Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Psychiatry AND Tardive dyskinesia [keywords]
- Somatization is associated with deficits in affective Theory of Mind. [Journal Article]
- J Psychosom Res 2013 Jun; 74(6):479-85.
To determine whether deficits in mental representation of emotion may constitute a mechanism for somatization.In this case-control study, we obtained measures of cognitive and affective Theory of Mind, emotional awareness, positive and negative affect, depression, anxiety, and physical symptoms and determined psychiatric diagnoses in consecutive outpatients, aged 19 to 60, with Conversion Disorder (n=29), Functional Somatic Syndromes (n=30), or "explained" Medical Disorders (Controls) (n=30). Main outcome measure was the Animations-L score, i.e., use of words describing emotional content while performing the Frith-Happé Animations (video) Task, an established Theory of Mind measure in which the emotional content of a story is conveyed through movement.Groups were similar in number of physical symptoms, negative affect, and ability to describe emotional experiences on a written measure that specifically solicited such descriptions. Conversion Disorder and Functional Somatic Syndrome groups scored lower on Animations-L, endorsed significantly less positive affect, and had more anxiety than Medical Controls. Animations-L and positive affect scores were predictive of group membership, with lower scores predicting somatizing conditions.Relative to Medical Controls, a deficit in the encoding and reporting of emotion when the emotional content of the stimulus is conveyed in action occurs equally in Conversion Disorder and Functional Somatic Syndrome patients and is consistent with previous findings in somatoform disorder inpatients. Difficulty with "conversion" from implicit (action, somatic) to explicit (representational) processing of emotions, exacerbated by anxiety, may constitute a mechanism for somatization.
- Tardive and spontaneous dyskinesia incidence in the general population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Psychiatry 2013 May 28; 13(1):152.
BACKGROUND:To identify the incidence rate of spontaneous dyskinesia (SD) and tardive dyskinesia (TD) in a general population and to examine the association between dykinesia and potential risk factors (exposure to metoclopramide [MCP], antipsychotic drugs, and history of diabetes and psychoses).
METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was conducted for the years 2001 through 2010, based on medical claims data from the Deseret Mutual Benefit Administrators (DMBA).
RESULTS:Thirty-four cases of TD and 229 cases of SD were identified. The incidence rate of TD among persons previously prescribed an antipsychotic or metoclopramide (MCP) (per 1,000) was 4.6 (1.6-7.7) for those with antipsychotic drug use only, 8.5 (4.8-12.2) for those with MCP use only, and 15.0 (2.0-28.1) for those with both antipsychotic and MCP use. In the general population, the incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years) of TD was 4.3 and of probable SD was 28.7. The incidence rates of TD and SD increased with age and were greater for females. Those with diabetes or psychoses had almost a 3-fold greater risk of TD than those without either of these diseases. Persons with schizophrenia had 31.2 times increased risk of TD than those without the disease. Positive associations also existed between the selected diseases and the incidence rate of probable SD, with persons with schizophrenia having 4.4 times greater risk of SD than those without the disease.
CONCLUSIONS:SD and TD are rare in this general population. Diabetes, psychoses, and especially schizophrenia are positively associated with SD and TD. A higher proportion of those with spontaneous dyskinesia present with spasm of the eyelid muscles (blepharospasm) compared with the tardive dyskinesia cases who present with orofacial muscular problems.
- Prognostic and symptomatic aspects of rapid eye movement sleep in a mouse model of posttraumatic stress disorder. [Journal Article]
- Front Behav Neurosci 2013.:60.
Not every individual develops Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after the exposure to a potentially traumatic event. Therefore, the identification of pre-existing risk factors and early diagnostic biomarkers is of high medical relevance. However, no objective biomarker has yet progressed into clinical practice. Sleep disturbances represent commonly reported complaints in PTSD patients. In particular, changes in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) properties are frequently observed in PTSD patients. Here, we examined in a mouse model of PTSD whether (1) mice developed REMS alterations after trauma and (2) whether REMS architecture before and/or shortly after trauma predicted the development of PTSD-like symptoms. We monitored sleep-wake behavior via combined electroencephalogram/electromyogram recordings immediately before (24 h pre), immediately after (0-48 h post) and 2 months after exposure to an electric foot shock in male C57BL/6N mice (n = 15). PTSD-like symptoms, including hyperarousal, contextual, and generalized fear, were assessed 1 month post-trauma. Shocked mice showed early onset and sustained elevation of REMS compared to non-shocked controls. In addition, REMS architecture before trauma was correlated with the intensity of acoustic startle responses, but not contextual fear, 1 month after trauma. Our data suggest REMS as prognostic (pre-trauma) and symptomatic (post-trauma) marker of PTSD-like symptoms in mice. Translated to the situation in humans, REMS may constitute a viable, objective, and non-invasive biomarker in PTSD and other trauma-related psychiatric disorders, which could guide pharmacological interventions in humans at high risk.
- Risk prediction and treatment monitoring are crucial for prevention and management of compulsive dopamine use in Parkinson's disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2013 May 14.
- Cavum Septum Pellucidum and Cavum Vergae With Late-Onset Catatonia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J ECT 2013 May 10.
