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Psychiatry AND Tardive dyskinesia [keywords]
- Deep brain stimulation in the treatment of depression. [Journal Article]
- Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2014 Mar; 16(1):83-91.
Major depressive disorder is a worldwide disease with debilitating effects on a patient's life. Common treatments include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. Many patients do not respond to these treatments; this has led to the investigation of alternative therapeutic modalities. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is one of these modalities. It was first used with success for treating movement disorders and has since been extended to the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although DBS is still an emerging treatment, promising efficacy and safety have been demonstrated in preliminary trials in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Further, neuroimaging has played a pivotal role in identifying some DBS targets and remains an important tool for evaluating the mechanism of action of this novel intervention. Preclinical animal studies have broadened knowledge about the possible mechanisms of action of DBS for TRD, Given that DBS involves neurosurgery in patients with severe psychiatric impairment, ethical questions concerning capacity to consent arise; these issues must continue to be carefully considered.
- Evaluation of mild cognitive impairment subtypes in Parkinson's disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mov Disord 2014 Apr 7.
Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI) is common and increases the risk for dementia. Establishing distinct PD-MCI cognitive subtypes could be valuable for eventually predicting those most likely to convert to dementia. However, the study of PD-MCI subtypes has not yielded consistent results among cohorts. To determine whether there are distinct cognitive subtypes among participants diagnosed with PD-MCI in the Pacific Northwest Udall Center Clinical Consortium, we cognitively subtyped 95 patients with PD-MCI, using the Movement Disorders Society Task Force diagnostic guidelines. Psychometric test scores were then subjected to principle components factor analysis to determine whether similar cognitive subgroups could be identified using statistical methodology. Multiple-domain PD-MCI was diagnosed in 95% of the sample, and a range of cognitive impairments were noted. Factor analysis yielded seven factors and demonstrated overlap of phonemic verbal fluency on two factors, as well as the loading of verbal fluency on the same factor as a visuospatial measure; however, these factors did not partition the sample into distinct cognitive subtypes. Separation of cognitive subtypes based on the current PD-MCI criteria, or via statistical methods, may not provide sufficient information to describe distinct PD groups. Future efforts to validate the PD-MCI criteria and identify combinations of genetic or other risk factors for cognitive impairment are warranted. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- The utility of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale in Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014 Mar 20.
The Movement Disorders Society (MDS) recently proposed guidelines for diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI) that includes two assessment levels: abbreviated (Level I) and comprehensive (Level II). The aim of this study was to determine the utility of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS), a recommended Level I test, for detecting Level II PD-MCI diagnosis.The study sample included 30 patients diagnosed with PD-MCI based on Level II MDS criteria and 68 PD patients with normal cognition (PD-NC). Receiver operator curve (ROC) analyses were generated to measure the sensitivity and specificity of various MDRS cutoff scores. To examine the utility of the MDRS as a screening tool, the optimal cutoff point was defined as the lowest value providing ≥80% sensitivity. For use of the MDRS as a diagnostic tool, the optimal cutoff point was defined as the highest value providing ≥80% specificity.ROC analyses showed that the optimal MDRS cutoff score for screening purposes and diagnostic purposes were ≤140 and ≤137, respectively. However, an examination of sensitivity/specificity values for the screening cutoff scores suggested that a total score of ≤139 for screening purposes yielded a better balance between sensitivity (77%) and specificity (65%).In a clinical setting, in which detection of PD-MCI may be important, a total MDRS score of ≤139 can be used to detect PD-MCI. In research and other settings in which diagnostic certainty is more important, a score of ≤137 may be more useful.
- Multiple changes of functional connectivity between sensorimotor areas in focal hand dystonia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014 Apr 4.
Task-specific focal hand dystonia impairs the control of arm muscles during fine motor skills such as writing (writer's cramp (WC)). Functional imaging found abnormal task-related activation of sensorimotor areas in this disorder, but little is known on their functional connectivity (FC).Resting-state fMRI and regions of interest (ROI)-voxel cross-correlation analyses were used for systematically analysing the FC between multiple ROIs within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in 15 patients with right-sided WC and 15 healthy volunteers.Patients with WC showed a lower positive FC of several seed ROIs (left lateral premotor cortex, left thalamus, left/right pallidum) to the symptomatic left primary sensorimotor cortex compared with controls. The FC of the left primary motor cortex to prefrontal areas, pre- supplementary motor area and right somatosensory cortex was reduced and correlated with disease severity. Several cerebellar seed ROIs (right dentate nucleus, right crus I and bilateral crus II) revealed a stronger negative FC to primary and secondary sensorimotor areas.An increase of negative cerebello-cortical FC at rest is in line with the hypothesis of a pathogenetic role of the cerebellum in dystonia. The deficit of positive subcortico-cortical FC indicates more generalised changes within the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor loops beyond primary sensorimotor areas in WC. As patients with WC are asymptomatic during rest, these functional network changes could reflect an underlying abnormality or compensatory neuroplastic changes of network architecture in this disorder.
