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Psychiatry AND Opioid withdrawal [keywords]
- Smoking and Opioid Detoxification: Behavioral Changes and Response to Treatment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nicotine Tob Res 2013 Apr 9.
INTRODUCTION:The relevance of tobacco use in opioid addiction (OA) has generated a demand for available and more effective interventions. Thus, further analysis of less explored nicotine-opioid clinical interactions is warranted.
METHODS:A post-hoc analysis of OA participants in a double-blind, randomized very low dose naltrexone (VLNTX) inpatient detoxification trial evaluated measures of opioid withdrawal and tobacco use. Intreatment smokers were compared with nonsmokers, or smokers who were not allowed to smoke.
RESULTS:A total of 141 (81%) of 174 OA participants were smokers, all nicotine-dependent. Inpatient smoking was a predictor of opioid withdrawal discomfort. Intreatment smokers (n = 96) showed significantly higher opioid craving (F = 3.7, p < .001) and lower detoxification completion rate (χ(2) = 7.9, p < .02) compared with smokers who were not allowed to smoke (n = 45) or nonsmokers (n = 33). Smoking during treatment was associated with more elevated cigarette craving during detoxification (F = 4.1, p < .001) and a higher number of cigarettes smoked at follow-up (F = 3.6, p < .02). Among intreatment smokers, VLNTX addition to methadone taper was effective in easing opioid withdrawal and craving more than other treatments, whereas the combination VLNTX-clonidine was associated with significantly reduced cigarette craving and smoking during detoxification.
CONCLUSIONS:Failure to address tobacco use may negatively affect pharmacologically managed opioid discontinuation. Opioid detoxification may offer a window of opportunity to expand smoking cessation treatment, hence improving OA outcomes. The observed effects support testing of VLNTX-clonidine in smoking cessation trials among individuals with or without substance abuse.
- Interactions between μ-Opioid Receptor Agonists and Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists in Rhesus Monkeys: Antinociception, Drug Discrimination, and Drug Self-Administration. [Journal Article]
- J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2013 Jun; 345(3):354-62.
Cannabinoid receptor agonists enhance the antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists, which suggests that combinations of these drugs might enhance therapeutic effectiveness (e.g., analgesia). However, it is not clear whether combinations of these drugs also enhance abuse or dependence liability. This experiment examined whether combinations of cannabinoids and opioids that enhance antinociception also increase abuse-related effects by studying the effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonists 2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol (CP 55,940) and (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone mesylate (WIN 55,212) on the antinociceptive, discriminative stimulus, and positive reinforcing effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists in rhesus monkeys. In one group of monkeys (n = 3), morphine (0.1-5.6 mg/kg s.c.), CP 55,940 (0.0032-0.032 mg/kg s.c.), and WIN 55,212 (0.1-1.0 mg/kg s.c.) dose-dependently increased tail withdrawal latency from 50°C water, and pretreatment with small, otherwise ineffective, doses of CP 55,940 and WIN 55,212 shifted the morphine dose-effect curve to the left. In monkeys (n = 3) discriminating 3.2 mg/kg morphine, CP 55,940 (0.01-0.032 mg/kg s.c.) and WIN 55,212 (0.1-1.78 mg/kg s.c.) attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine, shifting the dose-effect curve to the right. In monkeys (n = 4) self-administering heroin (0.32-32.0 µg/kg/infusion i.v.), CP 55,940 (0.001-0.032 mg/kg s.c.), and WIN 55,212 (0.1-1.0 mg/kg s.c.) shifted the heroin dose-effect curve rightward and downward. Cannabinoid receptor agonists CP 55,940 and WIN 55,212 enhanced the antinociceptive effects but not the discriminative stimulus or positive reinforcing effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists in rhesus monkeys, supporting the view that combining cannabinoid and opioid receptor agonists might result in enhanced treatment effectiveness for pain without similarly enhancing abuse and dependence liability.
- Effects of prototypic calcium channel blockers in methadone-maintained humans responding under a naloxone discrimination procedure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Mar 21.
