(Psychiatry AND Tardive dyskinesia)
- Psychotic relapse and associated factors among patients attending health services in Southwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Psychiatry 2016 Oct 20; 16(1):354
- CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of relapse among patients with psychotic disorder needs special attention. Clinicians need to pay attention to medication side effects the patient faces. Intervening noncompliance to medication and appropriately managing medication side effects may help in preventing psychotic relapse that may result because of non-compliance. The provision of counseling, psycho education, psycho social support may help patients in improving compliance to medication and reducing psychotic relapse. Developing and strengthening community based rehabilitation services should be emphasized as part of mental healthcare services.
- Cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by Deep Brain Stimulation in depression: A preclinical and clinical approach. [Review]
- PNProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2016 Sep 17; 73:1-10
- Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) was originally developed as a therapeutic approach to manage movement disorders, in particular Parkinson's Disease. However, DBS also seems to be an effective treatment a...
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) was originally developed as a therapeutic approach to manage movement disorders, in particular Parkinson's Disease. However, DBS also seems to be an effective treatment against refractory depression when patients fail to respond satisfactorily to conventional therapies. Thus, DBS targeting specific brain areas can produce an antidepressant response that improves depressive symptomatology, these areas including the subcallosal cingulate region, nucleus accumbens, ventral capsule/ventral striatum, medial forebrain bundle, the inferior thalamic peduncle and lateral habenula. Although the efficacy and safety of this therapy has been demonstrated in some clinical trials and preclinical studies, the intrinsic mechanisms underlying its antidepressant effect remain poorly understood. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of DBS, focusing on the molecular and cellular changes reported after its use that could shed light on the mechanisms underpinning its antidepressant effect. Several potential mechanisms of action of DBS are considered, including monoaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, neurotrophic and neuroinflammatory mechanisms, as well as potential effects on certain intracellular signaling pathways. Although future studies will be necessary to determine the key molecular events underlying the antidepressant effect of DBS, the findings presented provide an insight into some of its possible modes of action.
- How young adults with autism spectrum disorder watch and interpret pragmatically complex scenes. [Journal Article]
- QJQ J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2016 Oct 19; :1-16
- The aim of the current study was to investigate subtle characteristics of social perception and interpretation in high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and to study the ...
The aim of the current study was to investigate subtle characteristics of social perception and interpretation in high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and to study the relation between watching and interpreting. As a novelty, we used an approach that combined moment-by-moment eye tracking and verbal assessment. Sixteen young adults with ASD and 16 neurotypical control participants watched a video depicting a complex communication situation while their eye movements were tracked. The participants also completed a verbal task with questions related to the pragmatic content of the video. We compared verbal task scores and eye movements between groups, and assessed correlations between task performance and eye movements. Individuals with ASD had more difficulty than the controls in interpreting the video, and during two short moments there were significant group differences in eye movements. Additionally, we found significant correlations between verbal task scores and moment-level eye movement in the ASD group, but not among the controls. We concluded that participants with ASD had slight difficulties in understanding the pragmatic content of the video stimulus and attending to social cues, and that the connection between pragmatic understanding and eye movements was more pronounced for participants with ASD than for neurotypical participants.
- Tensor and non-tensor tractography for the assessment of the corticospinal tract of children with motor disorders: a comparative study. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroradiology 2016; 58(10):1005-1016
- CONCLUSIONS: With an increasing interest in the applications of tractography analysis at all stages of movement disorder surgery, it is important that clinicians remain alert to the consequences of choice of tractography algorithm on subsequently generated tracts, including differences in volumes, anatomical reconstruction, and DTI metrics, the latter of which will have global as well as more regional effects. Tract-wide analysis of DTI based metrics is of limited utility, and a more segmental approach to analysis may be appropriate, particularly if disruption to a focal region of a white matter pathway is anticipated.
- Brain iron accumulation affects myelin-related molecular systems implicated in a rare neurogenetic disease family with neuropsychiatric features. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Psychiatry 2016; 21(11):1599-1607
- The 'neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation' (NBIA) disease family entails movement or cognitive impairment, often with psychiatric features. To understand how iron loading affects the brain,...