Associations between large cavum septum pellucidum and functional psychosis disorders, especially schizophrenia, have been reported. We report a case of late-onset catatonia associated with enlarged CSP and cavum vergae. A 66-year-old woman was presented with altered mental status and stereotypic movement. She was initially treated with aripiprazole and lorazepam. After 4 weeks, she was treated with electroconvulsive therapy. By 10 treatments, echolalia vanished, and catatonic behavior was alleviated. Developmental anomalies in the midline structure may increase susceptibility to psychosis, even in the elderly.
- Long-term efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA injections in patients with cervical dystonia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2013 May 18.
INTRODUCTION:Previously, controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and tolerability of fixed doses of incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin, NT 201, botulinum toxin type A free from complexing proteins) to treat cervical dystonia (CD). To explore the clinical relevance of these findings, this study evaluated long-term use of flexible dosing regimens of incobotulinumtoxinA in a setting close to real-life clinical practice.
METHODS:Patients with CD received five injection sessions of incobotulinumtoxinA using flexible intervals (10-24 weeks) and dosing (≤300 Units) based on patients' needs. Outcome measures included Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS), the Dystonia Discomfort Scale (DDS), Investigator Global Assessment of Efficacy (IGAE) and Patient Evaluation of Global Response (PEGR).
RESULTS:Of 76 patients enrolled (men: 34%; naïve to botulinum toxin: 25%), 64 completed the study, receiving treatment over a duration of 49.3-114.1 weeks (total maximum duration: 121 weeks). Mean TWSTRS-Total and DDS scores significantly improved from study baseline to 4 weeks after each injection session (ranges of improvement: TWSTRS-Total: -11.7 to -14.3; DDS: -20.2 to -23.0). Up to 81.6% of investigators rated the efficacy as 'good' or 'very good' (IGAE) and up to 78.9% of patients rated the treatment response as 'improved' (PEGR). The most common adverse events were dysphagia, nasopharyngitis and headache.
CONCLUSIONS:In this long-term study, incobotulinumtoxinA was administered using more flexible dosing regimens than those permitted in previous controlled trials. Repeated injections of highly purified incobotulinumtoxinA are effective and well tolerated for the treatment of CD in a setting close to real-life clinical practice.
- Clinical application of actigraphy in psychotic disorders: a systematic review. [Journal Article]
- Curr Psychiatry Rep 2013 Jun; 15(6):359.
Actigraphy has become increasingly recognized as a useful method to study sleep/wake patterns and activity monitoring. It is a reliable tool for confirming a diagnosis and evaluating the effect of treatments for sleep problems in patients with primary psychiatric diagnoses such as schizophrenia. In addition, actigraphy is an objective measure that circumvents the lack of insight and often unreliable self-reporting of mental health related problems. However, the literature regarding the use of actigraphy in research and clinical applications related to severe psychiatric populations is scarce. Amalgamation of the evidence is needed to advance the use of actigraphy in psychiatry. We summarized the literature to date related to the use of actigraphy in patients with psychotic disorders, specifically schizophrenia. We conducted a systematic review of journal databases. Sixty-six studies emerged from the search of the electronic search engines, 14 were RCTs/case-control studies and 14 were review/guideline papers and others were case studies. Results of the RCT/case-control studies comparing the use of actigraphy with patients versus control were summarized. Actigraphy not only allows for the objective evaluation of sleep habits and circadian rhythm disorders, but also helps to clarify and compare sleep and activity patterns among severe psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Additionally, actigraphy data can be used as an outcome measure for changes in sleep patterns either when primary psychotic disorders are treated and/or when the sleep disturbance associated with the psychotic disorder is treated. Finally, actigraphy serves as a supplementary tool to study neuropathology of movement-related psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia.
- Sleep Disturbance in Pediatric PTSD: Current Findings and Future Directions. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Sleep Med 2013; 9(5):501-10.
Many studies have provided strong evidence of a fundamental and complex role for sleep disturbances in adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Investigations of adult PTSD using subjective and objective measures document sleep architecture abnormalities and high prevalence of sleep disordered breathing, periodic limb movement disorder, nightmares, and insomnia. PTSD treatment methods do appear to significantly improve sleep disturbance, and also studies suggest that treatments for sleep disorders often result in improvements in PTSD symptoms. Further, the most recent evidence suggests sleep abnormalities may precede the development of PTSD. Given the importance of sleep disorders to the onset, course, and treatment of adult PTSD, examination of sleep disturbances far earlier in the life course is imperative. Here we review the literature on what we know about sleep disturbances and disorders in pediatric PTSD. Our review indicates that the extant, empirical data examining sleep disturbance and disorders in pediatric PTSD is limited. Yet, this literature suggests there are significantly higher reports of sleep disturbances and nightmares in children and adolescents exposed to trauma and/or diagnosed with PTSD than in non-trauma-exposed samples. Sleep questionnaires are predominantly employed to assess sleep disorders in pediatric PTSD, with few studies utilizing objective measures. Given the important, complex relationship being uncovered between adult PTSD and sleep, this review calls for further research of sleep in children with PTSD using more specific subjective measures and also objective measures, such as polysomnography and eventually treatment trial studies. CITATION: Kovachy B; O'Hara R; Hawkins N; Gershon A; Primeau MM; Madej J; Carrion V. Sleep disturbance in pediatric PTSD: current findings and future directions. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):501-510.