- Genome-wide analysis of CNV (copy number variation) and their associations with narcolepsy in a Japanese population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hum Genet 2014 Apr 3.
In humans, narcolepsy with cataplexy (narcolepsy) is a sleep disorder that is characterized by sleepiness, cataplexy and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep abnormalities. Narcolepsy is caused by a reduction in the number of neurons that produce hypocretin (orexin) neuropeptide. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of narcolepsy.Rare and large copy number variations (CNVs) reportedly play a role in the etiology of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Narcolepsy is considered a neurological disorder; therefore, we sought to investigate any possible association between rare and large CNVs and human narcolepsy. We used DNA microarray data and a CNV detection software application, PennCNV-Affy, to detect CNVs in 426 Japanese narcoleptic patients and 562 healthy individuals. Overall, we found a significant enrichment of rare and large CNVs (frequency 1%, size 100 kb) in the patients (case-control ratio of CNV count=1.54, P=5.00 × 10(-4)). Next, we extended a region-based association analysis by including CNVs with its size 30 kb. Rare and large CNVs in PARK2 region showed a significant association with narcolepsy. Four patients were assessed to carry duplications of the gene region, whereas no controls carried the duplication, which was further confirmed by quantitative PCR assay. This duplication was also found in 2 essential hypersomnia (EHS) patients out of 171 patients. Furthermore, a pathway analysis revealed enrichments of gene disruptions by rare and large CNVs in immune response, acetyltransferase activity, cell cycle regulation and regulation of cell development. This study constitutes the first report on the risk association between multiple rare and large CNVs and the pathogenesis of narcolepsy. In the future, replication studies are needed to confirm the associations.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 3 April 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.13.
- N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in neurological disorders: mechanisms of action and therapeutic opportunities. [REVIEW]
- Brain Behav 2014 Mar; 4(2):108-122.
There is an expanding field of research investigating the benefits of medicines with multiple mechanisms of action across neurological disorders. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), widely known as an antidote to acetaminophen overdose, is now emerging as treatment of vascular and nonvascular neurological disorders. NAC as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione modulates glutamatergic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory pathways.Most NAC studies up to date have been carried out in animal models of various neurological disorders with only a few studies completed in humans. In psychiatry, NAC has been tested in over 20 clinical trials as an adjunctive treatment; however, this topic is beyond the scope of this review. Herein, we discuss NAC molecular, intracellular, and systemic effects, focusing on its potential applications in neurodegenerative diseases including spinocerebellar ataxia, Parkinson's disease, tardive dyskinesia, myoclonus epilepsy of the Unverricht-Lundbor type as well as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease.Finally, we review the potential applications of NAC to facilitate recovery after traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia, and in treatment of cerebrovascular vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
- Association of variants in DRD2 and GRM3 with motor and cognitive function in first-episode psychosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2013 Oct 25.
Similar smooth pursuit eye tracking dysfunctions are present across psychotic disorders. They include pursuit initiation and maintenance deficits that implicate different functional brain systems. This candidate gene study examined psychosis-related genotypes regulating dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission in relation to these pursuit deficits. One hundred and thirty-eight untreated first-episode patients with a psychotic disorder were genotyped for four markers in DRD2 and four markers in GRM3. The magnitude of eye movement abnormality in patients was defined in relation to performance of matched healthy controls (N = 130). Eighty three patients were followed after 6 weeks of antipsychotic treatment. At baseline, patients with a -141C deletion in DRD2 rs1799732 had slower initiation eye velocity and longer pursuit latency than CC insertion carriers. Further, GRM3 rs274622_CC carriers had poorer pursuit maintenance than T-carriers. Antipsychotic treatment resulted in prolonged pursuit latency in DRD2 rs1799732_CC insertion carriers and a decline in pursuit maintenance in GRM3 rs6465084_GG carriers. The present study demonstrates for the first time that neurophysiological measures of motor and neurocognitive deficits in patients with psychotic disorders have different associations with genes regulating dopamine and glutamate systems, respectively. Alterations in striatal D2 receptor activity through the -141C Ins/Del polymorphism could contribute to pursuit initiation deficits in psychotic disorders. Alterations in GRM3 coding for the mGluR3 protein may impair pursuit maintenance by compromising higher perceptual and cognitive processes that depend on optimal glutamate signaling in corticocortical circuits. DRD2 and GRM3 genotypes also selectively modulated the severity of adverse motor and neurocognitive changes resulting from antipsychotic treatment.
