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Premenopausal vaginal bleeding, abnormal [keywords]
- Experience of hysteroscopy indications and complications in 5,474 cases. [Journal Article]
- Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2014; 41(4):451-4.
To evaluate the indications, intraoperative diagnoses, and complication rates of both diagnostic and operative hysteroscopic procedures.Five thousand four hundred seventy-four (5474) hysteroscopic procedures performed in the department of gynecologic endoscopy unit between May 2005 and December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed from the archives. Indications, intraoperative diagnosis, and complications of all gynecological endoscopic procedures are recorded.Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal and postmenopausal women was the most frequent indication for diagnostic hysteroscopies in 1,887 (40%) cases. The most common preoperative indication for operative hysteroscopy was endometrial polyps in 469 (55.7%) cases and submucous leiomyomas in 151 (17.9%) cases. In this series, the most common complication was uterine perforation which occured in 15 (0.27%) out of 5,474 cases and the rate for diagnostic hysteroscopy and operative hysteroscopy was 0.06% and 1%, respectively.Hysteroscopy is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure with very low complication rate.
- Predictors of malignancy in endometrial polyps: a multi-institutional cohort study. [Journal Article, Multicenter Study]
- Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2014; 35(4):382-6.
The risk of endometrial cancer in women with endometrial polyps (EPs) has been reported to vary between 0.3% and 4.8%. There is a lack of data about the management of asymptomatic women with incidental diagnosis of EPs. In the present study the authors correlated demographic and clinical characteristics with histopathological features of the EPs hysteroscopically removed.An observational multi-institutional cohort study was conducted from February 2010 to December 2012 to identify all the premenopausal and postmenopausal women consecutively undergoing hysteroscopic polypectomy. The data of women were reviewed and clinical features were related to histopathologic results.The patients recruited were 813. The mean age was 52.5 years (range 22-87). The results showed a correlation between older age, high body mass index (BMI) and obesity, postmenopausal state, abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), hypertension, and risk of malignant EPs. On multivariable analysis, the correlation remained only for age (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03 - 1.14) and AUB (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.87 - 6.65).Older patients in postmenopausal status with AUB, a high BMI, and hypertension are at higher risk for premalignant and malignant polyps. In these patients a surgical approach should be used, consisting in hysteroscopical removing of the polyp.
- Committee Opinion No. 601: Tamoxifen and uterine cancer. [Journal Article]
- Obstet Gynecol 2014 Jun; 123(6):1394-7.
Tamoxifen, a nonsteroidal antiestrogen agent, is widely used as adjunctive therapy for women with breast cancer, and it has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for adjuvant treatment of breast cancer, treatment of metastatic breast cancer, and reduction in breast cancer incidence in high-risk women. Tamoxifen use may be extended to 10 years based on new data demonstrating additional benefit. Women taking tamoxifen should be informed about the risks of endometrial proliferation, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer, and uterine sarcomas, and any abnormal vaginal bleeding, bloody vaginal discharge, staining, or spotting should be investigated. Postmenopausal women taking tamoxifen should be closely monitored for symptoms of endometrial hyperplasia or cancer. Premenopausal women treated with tamoxifen have no known increased risk of uterine cancer and require no additional monitoring beyond routine gynecologic care. Unless the patient has been identified to be at high risk of endometrial cancer, routine endometrial surveillance has not proved to be effective in increasing the early detection of endometrial cancer in women using tamoxifen and is not recommended. If atypical endometrial hyperplasia develops, appropriate gynecologic management should be instituted, and the use of tamoxifen should be reassessed.
- Uterine angioleiomyoma causing severe abnormal uterine bleeding. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2014; 41(1):102-4.
