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Psychiatry AND Tardive dyskinesia [keywords]
- Polysomnographic sleep characteristics of generally-anxious and healthy children assessed in the home environment. [Journal Article]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Jun.:79-83.
Using laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) we recently provided evidence of significantly prolonged sleep onset latency (SOL) and reduced latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep among non-depressed children with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) compared to healthy age-matched controls. In the current study we conducted unattended ambulatory PSG in a new sample of children with GAD and controls in order to examine sleeping characteristics in the home environment.Thirty-two children (ages of 7-11 years) including 16 children with primary GAD and 16 controls receiving no psychotropic medications were studied. The anxious group had a primary diagnosis of GAD without secondary mood disorders and controls were free of any medical or psychiatric diagnoses. All participants underwent structured diagnostic assessments and completed one night of home-based polysomnography (PSG).Children with GAD exhibited significantly higher sleep efficiency (SE) and fewer rapid eye movement (REM) sleep periods compared to controls. Self-reported somatic arousal during the pre-sleep period was negatively correlated with the percentage of total REM sleep among controls, but positively correlated with REM sleep percentage in the GAD group.A small sample size and one night of PSG only.Home-based PSG recording do not provide evidence of disrupted sleep patterns in children with GAD. Contextual factors that better elucidate differences between laboratory and home-based sleep findings are suggested as important directions for future research.
- CSF Aβ42 predicts early-onset dementia in Parkinson disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Apr 18.
To test in vivo the proposal from clinicopathologic studies that β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology shortens the time to dementia in Parkinson disease (PD), and to explore the utility of CSF Aβ and related measures as early prognostic biomarkers of dementia in an incident PD cohort.We assessed a population-based incident cohort of 104 patients with PD who underwent lumbar puncture at diagnosis. We analyzed CSF concentrations of Aβ42, Aβ40, and Aβ38 using a multiplexed immunoassay with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection and levels of Aβ42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau using ELISA. Patients were followed prospectively for 5 years. Dementia was diagnosed according to published criteria.CSF levels of Aβ42 were significantly decreased in patients who developed dementia (n = 20, 19.2%) compared to those who did not (n = 84, 80.8%), as measured by ECL (-33%, p = 0.006) as well as ELISA (-36%, p < 0.001). No differences were observed for other markers. Low Aβ42 values predicted a substantially increased risk for subsequent dementia at high sensitivity (≥85%), with hazard ratios of 9.9 (95% confidence interval 2.3-43.5, p = 0.002) for Aβ42ECL <376 pg/mL and 7.6 (2.2-26.4, p = 0.001) for Aβ42ELISA <443 pg/mL, after adjustment for baseline age and PD-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) status. Aβ42 reductions tended to precede the onset of PD-MCI that progressed to dementia.These in vivo data support the role of Aβ pathology in the etiology and highlight the potential utility of CSF Aβ42 as an early prognostic biomarker of dementia associated with PD.
- Anandamide attenuates haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2014 Apr 17.
Antipsychotics may cause tardive dyskinesia in humans and orofacial dyskinesia in rodents. Although the dopaminergic system has been implicated in these movement disorders, which involve the basal ganglia, their underlying pathomechanisms remain unclear. CB1 cannabinoid receptors are highly expressed in the basal ganglia, and a potential role for endocannabinoids in the control of basal ganglia-related movement disorders has been proposed. Therefore, this study investigated whether CB1 receptors are involved in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats. Adult male rats were treated for four weeks with haloperidol decanoate (38mg/kg, intramuscularly - i.m.). The effect of anandamide (6nmol, intracerebroventricularly - i.c.v.) and/or the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A (30μg, i.c.v.) on haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) was assessed 28days after the start of the haloperidol treatment. Anandamide reversed haloperidol-induced VCMs; SR141716A (30μg, i.c.v.) did not alter haloperidol-induced VCM per se but prevented the effect of anandamide on VCM in rats. These results suggest that CB1 receptors may prevent haloperidol-induced VCMs in rats, implicating CB1 receptor-mediated cannabinoid signaling in orofacial dyskinesia.
- Clues to Maintaining Calorie Restriction? Psychosocial Profiles of Successful Long-term Restrictors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Appetite 2014 Apr 16.