- Initial circulatory response to active standing in Parkinson's disease without typical orthostatic hypotension. [Journal Article]
- Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2014 Mar; 72(3):208-13.
While the circulatory response to orthostatic stress has been already evaluated in Parkinson's disease patients without typical orthostatic hypotension (PD-TOH), there is an initial response to the upright position which is uniquely associated with active standing (AS). We sought to assess this response and to compare it to that seen in young healthy controls (YHC). Method In 10 PD-TOH patients (8 males, 60±7 years, Hoehn and Yahr ≤3) the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate that occur in the first 30 seconds (sec) of standing were examined. Both parameters were non-invasively and continuously monitored using the volume-clamp method by Peñáz and the Physiocal criteria by Wesseling. The choice of sample points was prompted by the results of previous studies. These sample points were compared to those of 10 YHC (8 males, 32±8 years). Results The main finding of the present investigation was an increased time between the AS onset and SBP overshoot in PD-TOH group (24±4 vs. 19±3 sec; p<0.05). Conclusion This delay might reflect a prolonged latency in the baroreflex-mediated vascular resistance response, but more studies are needed to confirm this preliminary hypothesis.
- Barriers to investigator-initiated deep brain stimulation and device research. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurology 2014 Mar 26.
The success of device-based research in the clinical neurosciences has overshadowed a critical and emerging problem in the biomedical research environment in the United States. Neuroprosthetic devices, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), have been shown in humans to be promising technologies for scientific exploration of neural pathways and as powerful treatments. Large device companies have, over the past several decades, funded and developed major research programs. However, both the structure of clinical trial funding and the current regulation of device research threaten investigator-initiated efforts in neurologic disorders. The current atmosphere dissuades clinical investigators from pursuing formal and prospective research with novel devices or novel indications. We review our experience in conducting a federally funded, investigator-initiated, device-based clinical trial that utilized DBS for thalamic pain syndrome. We also explore barriers that clinical investigators face in conducting device-based clinical trials, particularly in early-stage studies or small disease populations. We discuss 5 specific areas for potential reform and integration: (1) alternative pathways for device approval; (2) eliminating right of reference requirements; (3) combining federal grant awards with regulatory approval; (4) consolidation of oversight for human subjects research; and (5) private insurance coverage for clinical trials. Careful reformulation of regulatory policy and funding mechanisms is critical for expanding investigator-initiated device research, which has great potential to benefit science, industry, and, most importantly, patients.
- Reluctance to start medication for Parkinson's disease: A mutual misunderstanding by patients and physicians. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014 Mar 12.
Reluctance to start medication has never been investigated before in PD. We studied reluctance to start medication for PD motor symptoms, namely its prevalence, underlying reasons, drug-specificity, and associated delay in the start of PD medication. A cross-sectional observational international study was conducted. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of PD advised to start antiparkinsonian medication in the previous 5 years were invited to complete a questionnaire in three centers located in North America and Europe. An electronic online survey was sent to physicians through the mailing list of the Movement Disorder Society. 469 participants (201 PD patients, 268 physicians). 40.2% (n = 82) of the patients reported reluctance to start medication, but 88.6% (n = 234/264) of the physicians estimated that ≤20% of their patients with PD had been reluctant to start medication. The most common reasons reported by patients were the fear of side effects (n = 35, 55.6%), followed by non-acceptance of diagnosis (n = 23, 36.5%); fear of a temporally limited benefit was more commonly selected by physicians (n = 92/267, 34.5%). Patients indicated reluctance to start DAs more frequently compared with L-DOPA (OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.30, 9.03; p = 0.013) while physicians perceived L-DOPA to be associated with more reluctance (OR: 4.7, 95% CI: 3.41; 6.59; p < 0.0001). Patients with PD and physicians have a different perspective on the issue of reluctance to start medication. There is a need to bring physicians and patients with PD closer to a shared vision of the problem reluctance to start medication.