(Psychiatry AND Tardive dyskinesia) articles in PubMed
- Bradykinesia in early and advanced Parkinson's disease. [Journal Article]
- J Neurol Sci 2016 Oct 15; 369:286-91JN
- CONCLUSIONS: The study yields an objective characterization of motor impairment in early and advanced PD. The kinematic assessment of the effects of selegiline on movement abnormalities in early PD provides a better understanding and interpretation of their pathophysiological mechanisms.
- Dyspraxia in ASD: Impaired coordination of movement elements. [Journal Article]
- Autism Res 2016 Sep 21AR
- Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have long been known to have deficits in the performance of praxis gestures; these motor deficits also correlate with social and communicative deficits. ...
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have long been known to have deficits in the performance of praxis gestures; these motor deficits also correlate with social and communicative deficits. To date, the precise nature of the errors involved in praxis has not been clearly mapped out. Based on observations of individuals with ASD performing gestures, we hypothesized that the simultaneous execution of multiple movement elements is especially impaired in affected children. We examined 25 school-aged participants with ASD and 25 age-matched controls performing seven simultaneous gestures that required the concurrent performance of movement elements and nine serial gestures, in which all elements were performed serially. There was indeed a group × gesture-type interaction (P < 0.001). Whereas both groups had greater difficulty performing simultaneous than serial gestures, children with ASD had a 2.6-times greater performance decrement with simultaneous (vs. serial) gestures than controls. These results point to a potential deficit in the simultaneous processing of multiple inputs and outputs in ASD. Such deficits could relate to models of social interaction that highlight the parallel-processing nature of social communication. Autism Res 2016,. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Nigral and striatal connectivity alterations in asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers: A magnetic resonance imaging study. [Journal Article]
- Mov Disord 2016 Sep 21MD
- CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers showed functional connectivity changes in striatocortical and nigrocortical circuits compared with noncarriers. These findings support the concept that altered brain connectivity precedes the onset of classical motor features in a genetic form of PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- Long-term poor rapport, lack of spontaneity and passive social withdrawal related to acute post-infectious encephalitis: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Springerplus 2016; 5:345S
- CONCLUSIONS: This case report suggests that a type of acute post-infectious encephalitis with demyelinating features, possibly ADEM or anti-NMDAR encephalitis, or an overlap between the two, can cause a prodrome of behavioral changes and long-term residual psychiatric symptoms for many months, although it is eventually associated with a good prognosis.
- Akinesia and freezing caused by Na(+) leak-current channel (NALCN) deficiency corrected by pharmacological inhibition of K(+) channels and gap junctions. [Journal Article]
- J Comp Neurol 2016 Sep 16JC
- The Na(+) leak-current channel (NALCN) regulates locomotion, respiration and intellectual development. Previous work highlighted striking similarities between characteristic movement phenotypes of NA...
The Na(+) leak-current channel (NALCN) regulates locomotion, respiration and intellectual development. Previous work highlighted striking similarities between characteristic movement phenotypes of NALCN-deficient animals (Drosophila and C. elegans) and the major symptoms of Parkinson's disease and primary progressive freezing gait. We have discovered novel physiological connections between the NALCN, K(+) channels and gap junctions that mediate regulation of locomotion in C. elegans. Drugs that block K(+) channels and gap junctions or that activate Ca(++) channels significantly improve movement of NALCN-deficient animals. Loss of function of the NALCN creates an imbalance in ions, including K(+) and Ca(++) , that interferes with normal cycles of depolarization-repolarization. This work suggests new therapeutic strategies for certain human movement disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Coxsackievirus Adenovirus Receptor Loss Impairs Adult Neurogenesis, Synapse Content, and Hippocampus Plasticity. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2016 Sep 14; 36(37):9558-71JN
- Although we are beginning to understand the late stage of neurodegenerative diseases, the molecular defects associated with the initiation of impaired cognition are poorly characterized. Here, we dem...
Although we are beginning to understand the late stage of neurodegenerative diseases, the molecular defects associated with the initiation of impaired cognition are poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that in the adult brain, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is located on neuron projections, at the presynapse in mature neurons, and on the soma of immature neurons in the hippocampus. In a proinflammatory or diseased environment, CAR is lost from immature neurons in the hippocampus. Strikingly, in hippocampi of patients at early stages of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), CAR levels are significantly reduced. Similarly, in triple-transgenic AD mice, CAR levels in hippocampi are low and further reduced after systemic inflammation. Genetic deletion of CAR from the mouse brain triggers deficits in adult neurogenesis and synapse homeostasis that lead to impaired hippocampal plasticity and cognitive deficits. We propose that post-translational CAR loss of function contributes to cognitive defects in healthy and diseased-primed brains.
