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Psychiatry AND Tardive dyskinesia [keywords]
- Factor analysis of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in Parkinson's disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014 Nov 29.
Several studies have validated the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and reported adequate reliability and construct validity. However, the factorial validity of the HAMD has not yet been investigated. The aim of our analysis was to explore the factor structure of the HAMD in a large sample of PD patients.A principal component analysis of the 17-item HAMD was performed on data of 341 PD patients, available from a previous cross sectional study on anxiety. An eigenvalue ≥1 was used to determine the number of factors. Factor loadings ≥0.4 in combination with oblique rotations were used to identify which variables made up the factors. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure (KMO), Cronbach's alpha, Bartlett's test, communality, percentage of non-redundant residuals and the component correlation matrix were computed to assess factor validity.KMO verified the sample's adequacy for factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha indicated a good internal consistency of the total scale. Six factors had eigenvalues ≥1 and together explained 59.19% of the variance. The number of items per factor varied from 1 to 6. Inter-item correlations within each component were low. There was a high percentage of non-redundant residuals and low communality.This analysis demonstrates that the factorial validity of the HAMD in PD is unsatisfactory. This implies that the scale is not appropriate for studying specific symptom domains of depression based on factorial structure in a PD population.
- Modelling the natural history of Huntington's disease progression. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014 Dec 16.
The lack of reliable biomarkers to track disease progression is a major problem in clinical research of chronic neurological disorders. Using Huntington's disease (HD) as an example, we describe a novel approach to model HD and show that the progression of a neurological disorder can be predicted for individual patients.Starting with an initial cohort of 343 patients with HD that we have followed since 1995, we used data from 68 patients that satisfied our filtering criteria to model disease progression, based on the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS), a measure that is routinely used in HD clinics worldwide.Our model was validated by: (A) extrapolating our equation to model the age of disease onset, (B) testing it on a second patient data set by loosening our filtering criteria, (C) cross-validating with a repeated random subsampling approach and (D) holdout validating with the latest clinical assessment data from the same cohort of patients. With UHDRS scores from the past four clinical visits (over a minimum span of 2 years), our model predicts disease progression of individual patients over the next 2 years with an accuracy of 89-91%. We have also provided evidence that patients with similar baseline clinical profiles can exhibit very different trajectories of disease progression.This new model therefore has important implications for HD research, most obviously in the development of potential disease-modifying therapies. We believe that a similar approach can also be adapted to model disease progression in other chronic neurological disorders.
- Phenotypic features of children with neurodevelopmental diseases in relation to biogenic amines. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2014 Dec 13.
Disruption of monoamines metabolism leads to diverse manifestations, including developmental, movement and respiratory dysfunctions. We aimed to correlate clinical phenotypes of 55 children with neurodevelopmental disorders with dopamine (HVA) and serotonin (5-HIIA) metabolites in CSF. Decreased level of at least one metabolite was documented in 49,1% patients. Both metabolites were significantly lower in progressive disorder and extrapyramidal syndrome (p<0.05). HVA was significantly lower in hypokinetic and regulatory disorders (p<0.05). In univariate analysis, only progressive course, extrapyramidal syndrome and dystonia were significantly associated with decreased 5-HIAA. In multivariate regression only progressive course remained significant (p=0.005). Progressive disease, extrapyramidal syndrome, dystonia, tremor and rigidity were positively associated with low HVA. In multivariate analysis only: progressive course and rigidity remained significant. Progressive/rigid phenotype carries a high risk of monoamines deficiency, strongly implying need for their analysis. Psychomotor delay with epilepsy and hypotonia is rarely linked to low monoamines level. Irrespective of final diagnosis, different clinical presentations may be associated with impaired monoamines turnover.
- Stiff-person syndrome: insights into a complex autoimmune disorder. [REVIEW]
- J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014 Dec 15.
Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is characterised by progressive rigidity and muscle spasms affecting the axial and limb muscles. Since its initial description in 1956, marked progress has been made in the clinical characterisation, understanding of pathogenesis and therapy of this disorder. SPS can be classified according to the clinical presentation into classic SPS and SPS variants: focal or segmental-SPS, jerking-SPS and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. Most patients with SPS have antibodies directed against the glutamic acid decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Antibodies directed against GABAA receptor-associated protein, and the glycine-α1 receptor can also be observed. Paraneoplastic SPS is commonly associated with antiamphiphysin antibodies and breast cancer. Treatment of SPS with drugs that increase the GABAergic tone combined with immunotherapy can improve the neurological manifestations of these patients. The prognosis, however, is unpredictable and spontaneous remissions are unlikely.