To combat the obesity epidemic, intervention and clinical efforts often recommend low-calorie dieting. Calorie restriction (CR) as a weight intervention, however, is often unsuccessful, as most people cannot sustain the behavior. Yet one small group has maintained extreme CR over years-members of the CR Society and followers of The CR Way. This study examined stable psychosocial characteristics of these individuals to identify traits that may promote success at long-term CR. In 65 participants, we measured diet, eating behaviors, and personality traits comparing calorie restrictors to two age-, gender-, ethnicity-, and education-matched comparison groups (normal weight and overweight/obese). We first tested whether the CR group restricted calories without indications of eating disorder pathology, and second, what crystallized psychosocial characteristics set them apart from their non-restricting comparisons. Results indicated the CR group averaged 10 years of CR but scored lower than comparison groups on measures of disordered eating (p < .001) and psychopathology (p < .001). Particularly against overweight/obese participants, CR participants scored lower on neuroticism (p < .04) and hostility (p < .01), and were stronger in future time orientation (p < .05). Overall, CR profiles reflected high self-control and well being, except for having few close relationships. This study suggests a potential predisposition for successful long-term CR without disordered eating. Since modifying trait factors may be unrealistic, there may be psychosocial boundaries to the capacity for sustaining CR. Paralleling a movement towards personalized medicine, this study points toward a personalized behavioral medicine model in behavioral nutrition and treatment of overweight/obesity.
- Mental health outreach and street policing in the downtown of a large French city. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Law Psychiatry 2014 Apr 16.
Marseille, the second largest city in France, has a large population of homeless persons. A mental health outreach team was created in 2005 as a response to high rates of mental illness among this group. In a national political context where security is a government priority, a new central police station was created in Marseille in 2006 to address robberies, violence and illegal traffic in the downtown area of the city. While not directly related to such crimes, police also are responsible for public safety or behavioral issues related to the presence of individuals who are homeless in this area.This report on a two-year pilot study (2009-2011) addresses collaborative work between a mental health outreach team and the police department responding to the clinical needs of persons who are homeless with serious psychiatric disorders. It also describes the homeless persons' interactions with, and perceptions of the presence of, police and mental health professionals on the streets.Investigators adopted a mixed-methods approach. Data were collected on 40 interactions using brief standardized report for each interaction. Focus groups were conducted with police officers, outreach team members, peer workers, and service users. Minutes of partnership meetings between police officers and outreach workers also served as a source of qualitative data.Outreach workers initiated just over half (n=21) of the encounters (n=40) between police and outreach workers. Interactions mainly involved persons with psychosis (77%), the vast majority (80%) of which involved persons in an acute phase of psychosis. Two key themes that emerged from data analysis included the violent nature of life on the streets and the high percentage of ethnic minorities among subjects of the interactions. In addition, it was found that the practices of the outreach workers are sometimes similar to those of the police, especially when outreach workers use coercive methods. "Users" (homeless persons) described police as sometimes using less coercion than the outreach team, and noted that they were more fearful of psychiatrists than police.Formal initiatives between mental health outreach teams and police departments involve some common street practices. This study demonstrates the potential for closer working relationships between the two parties to help persons who are homeless with mental illnesses receive needed care, and to reduce inappropriate coercion including involuntary hospitalization and arrests.
- Tardive dyskinesia in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics: case series and brief review of etiologic and treatment considerations. [Journal Article]
- Drugs Context 2014.:212259.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disfiguring side-effect of antipsychotic medications that is potentially irreversible in affected patients. Newer atypical antipsychotics are felt by many to have a lower risk of TD. As a result, many clinicians may have developed a false sense of security when prescribing these medications. We report five cases of patients taking atypical antipsychotics who developed TD, review the risk of TD, its potential etiologic mechanisms, and treatment options available. The goal of this paper is to alert the reader to continue to be diligent in obtaining informed consent and monitoring for the onset of TD in patients taking atypical antipsychotics.
- Deep brain stimulation in the treatment of depression. [Journal Article]
- Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2014 Mar; 16(1):83-91.
Major depressive disorder is a worldwide disease with debilitating effects on a patient's life. Common treatments include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. Many patients do not respond to these treatments; this has led to the investigation of alternative therapeutic modalities. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is one of these modalities. It was first used with success for treating movement disorders and has since been extended to the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although DBS is still an emerging treatment, promising efficacy and safety have been demonstrated in preliminary trials in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Further, neuroimaging has played a pivotal role in identifying some DBS targets and remains an important tool for evaluating the mechanism of action of this novel intervention. Preclinical animal studies have broadened knowledge about the possible mechanisms of action of DBS for TRD, Given that DBS involves neurosurgery in patients with severe psychiatric impairment, ethical questions concerning capacity to consent arise; these issues must continue to be carefully considered.
