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Pruritus itching [keywords]
- Combination Therapy With Telaprevir for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection in Patients With HIV: A Randomized Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Intern Med 2013 May 17.
BACKGROUND:Telaprevir (TVR) plus peginterferon-α2a (PEG-IFN-α2a) and ribavirin substantially increases treatment efficacy for genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection versus PEG-IFN-α2a-ribavirin alone. Its safety and efficacy in patients with HCV and HIV-1 are unknown.
OBJECTIVE:To assess the safety and efficacy of TVR plus PEG-IFN-α2a-ribavirin in patients with genotype 1 HCV and HIV-1 and evaluate pharmacokinetics of TVR and antiretrovirals during coadministration.
DESIGN:Phase 2a, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00983853)
SETTING:16 international multicenter sites.
PATIENTS:62 patients with HCV genotype 1 and HIV-1 who were HCV treatment-naive and taking 0 or 1 of 2 antiretroviral regimens were randomly assigned to TVR plus PEG-IFN-α2a-ribavirin or placebo plus PEG-IFN-α2a-ribavirin for 12 weeks, plus 36 weeks of PEG-IFN-α2a-ribavirin.
MEASUREMENTS:HCV RNA concentrations.
RESULTS:Pruritus, headache, nausea, rash, and dizziness were higher with TVR plus PEG-IFN-α2a-ribavirin during the first 12 weeks. Serious adverse events occurred in 5% (2 in 38) of those receiving TVR plus PEG-IFN-α2a-ribavirin and 0% (0 in 22) of those receiving placebo plus PEG-IFN-α2a-ribavirin; the same number in both groups discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Sustained virologic response occurred in 74% (28 in 38) of patients receiving TVR plus PEG-IFN-α2a-ribavirin and 45% (10 in 22) of patients receiving placebo plus PEG-IFN-α2a-ribavirin. Rapid HCV suppression was seen with TVR plus PEG-IFN-α2a-ribavirin (68% [26 in 38 patients] vs. 0% [0 in 22 patients] undetectable HCV RNA levels by week 4). Two patients had on-treatment HCV breakthrough with TVR-resistant variants. Patients treated with antiretroviral drugs had no HIV breakthroughs; antiretroviral exposure was not substantially modified by TVR.
LIMITATION:Small sample size and appreciable dropout rate.
CONCLUSION:In patients with HCV and HIV-1, more adverse events occurred with TVR versus placebo plus PEG-IFN-α2a-ribavirin; these were similar in nature and severity to those in patients with HCV treated with TVR. With or without concomitant antiretrovirals, sustained virologic response rates were higher in patients treated with TVR versus placebo plus PEG-IFN-α2a-ribavirin.
PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE:Vertex Pharmaceuticals and Janssen Pharmaceuticals.
- Activity-dependent silencing reveals functionally distinct itch-generating sensory neurons. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Neurosci 2013 May 19.
The peripheral terminals of primary sensory neurons detect histamine and non-histamine itch-provoking ligands through molecularly distinct transduction mechanisms. It remains unclear, however, whether these distinct pruritogens activate the same or different afferent fibers. Using a strategy of reversibly silencing specific subsets of murine pruritogen-sensitive sensory axons by targeted delivery of a charged sodium-channel blocker, we found that functional blockade of histamine itch did not affect the itch evoked by chloroquine or SLIGRL-NH2, and vice versa. Notably, blocking itch-generating fibers did not reduce pain-associated behavior. However, silencing TRPV1(+) or TRPA1(+) neurons allowed allyl isothiocyanate or capsaicin, respectively, to evoke itch, implying that certain peripheral afferents may normally indirectly inhibit algogens from eliciting itch. These findings support the presence of functionally distinct sets of itch-generating neurons and suggest that targeted silencing of activated sensory fibers may represent a clinically useful anti-pruritic therapeutic approach for histaminergic and non-histaminergic pruritus.
- 3M Cavilon No-Sting Barrier Film or topical corticosteroid (mometasone furoate) for protection against radiation dermatitis: A clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Formos Med Assoc 2013 May 16.
