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Psychiatry AND Tardive dyskinesia [keywords]
- Forensic services, public mental health policy, and financing: charting the course ahead. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2014; 42(1):7-19.
High-quality forensic evaluations can be critical for criminal cases brought before the court. In addition, forensic practitioners and mental health and forensic administrators have increasingly taken a broader view of the revolving door between the mental health and criminal justice systems. More attention is now paid to why individuals with mental disorders, including co-occurring substance use, come into the criminal justice system and the challenges that they face on re-entry into the community. In particular, individuals who receive care across civil, forensic, and correctional systems are at especially increased risk of disrupted health care access and coverage. With health care reform on the horizon, it is important to understand public financing and its impact on forensic services for this crossover population. This article is a review of historical and future trends in public mental health funding focused on Medicaid and other federal resources, the movement toward community-based services, and the impact of these areas on forensic practice and forensic systems. Tensions between recovery principles and legal mandates are also addressed as community services are emphasized, even in forensic contexts. This article calls forensic practitioners to action and offers suggested areas of focus for training to increase knowledge of public mental health funding, policy, and practice from a forensic perspective.
- The role of alexithymia in the development of functional motor symptoms (conversion disorder). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014 Mar 7.
The mechanisms leading to the development of functional motor symptoms (FMS) are of pathophysiological and clinical relevance, yet are poorly understood.The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether impaired emotional processing at the cognitive level (alexithymia) is present in patients affected by FMS. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population of patients with FMS and in two control groups (patients with organic movement disorders (OMD) and healthy volunteers).55 patients with FMS, 33 patients affected by OMD and 34 healthy volunteers were recruited. The assessment included the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test and the Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders.Alexithymia was present in 34.5% of patients with FMS, 9.1% with OMD and 5.9% of the healthy volunteers, which was significantly higher in the FMS group (χ(2) (2)=14.129, p<0.001), even after controlling for the severity of symptoms of depression. Group differences in mean scores were observed on both the difficulty identifying feelings and difficulty describing feelings dimensions of the TAS-20, whereas the externally orientated thinking subscale score was similar across the three groups. Regarding personality disorder, χ(2) analysis showed a significantly higher prominence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in the FMS group (χ(2) (2)=16.217, p<0.001) and 71.4% of those with OCPD also reached threshold criteria for alexithymia.Because alexithymia is a mental state denoting the inability to identify emotions at a cognitive level, one hypothesis is that some patients misattribute autonomic symptoms of anxiety, for example, tremor, paraesthesiae, paralysis, to that of a physical illness. Further work is required to understand the contribution of OCPD to the development of FMS.
- Imaging the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder - from localist models to circuit-based analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biol Mood Anxiety Disord 2014 Mar 7; 4(1):5.
The neuroimaging literature of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has grown substantially over the last several decades, facilitating great advances in the identification of specific brain regions, neurotransmitter systems and networks associated with depressive illness. Despite this progress, fundamental questions remain about the pathophysiology and etiology of MDD. More importantly, this body of work has yet to directly influence clinical practice. It has long been a goal for the fields of clinical psychology and psychiatry to have a means of making objective diagnoses of mental disorders. Frustratingly little movement has been achieved on this front, however, and the 'gold-standard' of diagnostic validity and reliability remains expert consensus. In light of this challenge, the focus of the current review is to provide a critical summary of key findings from different neuroimaging approaches in MDD research, including structural, functional and neurochemical imaging studies. Following this summary, we discuss some of the current conceptual obstacles to better understanding the pathophysiology of depression, and conclude with recommendations for future neuroimaging research.
- Profile of extrapyramidal manifestations in 85 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, 2 and 3. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Neurosci 2013 Dec 25.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and type of extrapyramidal signs (EPS) in spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 1, 2 and 3. Eighty-five patients with genetically confirmed SCA (SCA1=40, SCA2=28, SCA3=17) were evaluated for the prevalence and types of EPS. Forty-one SCA patients (48.2%) had one or more types of EPS. The prevalence of EPS was 60.7% in SCA2, 52.9% in SCA3, and 37.5% in SCA1. Among SCA2 patients, bradykinesia was the most frequent (35.3%), followed by reduced facial expression, postural tremor and dystonia (29.4% each), rest tremor, titubation and rigidity (23.5% each), and lip/jaw tremor and chorea (11.8% each). In SCA3 the common EPS were bradykinesia (44.4%), staring look, postural tremor and dystonia (33.3% each), and reduced facial expression and rigidity (22.2% each). In SCA1, staring look was the most common (53.3%), followed by dystonia and bradykinesia (33.3% each), and postural tremor (26.7%). In all three groups, there was no significant difference in the mean length of repeat of the abnormal allele between those with and without EPS. To conclude bradykinesia, staring look, dystonia and postural tremor were the most frequent EPS observed in SCA. In SCA1, these signs were seen more often in younger patients with early onset of symptoms.