Accumulating evidence suggests that L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs) attenuate the expression of opioid withdrawal and the dihydropyridine L-type CCB isradipine has been shown to block the behavioral effects of naloxone in opioid-maintained humans. This study determined whether two prototypic L-type CCBs with differing chemical structures, the benzothiazepine diltiazem and the phenylalkamine verapamil, attenuate the behavioral effects of naloxone in methadone-maintained humans trained to distinguish between low-dose naloxone (0.15mg/70kg, i.m.) and placebo under an instructed novel-response drug discrimination procedure. Once discrimination was acquired, diltiazem (0, 30, 60, 120mg) and verapamil (0, 30, 60, 120mg), alone and combined with the training dose of naloxone, were tested. Diltiazem alone produced 33-50% naloxone- and novel-appropriate responding at 30 and 60mg and essentially placebo-appropriate responding at 120mg. Verapamil alone produced 20-40% naloxone- and 0% novel-appropriate responding. Diltiazem at 60mg decreased several ratings associated with positive mood and increased VAS ratings of "Bad Drug Effects" relative to placebo, whereas verapamil increased ratings associated with euphoria. When administered with naloxone, diltiazem produced 94-100% naloxone-appropriate-responding with 6% novel-appropriate responding at 60mg (n=3). When administered with naloxone, verapamil produced 60-80% naloxone- and 0% novel-appropriate responding (n=5). Diltiazem decreased diastolic blood pressure and heart rate whereas verapamil decreased ratings of arousal relative to placebo. These results suggest that CCBs with different chemical structures can be differentiated behaviorally, and that diltiazem and verapamil do not attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects of naloxone in humans at the doses tested.
- Opioid-like effects of the neurokinin 1 antagonist aprepitant in patients maintained on and briefly withdrawn from methadone. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2013 Mar; 39(2):86-91.
Although opioid substitution therapy is an effective clinical tool used to manage opioid abuse and dependence, concerns regarding the current FDA-approved medications have lead to a search for efficacious, non-opioid medications. Preclinical data indicate that neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor activity may modulate opioid effects and withdrawal. This investigation sought to examine the ability of the NK1 antagonist aprepitant to alter the effects of methadone as well as withdrawal symptoms induced by brief methadone discontinuation.This blinded, placebo-controlled, within-subjects study consisted of placebo and aprepitant conditions. Experimental assessments occurred on the first three days (days 1-3: placebo or aprepitant + methadone) and again on days 8-10 (aprepitant or placebo + methadone). Fifteen methadone-maintained patients completed the investigation. Outcome measures were the assessments of opioid withdrawal, as well as subjective measures of opioid-like effects.Statistical trends indicated that aprepitant may reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms. When an active dose of aprepitant was administered an hour before methadone, participants reported less desire to use methadone. However, ratings of methadone "Liking" also appeared to increase.These data tentatively suggest that aprepitant has some ability to alleviate withdrawal following methadone abstinence, but also appears to increase subjective indicators of methadone's abuse liability. Since few of the differences between aprepitant and placebo reached statistical significance, these data should only be viewed as preliminary. Findings from other studies indicate that higher doses of aprepitant may be more clinically effective. Further clinical investigations are needed in order to determine whether aprepitant is useful for alleviating opioid withdrawal.
- Roles of nucleus accumbens CREB and dynorphin in dysregulation of motivation. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2013 Feb; 3(2):a012005.
Psychostimulants such as amphetamine and cocaine are believed to produce dependence by causing rapid, supraphysiological elevations in synaptic dopamine (DA) within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) (Volkow et al. 2009, Neuropharmacology 56: 3-8). These changes in forebrain DA transmission are similar to those evoked by natural reinforcers (Louilot et al. 1991, Brain Res 553: 313-317; Roitman et al. 2004, J Neurosci 24: 1265-1271), but are of greater magnitude and longer duration. Repeated drug exposure causes compensatory neuroadaptations in neurons of the NAc, some of which may modulate excess DA in a homeostatic fashion. One such adaptation is the activation of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) within neurons of the NAc. Although elevated levels of transcriptionally active CREB appear to attenuate DA transmission by increasing expression of the endogenous κ opioid receptor (KOR) ligand dynorphin, increased dynorphin transmission may ultimately have undesirable effects that contribute to drug withdrawal states as well as comorbid psychiatric illnesses such as depression. This state may prompt a return to drug use to mitigate the adverse effects of withdrawal. This article summarizes our current understanding of how CREB and dynorphin contribute to the dysregulation of motivation and describes novel therapeutic strategies that derive from preclinical research in this area.
