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Pulmonary Edema [keywords]
- [Role of whole-body ultrasound in severe pre-eclampsia and post-partum hemorrhage.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Can J Anaesth 2013 May 17.
PURPOSE:Management of severe pre-eclamptic patients is a challenge for the staff on obstetrical wards. We demonstrate that ultrasound applied to several organs performed at a patient's bedside gave the information required for the patient's management, without the need to transfer her to the radiology department or to call external consultants. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 29-yr-old severely pre-eclamptic patient with HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, cytolysis, thrombopenia) presented, in the post-partum period, with an occult uterine hemorrhage diagnosed with bedside abdominal/pelvic ultrasound. Ultrasound was also used to insert a central venous catheter. After undergoing a hysterectomy to control hemorrhage and receiving activated factor VII, the patient recovered uneventfully. Hemodynamic management was optimized non-invasively using pulmonary and cardiac ultrasound, when the patient developed hemorrhagic shock followed by pulmonary edema. Volume replacement was guided by cardiac ultrasound findings, and we were able to detect incipient interstitial pulmonary edema and follow its course using pulmonary ultrasound.
CONCLUSION:Practitioners must be aware of the role of whole-body ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of complex, multi-organ conditions such as pre-eclampsia. Moreover, ultrasound helps in the management of global hemodynamics. The training of anesthesiologists in a variety of ultrasound techniques should be encouraged.
- Hantavirus infection in North America: a clinical review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Emerg Med 2013 May 13.
The recent outbreak of hantavirus in Yosemite National Park has attracted national attention, with 10 confirmed cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and thousands of more people exposed. This article will review the epidemiology, presentation, workup, and treatment for this rare but potentially lethal illness. The possibility of infection with hantavirus deserves consideration in patients with severe respiratory symptoms with rodent exposure or rural/wilderness travel. Accurate diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome presents as a vague prodrome of fever, cough, myalgias, chills, and nausea followed by a rapidly worsening respiratory phase. Presumptive diagnosis can be made based on pulmonary interstitial edema on chest radiographs in association with leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and hemoconcentration. Suspected cases should be confirmed with a reference laboratory and reported to the appropriate public health authorities. Although treatment is primarily supportive, aggressive fluid administration should be avoided due to the risk of pulmonary edema. The cardiopulmonary phase of the disease can progress rapidly with catastrophic decompensation in as little as a few hours. Patients require rapid intensive care unit admission for monitoring, mechanical ventilation, vasoactive agents, and possibly extracorporeal mechanical ventilation. Emergency physicians should be aware of outbreaks and vigilant for hantavirus exposures, especially during the summer and early fall months.
- Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Crit Care 2013 Apr 25; 17(2):223.
Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has proved to be an excellent technique in selected critically ill patients with different forms of acute respiratory failure. However, NIV can fail on account of the severity of the disease and technical problems, particularly at the interface. The helmet could be an alternative interface compared to face mask to improve NIV success. We performed a clinical review to investigate the main physiological and clinical studies assessing the efficacy and related issues of NIV delivered with a helmet. A computerized search strategy of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 2000 to May 2012) and EMBASE (January 2000 to May 2012) was conducted limiting the search to retrospective, prospective, nonrandomized and randomized trials. We analyzed 152 studies from which 33 were selected, 12 physiological and 21 clinical (879 patients). The physiological studies showed that NIV with helmet could predispose to CO2 rebreathing and increase the patients' ventilator asynchrony. The main indications for NIV were acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (community-acquired pneumonia, postoperative and immunocompromised patients) and hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. In 9 of the 21 studies the helmet was compared to a face mask during either continous positive airway pressure or pressure support ventilation. In eight studies oxygenation was similar in the two groups, while the intubation rate was similar in four and lower in three studies for the helmet group compared to face mask group. The outcome was similar in six studies. The tolerance was better with the helmet in six of the studies. Although these data are limited, NIV delivered by helmet could be a safe alternative to the face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure.
- Recurrent pulmonary edema after umbilical cord blood transplantation in a patient with infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia. [Journal Article]
- Rinsho Ketsueki 2013 Mar; 54(3):273-8.
This report describes two infants with recurrent pulmonary edema after umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT). A 3-month-old boy and a 7-month-old boy with infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia underwent CBT from an unrelated donor in the first complete remission. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide. Tacrolimus and short-term methotrexate were administered for the prophylaxis of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Neutrophil engraftment was achieved on days 17 and 19, respectively. Neither infant developed acute GVHD. They both exhibited tachypnea and weight gain on days 25 and 30, respectively, which were diagnosed as pulmonary edema by chest X rays. The respiratory condition of the patients improved within a few days with the close monitoring of weight changes after the administration of diuretics. However, they suddenly developed dyspnea and pulmonary edema again on days 37 and 59, respectively. Steroid therapy was initiated for both patients. Their respiratory condition again improved quickly after the initiation of steroid therapy. Their symptoms and clinical courses may be classified as a new entity of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS). Therefore, these cases may represent a new unclassifiable IPS associated with either CBT or infants.