- Evaluation of mild cognitive impairment subtypes in Parkinson's disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mov Disord 2014 Apr 7.
Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI) is common and increases the risk for dementia. Establishing distinct PD-MCI cognitive subtypes could be valuable for eventually predicting those most likely to convert to dementia. However, the study of PD-MCI subtypes has not yielded consistent results among cohorts. To determine whether there are distinct cognitive subtypes among participants diagnosed with PD-MCI in the Pacific Northwest Udall Center Clinical Consortium, we cognitively subtyped 95 patients with PD-MCI, using the Movement Disorders Society Task Force diagnostic guidelines. Psychometric test scores were then subjected to principle components factor analysis to determine whether similar cognitive subgroups could be identified using statistical methodology. Multiple-domain PD-MCI was diagnosed in 95% of the sample, and a range of cognitive impairments were noted. Factor analysis yielded seven factors and demonstrated overlap of phonemic verbal fluency on two factors, as well as the loading of verbal fluency on the same factor as a visuospatial measure; however, these factors did not partition the sample into distinct cognitive subtypes. Separation of cognitive subtypes based on the current PD-MCI criteria, or via statistical methods, may not provide sufficient information to describe distinct PD groups. Future efforts to validate the PD-MCI criteria and identify combinations of genetic or other risk factors for cognitive impairment are warranted. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- The utility of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale in Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014 Mar 20.
The Movement Disorders Society (MDS) recently proposed guidelines for diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI) that includes two assessment levels: abbreviated (Level I) and comprehensive (Level II). The aim of this study was to determine the utility of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS), a recommended Level I test, for detecting Level II PD-MCI diagnosis.The study sample included 30 patients diagnosed with PD-MCI based on Level II MDS criteria and 68 PD patients with normal cognition (PD-NC). Receiver operator curve (ROC) analyses were generated to measure the sensitivity and specificity of various MDRS cutoff scores. To examine the utility of the MDRS as a screening tool, the optimal cutoff point was defined as the lowest value providing ≥80% sensitivity. For use of the MDRS as a diagnostic tool, the optimal cutoff point was defined as the highest value providing ≥80% specificity.ROC analyses showed that the optimal MDRS cutoff score for screening purposes and diagnostic purposes were ≤140 and ≤137, respectively. However, an examination of sensitivity/specificity values for the screening cutoff scores suggested that a total score of ≤139 for screening purposes yielded a better balance between sensitivity (77%) and specificity (65%).In a clinical setting, in which detection of PD-MCI may be important, a total MDRS score of ≤139 can be used to detect PD-MCI. In research and other settings in which diagnostic certainty is more important, a score of ≤137 may be more useful.
- Multiple changes of functional connectivity between sensorimotor areas in focal hand dystonia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014 Apr 4.
Task-specific focal hand dystonia impairs the control of arm muscles during fine motor skills such as writing (writer's cramp (WC)). Functional imaging found abnormal task-related activation of sensorimotor areas in this disorder, but little is known on their functional connectivity (FC).Resting-state fMRI and regions of interest (ROI)-voxel cross-correlation analyses were used for systematically analysing the FC between multiple ROIs within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in 15 patients with right-sided WC and 15 healthy volunteers.Patients with WC showed a lower positive FC of several seed ROIs (left lateral premotor cortex, left thalamus, left/right pallidum) to the symptomatic left primary sensorimotor cortex compared with controls. The FC of the left primary motor cortex to prefrontal areas, pre- supplementary motor area and right somatosensory cortex was reduced and correlated with disease severity. Several cerebellar seed ROIs (right dentate nucleus, right crus I and bilateral crus II) revealed a stronger negative FC to primary and secondary sensorimotor areas.An increase of negative cerebello-cortical FC at rest is in line with the hypothesis of a pathogenetic role of the cerebellum in dystonia. The deficit of positive subcortico-cortical FC indicates more generalised changes within the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor loops beyond primary sensorimotor areas in WC. As patients with WC are asymptomatic during rest, these functional network changes could reflect an underlying abnormality or compensatory neuroplastic changes of network architecture in this disorder.