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:Evidence on the prevention of radiation dermatitis is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3M Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film and topical corticosteroids on irradiated skin.
METHODS:Thirty-nine postoperative breast cancer patients were randomized into three groups for intraindividual comparison (skin to be irradiated was divided into 2 parts): (1) 3M No Sting Barrier Film versus no treatment; (2) corticosteroid versus no treatment; and (3) corticosteroid versus 3M No Sting Barrier Film. The primary end points monitored were the time to first occurrence of grade 1 pruritus, pain score of 3 and grade 2 radiation dermatitis. The secondary end points studied were the incidence of grade 3 radiation dermatitis and total pain scores. Data analysis was done using the SPSS software version 10.
RESULTS:Skin given the 3M barrier film experienced a later occurrence of pruritus compared to both corticosteroids and untreated, although this was statistically insignificant. Corticosteroids delayed the time to occurrence of grade 2 dermatitis compared to both untreated skin and 3M barrier film, (mean day of onset = corticosteroid: 52 vs. untreated: 43, p = 0.092; corticosteroid: 53.4 vs. 3M barrier film: 44.5, p = 0.002, t test). Skin given corticosteroids had the lowest incidence of grade 3 dermatitis among all three conditions, although the differences were statistically insignificant. No statistically significant differences were noted in total pain scores.
CONCLUSION:The 3M barrier film may be helpful against dermatitis associated pruritus. Corticosteroids may delay the time of onset of severe skin reactions and also reduce the incidence of severe radiation dermatitis.
- The first case of Demodex gatoi in Austria, detected with fecal flotation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Parasitol Res 2013 May 17.
Feline demodicosis is a rare parasitic condition caused by three different species of mites (Demodex cati, Demodex gatoi, and an unnamed species). D. gatoi inhabits the superficial skin layer (stratum corneum) and is easily transmitted between individual cats. A 2-year-old female spayed Cornish Rex was presented with alopecia and pruritus. The dermatological examination revealed bilateral alopecia and excoriations on trunk, limbs, and belly. The second cat in the household, a 3-year-old female spayed Thai, showed no clinical signs. Superficial and deep skin scrapings were performed and cellophane tapes applied, and living D. gatoi mites could be detected in both cats. Oral ivermectin (0.25 mg/kg every other day) was subscribed. Feces were collected from both cats and fecal flotation with sugar and zinc solutions performed. When compared to skin scrapings and cellophane tapes, D. gatoi was detected more frequently and in higher numbers in fecal samples. Our findings suggest that D. gatoi can be efficiently diagnosed with coproscopy, particularly in asymptomatic carrier animals. DNA was extracted from the flotation liquid, and a PCR protocol for the species verification was designed. A fragment targeting a 325-bp DNA fragment of the D. gatoi mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene was amplified with a 100 % similarity to the D. gatoi entry in GenBank® (GI 421920216). We report the first finding of D. gatoi in Austria and propose fecal flotation as a valuable tool for mite detection. Fecal flotation liquid is suitable for DNA extraction and PCR-based species verification of D. gatoi.
- Atopic dermatitis in adults: Clinical and epidemiological considerations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Assoc Med Bras 2013 May 13.
OBJECTIVE:Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease causing intense pruritus, and with typical clinical features. There are few epidemiological studies concerning AD in adults, as well as little information about its prognostic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological course of adults with AD.
METHODS:80 patients aged above 18 years (mean age=29 years) were selected (30 males and 50 females) and interviewed about hospitalization, systemic corticoid usage, age of AD onset, and personal and/or familial history of atopy. Disease severity was evaluated through the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) tool. Laboratory examination included IgE serum levels and eosinophil blood count.
RESULTS:71 out of 80 patients referred association with respiratory symptoms (18 had asthma, 17 had rhinitis, and 36 had both conditions); nine out of 80 patients denied any respiratory disease. AD patients were divided in mild (n=25), moderate (n=30), and severe (n=25); 56% had one or more hospitalizations due to AD. A positive association was found between IgE serum levels, eosinophil blood count, and disease severity.