- Treating intrusions, promoting resilience: an overview of therapies for trauma-related psychological disorders. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Psychotraumatol 2014.:26520.
The efficacy of psychotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be regarded as empirically demonstrated. Overall, effect sizes appear to be higher for psychotherapy than for medication. Many well-controlled trials with a mixed variety of trauma survivors have demonstrated that trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is effective in treating PTSD. Prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is currently seen as the treatment with the strongest evidence for its efficacy. Cognitive therapy (CT) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT), with their stronger emphasis on cognitive techniques, and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) seem equally effective. More recent developments include brief eclectic psychotherapy for PTSD (BEPP) and narrative exposure therapy (NET). Emerging evidence shows that TF-CBT can successfully be applied in PTSD patients suffering from severe comorbidities such as borderline personality disorder or substance abuse disorder (Schnyder & Cloitre, 2015). There is also a trend towards developing "mini-interventions," that is, short modules tailored to approach specific problems. Moreover, evidence-based approaches should be complemented by interventions that aim at promoting human resilience to stress. Finally, given the globalization of our societies (Schnyder, 2013), culture-sensitive psychotherapists should try to understand the cultural components of a patient's illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment.
- Olfactory identification in LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers: a relevant marker? [Journal Article]
- Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2014 Sep; 1(9):670-8.
Olfactory impairment is a potential marker for impending phenoconversion to Parkinson disease (PD) that may precede the development of disease by several years. Because of low specificity, it may be of greater predictive value in those with genetic mutations and its potential as a marker for developing LRRK2 PD should be evaluated.We examined olfactory identification in 126 LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers with PD, 125 mutation carriers not manifesting PD, 126 noncarriers with idiopathic PD, 106 noncarrier family members without PD, and 35 unrelated controls. We compared olfactory performance and performed mixture modeling to identify possible subgroups of olfactory performance in LRRK2 PD and nonmanifesting carriers.Adjusting for sex, age, cognitive score, site, and smoking history, LRRK2 PD had better olfactory scores compared to idiopathic PD (mean olfaction difference: -3.7, P < 0.001), and both LRRK2 PD and idiopathic PD had worse olfaction than controls (-12.8, -9.1, both P < 0.001). LRRK2 PD were less likely to be hyposmic than idiopathic PD (54.8% vs. 80.2%, P < 0.001). Nonmanifesting carriers and noncarrier family members did not differ. Mixture model analysis identified three classes in the LRRK2 PD and nonmanifesting carriers, suggesting that there are subgroups with poor olfactory identification in both LRRK2 PD and nonmanifesting carriers.Therefore, olfactory identification deficit is less likely to be an obligate feature in LRRK2 PD than idiopathic PD, and while a relevant marker in some, a subset of carriers who eventually phenoconvert may proceed directly to PD without prior impaired olfaction.
- Effects of discontinuing anticholinergic treatment on movement disorders, cognition and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. [Journal Article]
- Ther Adv Psychopharmacol 2014 Dec; 4(6):257-67.
Physicians have prescribed anticholinergic agents such as benztropine, procyclidine, biperiden and trihexyphenidyl for treatment and prophylaxis of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) for decades. Anticholinergic agents can however worsen tardive dyskinesia and cause many adverse effects, including cognitive impairment. Previous studies of anticholinergic discontinuation in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics have yielded a wide range of EPS relapse rates. Improvement in cognition after anticholinergic withdrawal was observed in some studies.This study evaluated the effect of anticholinergic discontinuation on movement disorders, cognition and general psychopathology after a 4-week taper in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with antipsychotics.Eighteen of twenty patients successfully discontinued their anticholinergic medication; two did not because of akathisia. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not show a significant effect of anticholinergic discontinuation on total Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale score or on the Parkinsonism, Akathisia, Dystonia or Tardive Dyskinesia subscales. However, significant improvement was found on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia composite z score at weeks 6, 8 and 12 compared with baseline. Significant improvements were seen on the motor and the symbol-coding tasks. No significant effects were observed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression - Severity and Clinical Global Impression - Improvement scales.In this 12-week study of anticholinergic discontinuation in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, gradual decrease and discontinuation of anticholinergics led to a positive effect on cognition. There were no adverse consequences on general psychopathology and no significant differences for 18 of 20 subjects on movement disorders.
