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Psychiatry AND Mania [keywords]
- Low-Dose Manic Switch and High-Dose Antimanic Effect and Extrapyramidal Symptoms by Aripiprazole in a Single Bipolar Patient. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ther 2013 May 14.
A case report of an adult female patient with bipolar depression who developed mania after short-term administration of low-dose aripiprazole (2 mg daily) is reported. Later, the author rechallenged with high-dose aripiprazole (22 mg) for treating mania, but there was no manic switch, unlike when using low-dose aripiprazole. A 1-month follow-up revealed no further symptoms of mania or depression, except dyskinesia and sialorrhea. Clinicians should therefore carefully and vigilantly monitor for both the induction of mania and extrapyramidal symptoms according to the aripiprazole dose.
- Two cases of delayed-onset suicidal ideation, dysphoria and anxiety after ketamine infusion in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and a history of major depressive disorder. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Psychopharmacol 2013 May 15.
Ketamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist that is Food and Drug Administration-approved in the United States for anesthesia due to its sedative effects with low risk of severe respiratory depression. Subanesthetic dose intravenous ketamine has rapidly acting antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. We recently reported an open-label trial of ketamine in 10 subjects with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, seven of whom had active comorbid depression. Although ketamine had no sustained anti-obsessive effect, four of the seven subjects with comorbid depression experienced an acute antidepressant effect. However, we unexpectedly observed delayed-onset dysphoria, worsening anxiety and suicidal thinking in two of the three subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder and extensive psychiatric comorbidity but minimal depressive symptoms at the start of infusion. The implications of these adverse neuropsychiatric effects in two patients with similar psychiatric comorbidity are discussed. We conclude that there remains insufficient data on therapeutic ketamine in the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders to promote its off-label use in a non-research milieu.
- Lamotrigine abolished aggression in a patient with treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder. [Journal Article]
- Clin Neuropharmacol 2013 May-Jun; 36(3):94-5.
Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug with broad spectrum of actions, also approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Growing number of reports document the antiaggressive effect of lamotrigine in various psychiatric diseases. However, there has been only 1 study in the literature investigating the role of lamotrigine in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but its antiaggressive aspect was not observed. Although aggression is commonly associated with PTSD, there is paucity of data considering its management. We report a case of a patient with treatment-resistant PTSD, whose aggressive outbursts dominated his clinical picture and which were greatly improved after introducing lamotrigine in therapy. Our case suggests that lamotrigine may be useful in treating aggression and aggression-related symptoms in PTSD.
- Prevalence and correlates of antipsychotic polypharmacy in children and adolescents receiving antipsychotic treatment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2013 May 14.:1-11.
Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP), which is common in adults with psychotic disorders, is of unproven efficacy and raises safety concerns. Although youth are increasingly prescribed antipsychotics, little is known about APP in this population. We performed a systematic PubMed search (last update 26 January 2013) of studies reporting the prevalence of APP in antipsychotic-treated youth. Summary statistics and statistical tests were calculated at the study level and not weighted by sample size. Fifteen studies (n = 58 041, range 68-23 183) reported on APP in youth [mean age = 13.4 ± 1.7 yr, 67.1 ± 10.2% male, 77.9 ± 27.4% treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs)]. Data collected in these studies covered 1993-2008. The most common diagnoses were attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 39.9 ± 23.5%) and conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder (CD/ODD; 33.6 ± 24.8). In studies including predominantly children (mean age = <13 yr, N = 5), the most common diagnosis were ADHD (50.6 ± 25.4%) and CD/ODD (39.5 ± 27.5%); while in studies with predominantly adolescents (mean age = ⩾13 yr, N = 7) the most common diagnoses were schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (28.6 ± 23.8%), anxiety disorders (26.9 ± 14.9%) and bipolar-spectrum disorders (26.6 ± 7.0%), followed closely by CD/ODD (25.8 ± 17.7). The prevalence of APP among antipsychotic-treated youth was 9.6 ± 7.2% (5.9 ± 4.5% in child studies, 12.0 ± 7.9% in adolescent studies, p = 0.15). Higher prevalence of APP was correlated with a bipolar disorder or schizophrenia diagnosis (p = 0.019) and APP involving SGA+SGA combinations (p = 0.0027). No correlation was found with APP definition [⩾1 d (N = 10) vs. >30-⩾90 d (N = 5), p = 0.88]. Despite lacking safety and efficacy data, APP in youth is not uncommon, even in samples predominantly consisting of non-psychotic patients. The duration, clinical motivations and effectiveness of this practice require further study.
- Gene-expression differences in peripheral blood between lithium responders and non-responders in the Lithium Treatment-Moderate dose Use Study (LiTMUS). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 May 14.
This study was designed to identify genes whose expression in peripheral blood may serve as early markers for treatment response to lithium (Li) in patients with bipolar disorder. Although changes in peripheral blood gene-expression may not relate directly to mood symptoms, differences in treatment response at the biochemical level may underlie some of the heterogeneity in clinical response to Li. Subjects were randomized to treatment with (n=28) or without (n=32) Li. Peripheral blood gene-expression was measured before and 1month after treatment initiation, and treatment response was assessed after 6 months. In subjects treated with Li, 62 genes were differentially regulated in treatment responders and non-responders. Of these, BCL2L1 showed the greatest difference between Li responders and non-responders. These changes were specific to Li responders (n=9), and were not seen in Li non-responders or patients treated without Li, suggesting that they may have specific roles in treatment response to Li.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 14 May 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.16.