CONCLUSION:Adult AD represents a clinical challenge that needs to be better characterized, since it can be misdiagnosed and interferes with the patient's social and personal life. The association of skin and respiratory atopic disease is frequent, and laboratory parameters such as circulating IgE levels and eosinophil blood count may be helpful to assess disease severity.
- Comparative Assessment of Skin and Subcutaneous Toxicity in Patients of Advanced Colorectal Carcinoma Treated with Different Schedules of FOLFOX. [Journal Article]
- Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013; 14(3):1781-6.
Objective:The study was designed to assess the skin and subcutaneous toxicity in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma treated with four different schedules of FOLFOX.
Methods:The patients with histologically confirmed advanced colorectal carcinoma (CRC) were included in the study as per specified inclusion criteria. Toxicity was graded according to CTC v2.0. The frequency of grade 3 and 4 adverse effects were comparatively assessed in each treatment arm.
Results:Very severe toxicity was attributed to the FOLFOX7 schedule. The difference between the incidence rate of grade 4 toxicity with all other grades for all parameters of skin and subcutaneous toxicity was highly significant (p=0.00<0.001). Grade 4 hand and foot syndrome was reported only in the FOLFOX7 treatment arm. The most frequent adverse symptom of skin and subcutaneous toxicity reported in the patients treated with modified schedule of FOLFOX was pruritus (grade 1). Frequency and onset of skin and subcutaneous toxic symptoms like alopecia (p=0.000), nail discoloration (p=0.021) and pruritis (p=0.000) was significantly different in each FOLFOX treatment arm. A few cases of oncholysis were also reported in the FOLFOX7 treatment arm. Hand and foot syndrome was fast progressing in patients with grade 1 toxicity.
Conclusion:Higher frequency and severity of hand and foot syndrome and pruritus wasa found in the FOLFOX7 treatment arm. Skin and subcutaneous toxicity was comparatively low in the FOLFOX6 treatment arm.
- [Somatoform pruritus : A psychosomatic disease model.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hautarzt 2013 May 17.
Pruritus is an interdisciplinary symptom that is difficult to diagnose and treat. When there is no evidence of an organic cause, it is challenge for both the patient and the doctor. Itching affecting non-inflamed and otherwise normal skin is often classified as somatoform pruritus. When treated in an interdisciplinary manner with psychosomatic specialists, the patient increasingly becomes aware of still-unrecognized inner-emotional conflicts. At the same time, however, it must be taken into account that the pruritus may precede an underlying disease by a long time and that the diagnosis must be checked regularly. Basic psychosomatic competence and experience in the administration of psychopharmaceuticals is recommended for dermatologists. Taking a psychosomatic concept of disease into account may improve patient satisfaction and compliance, and help to avoid doctor-hopping.
- [Spontaneous activity of cutaneous nociceptors in patients with painful polyneuropathy. Report of three patients]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Med Chil 2012 Nov; 140(11):1383-90.
Background:Painful polyneuropathy may result from selective impairment of small diameter nerve fibers, while tactile and motor functions are preserved. In these patients clinical and electrophysiological assessment is usually unrevealing. We report three patients with a pure painful polyneuropathy. One of them had neurogenic pruritus additionally. Quantitative sensory analysis disclosed a slight warm hypoesthesia (3/3) and paradoxical hot sensation (2/3) in the feet. Intraneural recordings from the peroneal nerve demonstrated abnormal spontaneous activity in 8 of 17 nociceptive afferents. One of them displayed double firing reflecting impulse multiplication. These results support the notion that patients with pain or pruritus with a distal distribution similar to a polyneuropathy, could have small diameter afferent fiber damage, despite normal function of large diameter fibers.
- The use of aprepitant in brachioradial pruritus. [Journal Article]
- JAMA Dermatol 2013 May 1; 149(5):627-8.
- Pruritus Ani, Recurring After Plastic Operation for Its Cure. [Journal Article]
- JAMA Dermatol 2013 May 1; 149(5):528.