- The impact and prognosis for dystonia in childhood including dystonic cerebral palsy: a clinical and demographic tertiary cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014 Mar 3.
The impact of dystonia in childhood is poorly understood. We report our experience of referrals between 2005 and 2012.Of 294/315 assessable children, 15/294 had pure spasticity, leaving 279/294 with dystonia classified as primary (30/279: 10.7%); primary-plus (19/279: 6.8%) and secondary (230/279: 82.4%) dystonia, including heredodegenerative dystonia (29/279: 10.3%); 150/279 (53.7%) with cerebral palsy and 51/279 (18.2%) acquired brain injury. Definitive diagnoses were available in 222/294 (79.6%), but lower in primary/primary-plus compared with secondary groups (11/49 vs 211/230: Fisher's exact test p<0.0001). Spasticity comorbidity was present in 79/230 (34.3%) children.Median age (interquartile years) at referral was 9.75 (6.58-13), not significantly differing by aetiology (Kruskal-Wallis test p>0.05); dystonia-onset age was 3 (0.5-7.0) for primary/primary-plus and 0.25 (0.08-0.8) in the secondary/CP groups. Dystonia duration at referral was 4.75 years (3.0-10.33) for primary/primary-plus groups and 7.83 (5.4-11) in the secondary group. The mean (interquartile range) proportion of life lived with dystonia, derived as dystonia duration normalised to age was 0.68 (0.31-0.96); 0.59 (0.35-0.8); 0.75 (0.62-0.95)and 0.9 (0.92-0.99) for primary, primary-plus, heredodegenerative and secondary-static dystonias respectively.Only 91/279 (32.6%) experienced a period of normal motor development. Carers perceived dystonia deterioration in 168/279 (60.2%), stabilisation in 88/279 (31.5%) and improvement in 23/279 (8.2%). Dystonia occurred in 26/225 (11.6%) siblings: 14/26 secondary and 5/26 heredodegenerative dystonia. Comorbidities were identified in 176/279 (63.1%) cases.Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-III were commoner in primary/primary-plus (37/49: 75%) compared with secondary/CP (29/230: 13%) cases, χ(2) p<0.0001).In this selective cohort, childhood dystonia is severe, presenting early before worsening without remission. Secondary dystonias spend a higher proportion of life living with dystonia and lower functional capacity. Despite referral bias, services offering neurosurgical interventions and health service planning agencies should understand the context and predicament of life with childhood dystonia.
- Electrophysiological indices of interference resolution covary with individual fluid intelligence: investigating reactive control processes in a 3-back working memory task. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuroimage 2014 Feb 25.
It has been proposed that the well-established relationship between working memory (WM) and fluid intelligence (gf) is mediated by executive mechanisms underlying interference control. The latter relies upon the integrity of a frontoparietal brain network, whose activity is modulated by general cognition. In regards to the chronology of this activation, only few EEG studies investigated the topic, although none of them examined the regional interaction or the effects of individual differences in gf. The current investigation sought at extending previous research by characterizing the EEG markers (temporal activation and regional coupling) of interference control and the effects of the individual variation in gf. To this end, we recorded the EEG activity of 33 participants while performing verbal and spatial versions of a 3-back WM task. In a separate session, participants were administered with a test of fluid intelligence. Interference-inducing trials were associated with an increased negativity in the frontal scalp region occurring in two separate time windows and probably reflecting two different stages of the underlying cognitive process. In addition, we found that scalp distribution of such activity differed among individuals, being the strongest activation of the left and right frontolateral sites related to high gf level. Finally, high- and low-gf participants showed different patterns in the modulation of regional connectivity (electrodes coherence in the range of 4.5-7.5Hz) according to changes in attention load among types of trials. Our findings suggest that high-gf participants may rely upon effective engagement and modulation of attention resources to face interference.
- Relapse prevention study of paliperidone extended-release tablets in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2014 Feb 24.