- Association of smoking with μ-opioid receptor availability before and during naltrexone blockade in alcohol-dependent subjects. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Addict Biol 2012 Dec 18.
Persons with a history of alcohol dependence are more likely to use tobacco and to meet criteria for nicotine dependence compared with social drinkers or non-drinkers. The high levels of comorbidity of nicotine and alcohol use and dependence are thought to be related to interactions between nicotinic, opioid and dopamine receptors in mesolimbic regions. The current study examined whether individual differences in regional μ-opioid receptor (MOR) availability were associated with tobacco use, nicotine dependence and level of nicotine craving in 25 alcohol-dependent (AD) subjects. AD subjects completed an inpatient protocol, which included medically supervised alcohol withdrawal, monitored alcohol abstinence, transdermal nicotine maintenance (21 mg/day) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging using the MOR agonist [(11) C]-carfentanil (CFN) before (basal scan) and during treatment with 50 mg/day naltrexone (naltrexone scan). Subjects who had higher scores on the Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Test had significantly lower basal scan binding potential (BP(ND) ) across mesolimbic regions, including the amygdala, cingulate, globus pallidus, thalamus and insula. Likewise, the number of cigarettes per day was negatively associated with basal scan BP(ND) in mesolimbic regions. Higher nicotine craving was significantly associated with lower BP(ND) in amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus and ventral striatum. Although blunted during naltrexone treatment, the negative association was maintained for nicotine dependence and cigarettes per day, but not for nicotine craving. These findings suggest that intensity of cigarette smoking and severity of nicotine dependence symptoms are systematically related to reduced BP(ND) across multiple brain regions in AD subjects.
- Analysis of tolerance and behavioral/physical dependence during chronic CB1 agonist treatment: effects of CB1 agonists, antagonists, and noncannabinoid drugs. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2013 Feb; 344(2):319-28.
Behavioral studies of chronic CB(1) receptor activation may provide a pharmacological approach to understanding efficacy-related differences among CB(1) ligands as well as mechanistic commonalities between cannabinoid and noncannabinoid drugs. In the present studies, the effects of CB(1) agonists [(6aR,10aR)-3-(1-adamantyl)-6,6,9-trimethyl-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol (AM411), 9β-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(1-adamantyl)-hexahydrocannabinol (AM4054), R-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-(1-naphthalenyl)methanone mesylate (WIN55,212.2), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), (R)-(+)-arachidonyl-1'-hydroxy-2'-propylamide (methanandamide)], CB(1) antagonists [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichloro-phenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR141716A), 5-(4-alkylphenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM4113)], and dopamine (DA)-related [methamphetamine, (±)-6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrobromide (SKF82958), (R)-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SCH23390), (6aR)-5,6,6a,7-tetrahydro-6-propyl-4H-dibenzo[de,g]quinoline-10,11-diol (R-(-)-NPA), haloperidol] and opioid (morphine, naltrexone) drugs on scheduled-controlled responding under a 30-response fixed ratio schedule of stimulus-shock termination in squirrel monkeys were compared before and during chronic treatment with the long-acting CB(1) agonist AM411 (1.0 mg/kg per day, i.m.). Prechronic treatment with all drugs except naltrexone (1-10 mg/kg) produced dose-related decreases in responses rates. Dose-response re-determinations during chronic treatment revealed the following: 1) >250-fold (AM411, methanandamide) and >45-fold (AM4054, WIN55,212.2, Δ(9)-THC) rightward shifts in the ED(50) values for CB(1) agonists; 2) >100-fold and >20-fold leftward shifts in the ED(50) values for SR141716A and AM4113, respectively; and 3) approximately 4.8-fold and 10-fold rightward shifts in the ED(50) values for methamphetamine and the DA D(2) agonist R-(-)-NPA, respectively. Dose-response relationships for other DA-related and opioid drugs were unchanged by chronic CB(1) agonist treatment. Differences in the magnitude of tolerance among CB(1) agonists during chronic treatment may be indicative of differences in their pharmacological efficacy, whereas the enhanced sensitivity to behaviorally disruptive effects of CB(1) antagonists may provide evidence for CB(1)-related behavioral and/or physical dependence. Finally, the development of cross-tolerance to methamphetamine and R-(-)-NPA bolsters previous evidence of interplay between CB(1) and DA D(2) signaling mechanisms.
