding was adenomyosis, among them, bleeding decreased in 84% of the cases (IC 95%; 71-98) and dysmenorrhea in 70%. (IC 95%; 41-97). Finally, 84% of the patients were satisfied with the result of the treatment.Our findings suggest that endometrial radiofrequency is effective for the treatment of menometrorrhagia, dysmenorrhea and also adenomyosis.
- Classification of hysteroscopical images using texture and vessel descriptors. [Journal Article]
- Med Biol Eng Comput 2013 Aug; 51(8):859-67.
In recent years, hysteroscopy, used as an outpatient office procedure, in combination with endometrial biopsy, has demonstrated its great potential as the method of first choice in the diagnosis of various gynecological abnormalities including abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and endometrial cancer (CA). In patients suffering with AUB, the blood vessels of the endometrium are hypertrophic, whereas in the case of CA vascularization is irregular or anarchic. In this paper, a methodology for the classification of hysteroscopical images of endometrium using vessel and texture features is presented. A total of 28 patients with abnormal uterine bleeding, 10 patients with endometrial cancer and 39 subjects with no pathological condition were imaged. 16 of the patients with AUB were premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal, all with CA were postmenopausal, and all with no pathological condition were premenopausal. All images were examined for the appearance of endometrial vessels and non-vascular structures. For each image, 167 texture and vessel's features were initially extracted, which were reduced after feature selection in only 4 features. The images were classified into three categories using artificial neural networks and the reported classification accuracy was 91.2 %, while the specificity and sensitivity were 83.8 and 93.6 % respectively.
- Management of uterine bleeding during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural]
- Obstet Gynecol 2013 Feb; 121(2 Pt 2 Suppl 1):424-7.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is an effective treatment strategy for a variety of hematologic disorders, but patients are at risk for dysfunctional coagulation and abnormal bleeding. Gynecologists are often consulted before transplant for management of abnormal uterine bleeding, which may be particularly challenging in this context.A premenopausal woman with MonoMAC (a rare adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by monocytopenia and Mycobacterium avium complex infections resulting from mutations in GATA2, a crucial gene in early hematopoiesis) presented with pancytopenia, evolving leukemia, and recent strokes, necessitating anticoagulation. During preparation for hematopoietic stem cell transplant, she experienced prolonged menorrhagia requiring transfusions. Surgical therapy was contraindicated, and medical management was successful only when combined with balloon tamponade.Balloon tamponade may be a potentially life-saving adjunct to medical therapy for control of uterine hemorrhage before hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
- A new progestogen-only medical therapy for outpatient management of acute, abnormal uterine bleeding: a pilot study. [Clinical Trial, Journal Article]
- Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013 Jun; 208(6):499.e1-5.
The objective of this investigation was to study short-term efficacy and feasibility of a new progestogen-only treatment for outpatient management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding.This was a prospective, single-arm, pilot clinical trial of a progestogen-only bridging treatment for acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant, premenopausal women in the Gynecologic Urgent Care Clinic at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. Subjects were administered a depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate 150 mg intramuscular injection and given medroxyprogesterone acetate 20 mg to be taken orally every 8 hours for 3 days. The primary outcome measures included a percentage of women who stopped bleeding in 5 days, time to bleeding cessation, reduction in numbers of pads used, side effects, and patient satisfaction.All 48 women stopped bleeding within 5 days; 4 women had spotting only at the time of their last contact during the 5 day follow-up. Mean time to bleeding cessation was 2.6 days. Side effects were infrequent and patient satisfaction was high.Injection of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate 150 mg intramuscularly combined with 3 days of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate 20 mg every 8 hours for 9 doses is an effective outpatient therapy for acute abnormal uterine bleeding.
- Long-term outcomes after intrauterine morcellation vs hysteroscopic resection of endometrial polyps. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2013 Mar-Apr; 20(2):215-21.
To compare the long-term outcomes of intrauterine morcellation (IUM) of endometrial polyps vs a traditional operative polypectomy technique, hysteroscopic resection (HSR), and to identify factors predictive of recurrent abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) after operative polypectomy.Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2).Minimally invasive gynecologic surgery practice in a tertiary care center.Women who underwent operative hysteroscopic polypectomy between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2009.Intrauterine morcellation or HSR with evaluation and/or treatment of recurrent AUB after operative polypectomy.Of 311 patients (IUM group, 139; HSR group, 172), 167 (53.7%) had at least 1 gynecologic follow-up visit and 57 (18.4%) had recurrent AUB. Subsequent gynecologic clinic visit rates were similar between the 2 groups (HSR, 58.1%, vs IUM, 48.2%; p = .08). Recurrence of AUB within the first 4 years of follow-up was similar between the IUM and HSR groups (hazard ratio for HSR vs IUM, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.98; p = .59). However, recurrence of endometrial polyps approached statistical significance (hazard ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-11.49; p = .06). Premenopausal status, history of hormone replacement therapy, multiparity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome were independently associated with AUB recurrence. There were no reports of inability to establish a histopathologic diagnosis among all pathology specimens evaluated.Compared with HSR, intrauterine morcellation may be associated with lower recurrence of endometrial polyps. However, the incidence of recurrent AUB is independent of polypectomy method.
- Hysteroscopic findings in women with menorrhagia. [Journal Article]
- J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2013 Mar-Apr; 20(2):209-14.
To describe the hysteroscopic findings in patients complaining of menorrhagia to establish any significant association between menorrhagia and benign/malignant intrauterine disorders.Prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II).University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.One hundred eighteen premenopausal women undergoing office hysteroscopy for menorrhagia (group A) and 344 premenopausal patients undergoing office hysteroscopy for other indications (noncyclic abnormal uterine bleeding, infertility, ultrasonographic abnormalities, etc) (group B).Office hysteroscopy.Data on the prevalence of hysteroscopic findings (cervical polyps, endometrial polyps, submucous myomas, low-grade hyperplasia and high-grade hyperplasia/endometrial carcinoma) were compared between group A and group B. The total prevalence, as well as the prevalence of type 0 and type I myomas (totally or >50% intracavitary, respectively), and the mean number per patients with submucous myomas was significantly higher in group A compared with group B (p = .0001, p = .024, and p = .017, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between age (odds ratio 4.15, 95% confidence interval 1.55-11.1 in the 40- to 49-year age group), presence of submucous myomas (odds ratio 2.76, 95% confidence interval 1.52-5.00), and menorrhagia.Menorrhagia seems to be associated with aging, the presence and number of submucous myomas, and with the degree of their intracavitary development.