The objective of this study is the evaluation of long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (pali ER), in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.In this parallel-group, relapse prevention, phase-3 study (screening [14-day], pali ER open-label run-in [8-week] and stabilization [6-week] phases, and double-blind (DB) treatment [variable duration], and open-label extension phases [24-week]), 136/201 patients with schizophrenia were randomized (1:1) to pali ER (3-12mg) or placebo during the DB phase.Final analysis showed that, out of 135 patients in ITT (DB) population, 71 (52.6%) had a relapse event, 45 (33.3%) were ongoing at the time the study was stopped, and 19 (14.1%) discontinued from the DB phase. Time to relapse (primary endpoint) favored pali ER (hazard ratio=5.23 [95% CI: 2.96, 9.25], p <0.0001). Rate of relapses (55/71 [77.5%] placebo; 16/64 [25%] pali ER) and secondary endpoints (change from baseline in Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] and Clinical Global Impression - Severity Scores) were significantly lower (p<0.001) in pali ER group vs placebo, in favor of pali ER. More psychiatric-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in placebo- (21.1%) than pali ER group (10.9%). Most common (>3%) TEAEs in placebo group were insomnia and schizophrenia (8.5% each), while in pali ER group were aggression and akathisia (4.7% each), and schizophrenia, tremor, nausea, amenorrhea, and salivary hypersecretion (3.1% each). All serious TEAEs were psychiatric-related (schizophrenia, aggression, completed suicide, auditory hallucination, suicide attempt) and more frequent in placebo- (11.3%) versus pali ER group (3.1%). Death and tardive dyskinesia-related discontinuation (n=1 each) occurred in placebo group. Body weight increase from run-in baseline was greater in pali ER group (mean increase: 3.90kg) versus placebo (mean increase: 2.05kg).This study confirms the findings from earlier pali ER global relapse-prevention studies and demonstrates that pali ER treatment (3-12mg) is efficacious over the long-term and significantly delays relapse in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. No new safety signals were detected in this population.
- Mutations in GNAL: A Novel Cause of Craniocervical Dystonia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA Neurol 2014 Feb 17.
IMPORTANCE Mutations in the GNAL gene have recently been shown to cause primary torsion dystonia. The GNAL-encoded protein (Gαolf) is important for dopamine D1 receptor function and odorant signal transduction. We sequenced all 12 exons of GNAL in 461 patients from Germany, Serbia, and Japan, including 318 patients with dystonia (190 with cervical dystonia), 51 with hyposmia and Parkinson disease, and 92 with tardive dyskinesia or acute dystonic reactions. OBSERVATIONS We identified the following two novel heterozygous putative mutations in GNAL: p.Gly213Ser in a German patient and p.Ala353Thr in a Japanese patient. These variants were predicted to be pathogenic in silico, were absent in ethnically matched control individuals, and impaired Gαolf coupling to D1 receptors in a bioluminescence energy transfer (BRET) assay. Two additional variants appeared to be benign because they behaved like wild-type samples in the BRET assay (p.Ala311Thr) or were detected in ethnically matched controls (p.Thr92Ala). Both patients with likely pathogenic mutations had craniocervical dystonia with onset in the fifth decade of life. No pathogenic mutations were detected in the patients with hyposmia and Parkinson disease, tardive dyskinesias, or acute dystonic reactions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Mutations in GNAL can cause craniocervical dystonia in different ethnicities. The BRET assay may be a useful tool to support the pathogenicity of identified variants in the GNAL gene.
- The anteromedial GPi as a new target for deep brain stimulation in obsessive compulsive disorder. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Neurosci 2013 Oct 23.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is now well established in the treatment of intractable movement disorders. Over the past decade the clinical applications have expanded into the realm of psychosurgery, including depression and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The optimal targets for electrode placement in psychosurgery remain unclear, with numerous anatomical targets reported for the treatment of OCD. We present four patients with Tourette's syndrome and prominent features of OCD who underwent DBS of the anteromedial globus pallidus internus (GPi) to treat their movement disorder. Their pre-operative and post-operative OCD symptoms were compared, and responded dramatically to surgery. On the basis of these results, we propose the anteromedial (limbic) GPi as a potential surgical target for the treatment of OCD, and furnish data supporting its further investigation as a DBS target for the treatment of psychiatric conditions.
- Spatial reorganization of putaminal dopamine d2-like receptors in cranial and hand dystonia. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(2):e88121.
The putamen has a somatotopic organization of neurons identified by correspondence of firing rates with selected body part movements, as well as by complex, but organized, differential cortical projections onto putamen. In isolated focal dystonia, whole putaminal binding of dopamine D2-like receptor radioligands is quantitatively decreased, but it has not been known whether selected parts of the putamen are differentially affected depending upon the body part affected by dystonia. The radioligand [(18)F]spiperone binds predominantly to D2-like receptors in striatum. We hypothesized that the spatial location of [(18)F]spiperone binding within the putamen would differ in patients with dystonia limited to the hand versus the face, and we tested that hypothesis using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. To address statistical and methodological concerns, we chose a straightforward but robust image analysis method. An automated algorithm located the peak location of [(18)F]spiperone binding within the striatum, relative to a brain atlas, in each of 14 patients with cranial dystonia and 8 patients with hand dystonia. The mean (left and right) |x|, y, and z coordinates of peak striatal binding for each patient were compared between groups by t test. The location of peak [(18)F]spiperone binding within the putamen differed significantly between groups (cranial dystonia z<hand dystonia z, p = 0.016). We conclude that in isolated focal dystonia, dopamine D2-like receptors are distributed differently in the putamen depending on the body part manifesting dystonia.