- Reprint of "Neuronal cell-type specific DNA methylation patterns of the Cacna1c gene" [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Dev Neurosci 2013 May 10.
Gene expression of the alpha-1 subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel, CACNA1C, is known to be complexly regulated. Because CACNA1C is not only a crucial gene in normal brain function but also a promising candidate risk gene for psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, elucidating the molecular basis of transcriptional regulatory mechanism will be critically important. Here we examined DNA methylation status of CpG islands and a CpG island shore on mouse Cacna1c in neuronal and non-neuronal nuclei, which were separated with a fluorescent activated cell sorting technique. We found that neurons and non-neurons showed differential DNA methylation profile on a CpG island shore. This difference was evolutionarily conserved in human neuronal and non-neuronal nuclei in the prefrontal cortex, suggesting that DNA methylation status on the CpG island shore of Cacna1c may have an important role in transcript regulation.
- Memantine: a review of possible uses in child and adolescent psychiatry. [Journal Article]
- J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013 May; 22(2):166-71.
To provide a review of published literature regarding the pharmacology of memantine and potential benefits for use in child and adolescent psychiatry.A LITERATURE SEARCH OF SEVERAL DATABASES (MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, CINAHL, PSYCARTICLES) WAS CONDUCTED WITH THE SEARCH TERMS: 'memantine' with limits: English language, Human trials, all child (aged 0-18 years). The search was later expanded to include 'Adults' and relevant articles were also selected from reference lists.The search did not find any well-controlled studies in children and adolescents except for open label trials, as monotherapy in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as an augmenting agent in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). No study was found in anxiety disorders (AD), the most common psychiatric disorder in children or in mood disorders, both major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Studies in adults for those disorders with onset in childhood or adolescence, were also mostly open-label and as an add-on therapy. All the studies reported that memantine is a safe drug with minimal drug interactions and a very acceptable adverse effect profile comparable to placebo.Memantine has demonstrated beneficial effects in some childhood disorders but the evidence is too limited at present and does not provide enough support of its efficacy to advocate for its regular use in those conditions. Such use remains off-label until further validation of efficacy comes from blinded, randomized, placebo controlled studies.
- Mood and metabolic consequences of sleep deprivation as a potential endophenotype' in bipolar disorder. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2013 May 8.
It has been commonly recognized that circadian rhythm and sleep/wake cycle are causally involved in bipolar disorder. There has been a paucity of systematic research considering the relations between sleep and mood states in bipolar disorder. The current study examines the possible influences of sleep deprivation on mood states and endocrine functions among first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Blood samples were taken at two time points in the consecutive mornings at predeprivation and postdeprivation periods. Participants simultaneously completed the Profiles of Mood States at two time points after giving blood samples. Plasma T3 and TSH levels increased after total sleep deprivation in both groups. Sleep deprivation induced TSH levels were reversely associated with depression-dejection among healthy controls. A paradoxical effect was detected for only the first-degree relatives of the patients that changes in plasma cortisol levels negatively linked to depression-dejection and anger-hostility scores after total sleep deprivation. Plasma DHEA levels became correlated with vigor-activity scores after sleep deprivation among first-degree relatives of bipolar patients. On the contrary, significant associations of depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and confusion-bewilderment with the baseline plasma DHEA levels became statistically trivial in the postdeprivation period. Findings suggested that first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder had completely distinct characteristics with respect to sleep deprivation induced responses in terms of associations between endocrine functions and mood states as compared to individuals whose relatives had no psychiatric problems. Considering the relationships between endocrine functions and mood states among relatives of the patients, it appears like sleep deprivation changes the receptor sensitivity which probably plays a pivotal role on mood outcomes among the first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder.
- Treatment of bipolar disorder. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Lancet 2013 May 11; 381(9878):1672-82.
We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation.
- Bipolar disorder diagnosis: challenges and future directions. [Journal Article]
- Lancet 2013 May 11; 381(9878):1663-71.
Bipolar disorder refers to a group of affective disorders, which together are characterised by depressive and manic or hypomanic episodes. These disorders include: bipolar disorder type I (depressive and manic episodes: this disorder can be diagnosed on the basis of one manic episode); bipolar disorder type II (depressive and hypomanic episodes); cyclothymic disorder (hypomanic and depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for depressive episodes); and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (depressive and hypomanic-like symptoms that do not meet the diagnostic criteria for any of the aforementioned disorders). Bipolar disorder type II is especially difficult to diagnose accurately because of the difficulty in differentiation of this disorder from recurrent unipolar depression (recurrent depressive episodes) in depressed patients. The identification of objective biomarkers that represent pathophysiologic processes that differ between bipolar disorder and unipolar depression can both inform bipolar disorder diagnosis and provide biological targets for the development of new and personalised treatments. Neuroimaging studies could help the identification of biomarkers that differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar depression, but the problem in detection of a clear boundary between these disorders suggests that they might be better represented as a continuum of affective disorders. Innovative combinations of neuroimaging and pattern recognition approaches can identify individual patterns of neural structure and function that accurately ascertain where a patient might lie on a behavioural scale. Ultimately, an integrative approach, with several biological measurements using different scales, could yield patterns of biomarkers (biosignatures) to help identify biological targets for personalised and new treatments for all affective disorders.