- Evidence that COMT genotype and proline interact on negative-symptom outcomes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. [Journal Article]
- Transl Psychiatry 2016; 6(9):e891TP
- Elevated peripheral proline is associated with psychiatric disorders, and there is evidence that proline is a neuromodulator. The proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) gene, which encodes the enzyme that cat...
Elevated peripheral proline is associated with psychiatric disorders, and there is evidence that proline is a neuromodulator. The proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) gene, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes proline catabolism, maps to human chromosome 22q11.2, a region conferring risk of schizophrenia. In the Prodh-null mouse, an interaction between elevated peripheral proline and another 22q11.2 gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), on neurotransmission and behavior has been reported. We explored the relationship between fasting plasma proline levels and COMT Val(158)Met genotype on symptoms (positive, negative and total) in schizophrenia patients. In an exploratory study we also examined symptom change in patients with bipolar disorder. There was a significant interaction between peripheral proline and COMT on negative symptoms in schizophrenia (P<0.0001, n=95). In COMT Val/Val patients, high proline was associated with low Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptom (SANS) scores. In contrast, high proline was associated with high SANS scores in patients carrying a Met allele. The relationship between proline and COMT also appears to modify negative symptoms across psychiatric illness. In bipolar disorder, a significant interaction was also observed on negative-symptom change (P=0.007, n=43). Negative symptoms are intractable and largely unaddressed by current medications. These data indicate a significant interaction between peripheral proline and COMT genotype, influencing negative symptoms in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. That high proline has converse effects on symptoms by COMT genotype, may have implications for therapeutic decisions.
- Construction of standardized Arabic questionnaires for screening neurological disorders (dementia, stroke, epilepsy, movement disorders, muscle and neuromuscular junction disorders). [Journal Article]
- Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2016; 12:2245-53ND
- A screening questionnaire is an important tool for early diagnosis of neurological disorders, and for epidemiological research. This screening instrument must be both feasible and valid. It must be a...
A screening questionnaire is an important tool for early diagnosis of neurological disorders, and for epidemiological research. This screening instrument must be both feasible and valid. It must be accepted by the community and must be sensitive enough. So, the aim of this study was to prepare different Arabic screening questionnaires for screening different neurological disorders. This study was carried out in three stages. During the first stage, construction of separate questionnaires designed for screening the five major neurological disorders: cerebrovascular stroke, dementias, epilepsy, movement disorders, and muscle and neuromuscular disorders were done. Validation of the screening questionnaires was carried out in the second stage. Finally, questionnaire preparation was done in the third stage. Questions with the accepted sensitivity and specificity in each questionnaire formed the refined separate questionnaires.
- Theta burst stimulation over premotor cortex in Parkinson's disease: an explorative study on manual dexterity. [Journal Article]
- J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2016 Sep 12JN
- Dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) is thought to play a role in fine motor control. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inhibitory or excitatory stimulation of PMd would have an impact...
Dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) is thought to play a role in fine motor control. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inhibitory or excitatory stimulation of PMd would have an impact on manual dexterity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifteen patients with PD participated in this study. High resolution structural MRI was used for neuro-navigated TBS. Participants were targeted with one train of TBS in three experimental sessions: sham stimulation over vertex, continuous TBS (cTBS) over PMd and intermittent TBS (iTBS) over PMd, respectively. Dexterity was measured by a coin rotation task (CRT), which is a valid measure to detect limb kinetic apraxia (LKA). Neither cTBS or iTBS significantly interfered with CRT. Post hoc sub-analysis in a group of PD patients (n = 5) with stronger baseline impairment, indicating LKA, revealed further deterioration of dexterous performance for the cTBS condition (p = 0.04). This sham controlled pilot study demonstrates that TBS over PMd does not significantly interfere with dexterity in PD. However, patients with dexterous impairment qualifying for LKA may be more susceptible to TBS.
New Search Next
- Antidepressants and benzodiazepines for panic disorder in adults. [Review]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Sep 12; 9:CD011567CD
- CONCLUSIONS: The identified studies are not sufficient to comprehensively address the objectives of the present review. The majority of studies enrolled a small number of participants and did not provide data for all the outcomes specified in the protocol. For these reasons most of the analyses were underpowered and this limits the overall completeness of evidence. In general, based on the results of the current review, the possible role of antidepressants and benzodiazepines should be assessed by the clinician on an individual basis. The choice of which antidepressant and/or benzodiazepine is prescribed can not be made on the basis of this review only, and should be based on evidence of antidepressants and benzodiazepines efficacy and tolerability, including data from placebo-controlled studies, as a whole. Data on long-term tolerability issues associated with antidepressants and benzodiazepines exposure should also be carefully considered.The present review highlights the need for further higher-quality studies comparing antidepressants with benzodiazepines, which should be conducted with high-methodological standards and including pragmatic outcome measures to provide clinicians with useful and practical data. Data from the present review will be included in a network meta-analysis of psychopharmacological treatment in panic disorder, which will hopefully provide further useful information on this issue.