Angioleiomyoma or angiomyoma or vascular leiomyoma is an unusual benign mesenchymal neoplasm. The authors present a rare case of large uterine angioleiomyoma causing severe abnormal uterine bleeding.The patient, a 53-year-old, gravida 2, para 2, premenopausal Greek woman presented with a complaint of severe abnormal uterine bleeding. On gynecologic examination there was a palpable pelvic mass. Preoperative computer tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis revealed an intra-abdominal mass 25 x 15 cm with abnormally increased vascularization. She underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, total omentectomy and elective pelvic lymph node dissection. Histopathology revealed uterine angioleiomyoma. Follow up 84 months after initial surgery showed no evidence of recurrence.Despite the type of surgery, patients with uterine angioleiomyoma have very low risk of recurrence and excellent prognosis.
- Is there an appropriate cutoff age for sampling the endometrium in premenopausal bleeding? [Journal Article]
- Gynecol Obstet Invest 2014; 77(1):40-4.
To determine a cutoff age for endometrial evaluation in premenopausal abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).Histopathology reports of endometrial sampling performed due to AUB in women aged 50 years or less were reviewed retrospectively. Histopathological findings were categorized into three groups as follows: group 1: hyperplasia without atypia + hyperplasia with atypia + malignancy, group 2: hyperplasia with atypia + malignancy, and group 3: malignancy.Data from 2,516 patients were analyzed for this study. Overall, 13.5% of patients had endometrial hyperplasia without atypia, 1% of patients had hyperplasia with atypia and 0.6% of patients had malignant disease. Logistic regression revealed a significant difference in the odds ratios of group 1 in the age ranges of 40-45 and 45-50 years compared with <40 years (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). There were no significant differences between the age groups for the odds ratio of group 2 and group 3.There is no cutoff age for sampling the endometrium in order to detect hyperplasia with atypia and cancer in premenopausal women with AUB. Therefore, the management of AUB should be tailored to each patient regardless of age, incorporating all risk factors for malignant disease.
- The clinical significance of small endometrial polyps. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Review]
- Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013 Oct; 170(2):497-500.
Small endometrial polyps are relatively common in asymptomatic women and may regress spontaneously. In symptomatic women, the finding of a small polyp (<1cm diameter) raises the question of the clinical pertinence and necessity of excision. Sparse data are available on the effectiveness of hysteroscopic excision of small polyps to manage abnormal uterine bleeding. The aim of this study was to assess outcome after hysteroscopic excision of small endometrial polyps in symptomatic patients.This was an observational cohort study enrolling 255 premenopausal women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding and a small endometrial polyp on office hysteroscopy, undertaken between January 2004 and February 2007. The study group was referred for polypectomy by operative hysteroscopy. The outcome of the procedure was reviewed 6-12 months later by a telephone interview to assess the pattern of uterine bleeding after the procedure and overall satisfaction.Significant improvement in the magnitude of bleeding was experienced by 70% of participants, but only 30% of them reported return to regular menses. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 80%. Younger patients reported a less favorable bleeding pattern and were found to be less satisfied with the outcome of the procedure.Symptomatic women with small endometrial polyps can be treated safely and efficiently with hysteroscopic excision. In the younger age group of patients, however, the outcome of the procedure may be less favorable and may necessitate the addition of endometrial ablation to improve outcome and increase patient satisfaction.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding after epidural steroid injection: a paired observation cohort study. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013 Sep; 209(3):206.e1-6.
The use of epidural steroid injections has increased dramatically, but knowledge of potential adverse effects is lacking. An association between steroid injection and subsequent abnormal vaginal bleeding has been suspected clinically, but evidence has been limited to anecdotal reports.Paired observational retrospective cohort study using electronic medical records from a large integrated health care system. Participants were all nonhysterectomized women who underwent epidural steroid injections in 2011. For each steroid injection, encounters for abnormal vaginal bleeding during the 60 days preceding and 60 days after the injection were compared as paired observations. For women found to have bleeding, medical records review was performed to examine menopausal status and bleeding evaluation outcomes.Among 8166 epidural steroid injection procedures performed on 6926 nonhysterectomized women, 201 (2.5%) procedures were followed by at least 1 outpatient visit for abnormal vaginal bleeding. Women were 2.8 times more likely to present with abnormal vaginal bleeding during the postinjection period compared with the preinjection period (P < .0001). Of the 197 women with postinjection bleeding, 137 (70%) were premenopausal and 60 (30%) were postmenopausal. Postinjection bleeding prompted endometrial biopsy evaluation in 103 (52%) cases, with benign findings for 100% of premenopausal women (59/59) and 95% of postmenopausal women (42/44).Epidural steroid injections are associated with subsequent abnormal vaginal bleeding for both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Women undergoing epidural steroid injection should be advised of abnormal bleeding as a potential adverse effect and providers should be aware of this association when evaluating abnormal bleeding.
