Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Pulmonary Edema [keywords]
- Cardiac Biomarkers at High Altitude. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- High Alt Med Biol 2014 Oct 20.
Abstract Mellor, Adrian, Christopher Boos, David Holdsworth, Joe Begley, David Hall, Andrew Lumley, Anne Burnett, Amanda Hawkins, John O'Hara, Stephen Ball, and David Woods. Cardiac biomarkers at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 15:000-000, 2014.-Background: Classically, biomarkers such as the natriuretic peptides (NPs) BNP/NT-proBNP are associated with the diagnosis of heart failure and hs-cTnT with acute coronary syndromes. NPs are also elevated in pulmonary hypertension. High pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) is a key feature of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), which may be difficult to diagnose in the field. We have previously demonstrated that NPs are associated with high PASP and the presence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in a small cohort at HA. We aimed to investigate the utility of several common cardiac biomarkers in diagnosing high PASP and AMS. Methods: 48 participants were assessed post-trekking and at rest at three altitudes: 3833 m, 4450 m, and 5129 m. NPs, hs-cTnT and hsCRP, were quantified using immunoassays, PASP was measured by echocardiography, and AMS scores were recorded. Results: Significant changes occurred with ascent in NPs, hs-cTnT, hsCRP (all p<0.001) and PASP (p=0.006). A high PASP (≥40 mm Hg) was associated with higher NPs, NT-proBNP: 137±195 vs. 71.8±68 (p=0.001); BNP 15.3±18.1 vs. 8.7±6.6 (p=0.001). NPs were significantly higher in those with AMS or severe AMS vs. those without (severe AMS: NT-proBNP: 161.2±264 vs. 76.4±82.5 (p=0.008)). The NPs correlated with hsCRP. cTnT increased with exercise at HA and was also higher in those with a high PASP (13.8±21 vs. 7.8±6.5, p=0.018). Conclusion: The NPs and hs-cTnT are associated with high PASP at HA and the NPs with AMS.
- Critical care for patients with massive ischemic stroke. [Journal Article, Review]
- J Stroke 2014 Sep; 16(3):146-60.
Malignant cerebral edema following ischemic stroke is life threatening, as it can cause inadequate blood flow and perfusion leading to irreversible tissue hypoxia and metabolic crisis. Increased intracranial pressure and brain shift can cause herniation syndrome and finally brain death. Multiple randomized clinical trials have shown that preemptive decompressive hemicraniectomy effectively reduces mortality and morbidity in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. Another life-saving decompressive surgery is suboccipital craniectomy for patients with brainstem compression by edematous cerebellar infarction. In addition to decompressive surgery, cerebrospinal fluid drainage by ventriculostomy should be considered for patients with acute hydrocephalus following stroke. Medical treatment begins with sedation, analgesia, and general measures including ventilatory support, head elevation, maintaining a neutral neck position, and avoiding conditions associated with intracranial hypertension. Optimization of cerebral perfusion pressure and reduction of intracranial pressure should always be pursued simultaneously. Osmotherapy with mannitol is the standard treatment for intracranial hypertension, but hypertonic saline is also an effective alternative. Therapeutic hypothermia may also be considered for treatment of brain edema and intracranial hypertension, but its neuroprotective effects have not been demonstrated in stroke. Barbiturate coma therapy has been used to reduce metabolic demand, but has become less popular because of its systemic adverse effects. Furthermore, general medical care is critical because of the complex interactions between the brain and other organ systems. Some challenging aspects of critical care, including ventilator support, sedation and analgesia, and performing neurological examinations in the setting of a minimal stimulation protocol, are addressed in this review.
- Pathological findings and probable causes of the death of Stejneger's beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) stranded in Japan from 1999 and 2011. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vet Med Sci 2014 Oct 20.
One hundred and twenty stranding events of Stejneger's beaked whales were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2011. The purpose of this study was to introduce pathological data and to discuss probable causes of death for 44 Stejneger's beaked whales among the reported cases. The significant pathological findings were the pulmonary edema, parasitic granulomatous nephritis, emaciation, amyloidosis, suppurative bronchopneumonia and so on. The probable causes of death were categorized as noninfectious in 43 of the cases, which included drowning, starvation and secondary amyloidosis. One individual was diagnosed with septicemia, which was the only example of an infectious disease. Because we could not always perform advanced analyses, such as microbiology tests, biotoxin examinations or contaminant analyses, the finality of our findings may be impaired. However, the present study has broad implications on the causes of death of Stejneger's beaked whales of the seas around Japan, which are valuable for the future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases.
- Abnormalities in the male reproductive system after exposure to diesel and biodiesel blend. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Mol Mutagen 2014 Oct 18.