- Population prevalence of Tourette syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mov Disord 2014 Dec 8.
The aim of this study was to refine the population prevalence estimate of Tourette Syndrome (TS) in children and to investigate potential sources of heterogeneity in previously published studies. A systematic review was conducted and all qualifying published studies of TS prevalence were examined. Extracted data were subjected to a random-effects meta-analysis weighted by sample size; meta-regressions were performed to examine covariates that have previously been proposed as potential sources of heterogeneity. Twenty-six articles met study inclusion criteria. Studies derived from clinically referred cases had prevalence estimates that were significantly lower than those derived from population-based samples (P = 0.004). Among the 21 population-based prevalence studies, the pooled TS population prevalence estimate was 0.52% (95% confidence interval CI: 0.32-0.85). In univariable meta-regression analysis, study sample size (P = 0.002) and study date (P = 0.03) were significant predictors of TS prevalence. In the final multivariable model including sample size, study date, age, and diagnostic criteria, only sample size (P < 0.001) and diagnostic criteria (omnibus P = 0.003; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR]: P = 0.005) were independently associated with variation in TS population prevalence across studies. This study refines the population prevalence estimate of TS in children to be 0.3% to 0.9%. Study sample size, which is likely a proxy for case assessment method, and the use of DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria are the major sources of heterogeneity across studies. The true TS population prevalence rate is likely at the higher end of these estimates, given the methodological limitations of most studies. Further studies in large, well-characterized samples will be helpful to determine the burden of disease in the general population. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- A positive diagnosis of functional (psychogenic) tics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Neurol 2014 Dec 9.
Functional tics, also called psychogenic tics or pseudo-tics, are difficult to diagnose because of the lack of diagnostic criteria and their clinical similarities to organic tics. The aim of the present study was to report a case series of patients with documented functional tics and to describe their clinical characteristics, risk factors and psychiatric comorbidity. Also clinical tips are suggested which might help the differential diagnosis in clinical practice.Eleven patients (mean age at onset 37.2, SD 13.5; three females) were included with a documented or clinically established diagnosis of functional tics, according to consultant neurologists who have specific expertise in functional movement disorders or in tic disorders. Adult onset, absent family history of tics, inability to suppress the movements, lack of premonitory sensations, absence of pali-, echo- and copro-phenomena, presence of blocking tics, the lack of the typical rostrocaudal tic distribution and the coexistence of other functional movement disorders were common in our patients.Our data suggest that functional tics can be differentiated from organic tics on clinical grounds, although it is also accepted that this distinction can be difficult in certain cases. Clinical clues from history and examination described here might help to identify patients with functional tics.
- Tardive Dyskinesia and Tardive Dystonia With Second-Generation Antipsychotics in Non-Elderly Schizophrenic Patients Unexposed to First-Generation Antipsychotics: A Cross-Sectional and Retrospective Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Psychopharmacol 2014 Dec 5.
This study investigates the clinical nature, prevalence rates, and associated factors of second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-related tardive dyskinesia and tardive dystonia. To date, these subjects have not been thoroughly investigated.The subjects were 80 non-elderly schizophrenic patients who received SGAs for more than 1 year without any previous exposure to first-generation antipsychotics. Multiple (≥2) direct assessments of movement symptoms were performed. Hospital records longer than 1 recent year describing any observed tardive movement symptoms were reviewed.A current or history of tardive dyskinesia and/or tardive dystonia associated with SGA was identified in 28 (35%) subjects. These patients were being treated with risperidone (n = 15), amisulpride, olanzapine, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, or clozapine at the time of the onset of the movement symptoms. Tardive dyskinesia was mostly in the orolingual area, and the most frequently observed tardive dystonia was torticollis. The median interval between the first exposure to the SGA and the movement syndrome onset was 15 months for tardive dyskinesia and 43 months for tardive dystonia. A history of acute dystonia was significantly associated with tardive dystonia, and comorbid obsessive-compulsive syndrome was related to both tardive movement syndromes.This study indicates that more clinical attention and research efforts are needed regarding SGA-associated tardive movement syndromes, including a larger-scale prevalence assessment. This study is the first to indicate that a comorbid obsessive-compulsive syndrome might be an associated factor of tardive movement syndrome. The association warrants further investigation.