- Yohimbine increases opioid-seeking behavior in heroin-dependent, buprenorphine-maintained individuals. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2013 Feb; 225(4):811-24.
In laboratory animals, the biological stressor yohimbine (α(2)-noradrenergic autoreceptor antagonist) promotes drug seeking. Human laboratory studies have demonstrated that psychological stressors can increase drug craving but not that stressors alter drug seeking.This clinical study tested whether yohimbine increases opioid-seeking behavior.Ten heroin-dependent, buprenorphine-stabilized (8 mg/day) volunteers sampled two doses of hydromorphone [12 and 24 mg IM in counterbalanced order, labeled drug A (session 1) and drug B (session 2)]. During each of six later sessions (within-subject, double-blind, randomized crossover design), volunteers could respond on a 12-trial choice progressive ratio task to earn units (1 or 2 mg) of the sampled hydromorphone dose (drug A or B) vs money ($2) following different oral yohimbine pretreatment doses (0, 16.2, and 32.4 mg).Behavioral economic demand intensity and peak responding (O (max)) were significantly higher for hydromorphone 2 than 1 mg. Relative to placebo, yohimbine significantly increased hydromorphone demand inelasticity, more so for hydromorphone 1-mg units (P (max) = 909, 3,647, and 3,225 for placebo, 16.2, and 32.4 mg yohimbine doses, respectively) than hydromorphone 2-mg units (P (max) = 2,656, 3,193, and 3,615, respectively). Yohimbine produced significant but clinically modest dose-dependent increases in blood pressure (systolic ≈ 15 and diastolic ≈ 10 mmHg) and opioid withdrawal symptoms, and decreased opioid agonist symptoms and elated mood.These findings concur with preclinical data by demonstrating that yohimbine increases drug seeking; in this study, these effects occurred without clinically significant subjective distress or elevated craving, and partly depended on opioid unit dose.
- The treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence in pregnant women. [Journal Article, Review]
- Curr Opin Psychiatry 2012 Nov; 25(6):559-64.
This article addresses the question of 'best treatment options', which clinicians face when treating pregnant women with alcohol and opioid dependence.Studies show that alcohol consumption is associated with fetal abnormalities and long-term cognitive problems depending on the amount consumed, drinking pattern, and time of gestation. Screening and evaluation of specific interventions are important to reduce alcohol consumption during pregnancy and associated problems in infants. Opioid detoxification is only recommended beyond the first trimester and only in those pregnant women who refuse opioid maintenance therapy. Methadone is the most established treatment of pregnant opioid-dependent women, though recent results indicate some advantages of buprenorphine, slow-release oral methadone and diamorphine compared with methadone.Benzodiazepines seem to be the most recommendable option for managing alcohol withdrawal, and psychosocial interventions succeed in reducing alcohol consumption or in maintaining abstinence in alcohol-dependent pregnant women. Regarding opioid dependence, current results suggest that factors like the health status of the mother, the need for additional medications (e.g. treatment for HIV), comorbid drug dependence, and concurrent drug use need to be considered in order to find the 'best opioid substitute'.
- Effects of Dextromethorphan on reducing methadone dosage in opium addicts undergoing methadone maintenance therapy: A double blind randomized clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- J Res Med Sci 2011 Oct; 16(10):1354-60.
Dextromethorphan (DM) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that may be useful during opiate addiction process, especially in reducing methadone consumption in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of DM on reducing methadone dose in MMT used to treat illicit opioid drug abuse.A double-blinded randomized clinical trial was designed. Seventy two opiate abusers undergoing MMT were randomly divided into two groups. Participants in the intervention group were medicated by DM while those in the control group received placebo. After a 6-week follow-up, methadone consumption dosage, quality of life (QOL) and withdrawal symptoms were assessed and compared between the two groups by repeated measure ANOVA statistical test.The mean of methadone consumption in the DM and control groups were 62.7 mg/day (52.7-72.7) and 70.4 mg/day (60.4-80.4), respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups among the four evaluations made (F = 1.192, P = 0.279). There were not any significant differences in withdrawal symptoms between the two groups (P > 0.05). Total mean scores of QOL in the intervention and control groups were 84.8 (78.7-90.8) and 77.8 (71.8-83.7) (P > 0.05), respectively.Although DM might be useful for opioid dependence treatment, results of the current study did not reveal any statistically significant differences. Therefore, further studies exploring this possibility are needed.