- [Evaluation of endometrectomy by radiofrequency for premenopausal women: a retrospective study]. [English Abstract, Evaluation Studies, Journal Article]
- J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 2013 Sep; 42(5):458-63.
In present study, we are assessing the efficiency of endometrial ablation by radiofrequency (Novasure(®)) for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding.A total of 90 patients underwent an endometrial ablation by radiofrequency for uterine bleeding between 2009 and 2012. For the postoperative follow-up, symptoms amelioration and eventual adverse-events were evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire given to all patients after the surgery.Sixty-five patients (74%) responded to the questionnaire with an average of 17.5 months. Among them, endometrial bleeding decreased in 92% of the cases (IC 95%; 86-99). The amenorrhea rate was 55% (IC 95%; 43-67) and 36% of the patients presented a diminution of menstrual bleeding after treatment. Thirty-two patients (36%) presented dysmenorrhea before the radiofrequency and 78% of them experienced an amelioration of the symptoms after treatment (IC 95%; 64-93). In 19 patients (21%), the cause of uterine bleeding was adenomyosis, among them, bleeding decreased in 84% of the cases (IC 95%; 71-98) and dysmenorrhea in 70%. (IC 95%; 41-97). Finally, 84% of the patients were satisfied with the result of the treatment.Our findings suggest that endometrial radiofrequency is effective for the treatment of menometrorrhagia, dysmenorrhea and also adenomyosis.
- Classification of hysteroscopical images using texture and vessel descriptors. [Journal Article]
- Med Biol Eng Comput 2013 Aug; 51(8):859-67.
In recent years, hysteroscopy, used as an outpatient office procedure, in combination with endometrial biopsy, has demonstrated its great potential as the method of first choice in the diagnosis of various gynecological abnormalities including abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and endometrial cancer (CA). In patients suffering with AUB, the blood vessels of the endometrium are hypertrophic, whereas in the case of CA vascularization is irregular or anarchic. In this paper, a methodology for the classification of hysteroscopical images of endometrium using vessel and texture features is presented. A total of 28 patients with abnormal uterine bleeding, 10 patients with endometrial cancer and 39 subjects with no pathological condition were imaged. 16 of the patients with AUB were premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal, all with CA were postmenopausal, and all with no pathological condition were premenopausal. All images were examined for the appearance of endometrial vessels and non-vascular structures. For each image, 167 texture and vessel's features were initially extracted, which were reduced after feature selection in only 4 features. The images were classified into three categories using artificial neural networks and the reported classification accuracy was 91.2 %, while the specificity and sensitivity were 83.8 and 93.6 % respectively.
- Management of uterine bleeding during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural]
- Obstet Gynecol 2013 Feb; 121(2 Pt 2 Suppl 1):424-7.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is an effective treatment strategy for a variety of hematologic disorders, but patients are at risk for dysfunctional coagulation and abnormal bleeding. Gynecologists are often consulted before transplant for management of abnormal uterine bleeding, which may be particularly challenging in this context.A premenopausal woman with MonoMAC (a rare adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by monocytopenia and Mycobacterium avium complex infections resulting from mutations in GATA2, a crucial gene in early hematopoiesis) presented with pancytopenia, evolving leukemia, and recent strokes, necessitating anticoagulation. During preparation for hematopoietic stem cell transplant, she experienced prolonged menorrhagia requiring transfusions. Surgical therapy was contraindicated, and medical management was successful only when combined with balloon tamponade.Balloon tamponade may be a potentially life-saving adjunct to medical therapy for control of uterine hemorrhage before hematopoietic stem cell transplant.