The 'neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation' (NBIA) disease family entails movement or cognitive impairment, often with psychiatric features. To understand how iron loading affects the brain, we studied mice with disruption of two iron regulatory genes, hemochromatosis (Hfe) and transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2). Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy demonstrated increased iron in the Hfe(-/-) × Tfr2(mut) brain (P=0.002, n ≥5/group), primarily localized by Perls' staining to myelinated structures. Western immunoblotting showed increases of the iron storage protein ferritin light polypeptide and microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR revealed decreased transcript levels (P<0.04, n ≥5/group) for five other NBIA genes, phospholipase A2 group VI, fatty acid 2-hydroxylase, ceruloplasmin, chromosome 19 open reading frame 12 and ATPase type 13A2. Apart from the ferroxidase ceruloplasmin, all are involved in myelin homeostasis; 16 other myelin-related genes also showed reduced expression (P<0.05), although gross myelin structure and integrity appear unaffected (P>0.05). Overlap (P<0.0001) of differentially expressed genes in Hfe(-/-) × Tfr2(mut) brain with human gene co-expression networks suggests iron loading influences expression of NBIA-related and myelin-related genes co-expressed in normal human basal ganglia. There was overlap (P<0.0001) of genes differentially expressed in Hfe(-/-) × Tfr2(mut) brain and post-mortem NBIA basal ganglia. Hfe(-/-) × Tfr2(mut) mice were hyperactive (P<0.0112) without apparent cognitive impairment by IntelliCage testing (P>0.05). These results implicate myelin-related systems involved in NBIA neuropathogenesis in early responses to iron loading. This may contribute to behavioral symptoms in NBIA and hemochromatosis and is relevant to patients with abnormal iron status and psychiatric disorders involving myelin abnormalities or resistant to conventional treatments.
- Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction for Antipsychotic-Related Hyperprolactinemia in Women With Schizophrenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Psychopharmacol 2016 Oct 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Peony-glycyrrhiza decoction is effective in reducing antipsychotic-related hyperPRL and abnormal involuntary movement symptoms, but no reduction in blood PRL concentrations was observed. The underlying mechanisms of PGD's effects need further investigation (trial registration of NCT01852331 at www.clinicaltrials.gov).
- Clinical and demographic characteristics related to onset site and spread of cervical dystonia. [Journal Article]
- MDMov Disord 2016 Oct 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Subgroups had modest but significant differences in the clinical characteristics that may represent different clinical entities or pathophysiologic subtypes. These findings are critical for design and implementation of studies to describe, treat, or modify disease progression in idiopathic isolated cervical dystonia. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- PTRHD1 (C2orf79) mutations lead to autosomal-recessive intellectual disability and parkinsonism. [Journal Article]
- MDMov Disord 2016 Oct 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Given the role of 2p23 locus in patients with intellectual disability and the previously reported PTRHD1 mutation (c.155G>A) in patients with parkinsonism and cognitive dysfunction, we concluded that the PTRHD1 mutation identified in this study is likely to be responsible for the phenotypic features of the family under consideration. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- Functional dystonia and the borderland between neurology and psychiatry: New concepts. [Review]
- MDMov Disord 2016 Oct 18
- Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dyst...
Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dystonia, most diagnostically challenging of all functional movement disorders, in which the question of inherent psychogenicity remains a focus of debate. Phenomenological signs considered in isolation lack the specificity to distinguish organic and nonorganic forms, and dystonia's variability has frustrated attempts to develop objective laboratory-supported standards. Diagnostic criteria for functional dystonia that place emphasis on psychiatric symptoms perform poorly in studies of reliability, partly explained by the high frequency of psychopathology in organic dystonia. Novel approaches from the cognitive neurosciences may offer a way forward. Theory on Bayesian statistical prediction in cognitive processing is supported by sufficient experimental evidence for this model to be taken seriously as a way of reconciling contradictory notions about voluntary and unconscious motor control in functional movement disorders. In a Bayesian formulation of functional dystonia, misallocation of attention and abnormal predictive beliefs generate movements that are executed without a sense of agency. Building on this framework, there is a consensus that a biopsychosocial approach is required and that a unified philosophy of brain and mind is the best way to locate dystonia in the neurology-psychiatry borderland. At a practical level, movement disorder neurologists are best placed to differentiate organic from functional dystonia. The main role of psychiatrists is in the diagnosis and management of the primarily psychiatric disorders that often accompany dystonia. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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- Anomalous Putamen Volume in Children With Complex Motor Stereotypies. [Journal Article]
- PNPediatr Neurol 2016 Sep 8
- CONCLUSIONS: Findings of a smaller putamen provide preliminary evidence suggesting the potential involvement of the habitual pathway as the underlying anatomic site in primary complex motor stereotypies.