Altering the fuel source from petroleum-based ultralow sulfur diesel to biodiesel and its blends is considered by many to be a sustainable choice for controlling exposures to particulate material. As the exhaust of biodiesel/diesel blends is composed of a combination of combustion products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fatty acid methyl esters, we hypothesize that 50% biodiesel/diesel blend (BD50) exposure could induce harmful outcomes because of its ability to trigger oxidative damage. Here, adverse effects were compared in murine male reproductive organs after pharyngeal aspiration with particles generated by engine fueled with BD50 or neat petroleum diesel (D100). When compared with D100, exposure to BD50 significantly altered sperm integrity, including concentration, motility, and morphological abnormalities, as well as increasing testosterone levels in testes during the time course postexposure. Serum level of luteinizing hormone was significantly depleted only after BD50 exposure. Moreover, we observed that exposure to BD50 significantly increased sperm DNA fragmentation and the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in the serum and testes on Day 7 postexposure when compared with D100. Histological evaluation of testes sections from BD50 exposure indicated more noticeable interstitial edema, degenerating spermatocytes, and dystrophic seminiferous tubules with arrested spermatogenesis. Significant differences in the level of oxidative stress assessed by accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and depletion of glutathione were detected on exposure to respirable BD50 and D100. Taken together, these results indicate that exposure of mice to inhalable BD50 caused more pronounced adverse effects on male reproductive function than diesel. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Postmortem pulmonary CT in hypothermia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2014 Oct 19.
Fatal hypothermia has been associated with pulmonary edema. With postmortem full body computed tomography scanning (PMCT), the lungs can also be examined for CT attenuation. In fatal hypothermia cases low CT attenuation appeared to prevail in the lungs. We compared 14 cases of fatal hypothermia with an age-sex matched control group. Additionally, 4 cases of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning were examined. Furthermore, 10 test cases were examined to test predictability based on PMCT. Two readers measured CT attenuation on four different axial slices across the lungs (blinded to case group and other reader's results). Hypothermia was associated with statistically significantly lower lung PMCT attenuation and lower lung weights than controls, and there was a dose-effect relationship at an environmental temperature cutoff of 2 °C. CO poisoning yielded low pulmonary attenuation but higher lung weights. General model based prediction yielded a 94 % probability for fatal hypothermia deaths and a 21 % probability for non-hypothermia deaths in the test group. Increased breathing rate is known to accompany both CO poisoning and hypothermia, so this could partly explain the low PMCT lung attenuation due to an oxygen dissociation curve left shift. A more marked distension in fatal hypothermia, compared to CO poisoning, indicates that further, possibly different mechanisms, are involved in these cases. Increased dead space and increased stiffness to deflation (but not inflation) appear to be effects of inhaling cold air (but not CO) that may explain the difference in low PMCT attenuation seen in hypothermia cases.
- Pulmonary edema in pregnancy and the puerperium: a cohort study of 53 cases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Perinat Med 2014 Oct 16.
Abstract Objective: To describe the etiology and obstetric outcome in women presenting with pulmonary edema during pregnancy and the puerperium. As a secondary objective, we evaluated the utility of echocardiography in the investigation and management of such women. Methods: Retrospective case note analysis of 53 cases of pulmonary edema that resulted in severe respiratory distress and admission to intensive care. The study population were women accessing obstetric care at a tertiary referral center in South Africa. Results: Cases were classified as cardiac (6/53; 11%), hypertensive (44/53; 83%), or septic (3/53; 6%), depending on the underlying cause for pulmonary edema. There were significant differences in the mean ejection fraction at echocardiography for cardiac vs. non-cardiac groups (26% vs. 55%, P=0.0001), as well as the presence of valvular stenosis or regurgitation (5/6 vs. 8/30, P=0.016). Women in the non-cardiac group were more likely to present earlier and require earlier delivery than in the cardiac group (median gestation at delivery 35 weeks vs. 38 weeks, P=0.0106) and mothers in the cardiac group were more likely to die (2/6 vs. 1/47, P=0.031). Cesarean delivery was performed in 85% of cases. Conclusions: Hypertensive illness is the most common underlying etiology in the development of pulmonary edema. Transthoracic echocardiography is a non-invasive investigation that can be carried out at the bedside and is a useful diagnostic tool in pulmonary edema occurring in pregnancy and the puerperium. Knowledge of ejection fraction is an important diagnostic tool to differentiate the underlying causes and to guide management.
- Tadalafil Prevents Acute Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction in Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2014 Oct 17.
Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors were shown to exert powerful protection in various animal models of cardiomyopathy. Tadalafil is a long-acting and highly specific PDE5 inhibitor, which makes it the most attractive in its class for long-term management of patients with heart failure. We studied the effects of tadalafil in attenuating ischemic cardiomyopathy in mice.Adult male mice underwent myocardial infarction (MI) by permanent left coronary artery ligation and were treated daily with tadalafil (1 mg/kg; ip) or volume-matched 10 % DMSO for 4 weeks. Twenty four hours after coronary ligation, infarct size, measured by TTC staining, was reduced from 70.1 ± 3.1 % in DMSO-treated group to 49.3 ± 2.6 % with tadalafil (P < 0.05). Similarly, tadalafil treatment yielded a smaller fibrotic area (8.8 ± 2.8 % of LV), assessed by Masson's trichrome staining, as compared to DMSO group (21.9 ± 3.9 %, P < 0.05). Apoptosis, measured by TUNEL assay, also declined with tadalafil (2.1 ± 0.2 %) as compared to DMSO (6.7 ± 0.4 %, P < 0.05) at 28 days post MI. Tadalafil also attenuated the increase in cardiac hypertrophy and pulmonary edema following infarction. These parameters reflect diminished left ventricular (LV) adverse remodeling and preserved fractional shortening with tadalafil at 7 and 28 days post infarction.Tadalafil attenuates ischemic cardiomyopathy in mice and preserves LV function.
- Impact of Pleural Manometry on the Development of Chest Discomfort During Thoracentesis: A Symptom-based Study. [Journal Article]
- J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol 2014 Oct; 21(4):306-13.
Routine manometry is recommended to prevent complications during therapeutic thoracentesis, but has not definitively been shown to prevent pneumothorax or reexpansion pulmonary edema. As chest discomfort correlates with negative pleural pressures, we aimed to determine whether the use of manometry could anticipate the development of chest discomfort during therapeutic thoracentesis.A retrospective chart review of 214 consecutive adults who underwent outpatient therapeutic thoracentesis at our institution between January 1, 2011 and June 30, 2013 was performed. We compared preprocedural to postprocedural discomfort (using a linear analog scale from 0 to 10) in patients undergoing thoracentesis with or without manometry. We used a multivariate model to adjust for possible confounders. Changes of dyspnea scores were also analyzed.Manometry was performed in 82/214 patients (38%). On univariate and multivariate analyses, neither the change in chest discomfort nor dyspnea scores was significantly different in the manometry versus the control group (P=0.12 and 0.24, respectively). Similar results were also found in the subgroup of large-volume thoracentesis (P=0.32 for discomfort, P=1.0 for dyspnea).In our retrospective study, the use of manometry did not appear to anticipate the development of chest discomfort during therapeutic thoracentesis. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
- Delayed onset pulmonary glue emboli in a ventilated patient: a rare complication following endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection for gastric variceal haemorrhage. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2014.
Cyanoacrylate injection is a recognised endoscopic treatment option for variceal haemorrhage. We describe a 34-year old man with hepatitis B cirrhosis who presented to the hospital with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage from gastric and oesophageal varices. Haemostasis was achieved via cyanoacrylate injection sclerotherapy and banding. Ten days later, the patient developed acute hypoxia and fever. His chest radiograph showed wide-spread pulmonary shadowing. A non-contrast CT scan confirmed multiple emboli of injected glue material from the varix with parenchymal changes either suggesting acute lung injury or pulmonary oedema. He gradually recovered with supportive treatment and was discharged home. On follow-up, he remained asymptomatic from a chest perspective. This case report discusses the rare complication of pulmonary embolisation of cyanoacrylate glue from variceal injection sites and the diagnostic dilemmas involved. Emphasis is placed on the importance of maintaining high index of clinical suspicion when assessing patients with possible procedure related complications.
- Percutaneous Left Atrial Decompression in Patients Supported With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Cardiac Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Crit Care Med 2014 Oct 14.
Left atrial decompression using cardiac catheterization techniques has been described at centers with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation programs. Left atrial decompression can decrease cardiogenic edema, minimize ventricular distension, and allow myocardial recovery. We describe Boston Children's Hospital's experience with percutaneous left atrial decompression techniques, acute outcomes, and clinical impact of left atrial decompression in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients.Patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation undergoing percutaneous left atrial decompression were identified and assigned to two groups 1) myocarditis/suspected myocarditis or 2) nonmyocarditis cardiac disease.Three techniques including vent placement, static balloon dilation, and stent implantation were used.Change in left atrial pressure and severity of pulmonary edema on chest radiography pre and post procedure, impact of timing and technique of left atrial decompression on resolution of left atrial hypertension, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survival were evaluated. Furthermore, we evaluated the presence of residual atrial septal defect during follow-up. Percutaneous left atrial decompression was performed in 44 of 419 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases (10.5%) and was frequently used for myocarditis (22 of 44 patients; 50%). Techniques included 25 vents, 17 static balloon dilations, and two stents. All techniques were equally successful and significantly reduced left atrial pressure and pulmonary edema. Survival to hospital discharge was not associated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation duration prior to left atrial decompression, change in left atrial pressure, or technique used. Persistent atrial septal defect was noted in five surviving patients (excluding transplant recipients and deceased), two required closure.Left atrial decompression can be performed effectively in children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using various percutaneous techniques. Reduction in pulmonary venous congestion is usually evident by chest radiography within 48 hours of intervention. Persistent atrial septal defect may require closure at the time of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation decannulation or during long-term follow-up.