- Pulmonary Hypertension and Refractory Heart Failure in a Patient with Crow-Fukase (POEMS) Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Intern Med 2013; 52(10):1061-5.
We experienced the case of a 67-year-old man with refractory heart failure. He presented with dyspnea and progressive pitting edema of the lower limbs. Diuretics were insufficient to improve his symptoms. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated pulmonary hypertension. Additional examinations confirmed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy and monoclonal gammopathy. The plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level was 1,340 pg/mL. The patient was diagnosed with Crow-Fukase (POEMS) syndrome. Echocardiography detected left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Polysomnography demonstrated severe sleep-disordered breathing. We herein describe a case of pulmonary hypertension with Crow-Fukase syndrome accompanied by left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and sleep-disordered breathing.
- Ambrisentan for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension: improving outcomes. [Journal Article]
- Patient Prefer Adherence 2013.:401-9.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature that is associated with severe functional impairment and a poor prognosis. Ambrisentan is a selective endothelin type A receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of patients with PAH World Health Organization group 1. The efficacy and safety of ambrisentan has been evaluated in the ARIES series (Ambrisentan for the Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Efficacy Studies), which has established its use as both monotherapy or in conjunction with other PAH therapies. Specifically, ambrisentan is effective at increasing exercise tolerance, decreasing the risk of functional class deterioration, and prolonging time to clinical worsening. Further, ambrisentan has a favorable effect on mortality, with an 88% patient survival rate after two years of therapy compared with a 61% survival rate as estimated by the National Institute of Health Registry. Ambrisentan is generally well tolerated in all patient groups, with the main side effects of peripheral edema, sinusitis, flushing, and nasal congestion considered to be mild to moderate in nature. Ambrisentan has several favorable qualities that potentially make it more acceptable to patients, including once-daily administration, limited adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions, and minimal risk of liver enzyme elevation. Because of the potential risk of teratogenicity associated with ambrisentan, it is only available through a limited distribution program, ie, LEAP (the Letairis Education and Access Program). Ongoing clinical trials will help to clarify the role of ambrisentan in the treatment of PAH.
- Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and life-threatening shock due to calcium channel blocker overdose and its management: a case report and a clinical review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Respir Care 2013 May 14.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB) overdose can be life-threatening when manifest as catastrophic shock and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. We describe a case of massive overdose of multiple medications, including sustained-release verapamil that was resistant to conventional support. Initial treatment for CCB overdose is primarily supportive and includes fluid resuscitation. The mechanism of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is not well known and reported cases in the literature were successfully treated with mechanical ventilation. Circulatory shock may fail to respond to atropine, glucagon and calcium in severely poisoned patients, and vasopressors are usually required. Attempts to overcome calcium-channel antagonism with the use of supratherapeutic doses of calcium salts are clinically indicated to reverse hypotension and bradycardia. There is evidence that hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia (HIE) therapy is superior to other therapies for CCB poisoning, and the potential mechanism is thought to be the insulin-mediated active transport of glucose into the cells that counters the CCBinduced intra-cellular carbohydrate-deficient state. Conventional decontamination measures are ineffective in accelerating clearance of CCB. Experience with intravenous lipid emulsion for lipophilic drug overdose, such as verapamil, is limited but has been proposed as a rescue therapy with improvements in cardiac inotropy through intravascular sequestration of the lipophilic CCB.
- Validation of the san francisco syncope rule in two hospital emergency departments in an asian population. [Journal Article]
- Acad Emerg Med 2013 May; 20(5):487-97.
The objective was to externally validate the ability of the San Francisco Syncope Rule (SFSR) to accurately identify patients who will experience a 7-day serious clinical event in an Asian population.This was a prospective cohort study, with a sample of adult patients with syncope and near-syncope enrolled. Patients 12 years old and below and patients with loss of consciousness after head trauma, a witnessed seizure, with known alcohol or illicit drug ingestion, and altered level of consciousness or persistent new neurologic deficits were excluded. The patients were evaluated for the presence of one or more of the five SFSR variables: shortness of breath, history of heart failure, hematocrit <30%, systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg, and abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG). The patients were followed up by medical record review or telephone interview. Seven-day outcomes were death, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary edema, significant structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, major cardiac procedure, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, major bleeding, and anemia.A total of 1,250 patients from two centers were recruited. Fifty-six patients were excluded from primary analysis because of incomplete data (n = 55) and/or they were noncontactable for follow-up (n = 32). Of the 1,194 patients analyzed, 138 patients (11.6%) experienced adverse outcomes at 7 days. The rule performed with a sensitivity of 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 89.0% to 97.0%) and a specificity of 50.8% (95% CI = 47.7% to 53.8%).In this study, SFSR rule had a sensitivity of 94.2%. This suggests caution on the strict application of the rule to all patients presenting with syncope. It should only be used as an aide in clinical decision-making in this population.
- Complication Rates After Hip or Knee Arthroplasty in Morbidly Obese Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Orthop Relat Res 2013 May 14.
BACKGROUND:Morbid obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for increased complications after THA and TKA; however, large studies that would determine the effect size are lacking. QUESTIONS/
PURPOSES:The purposes of this study were to determine whether morbid obesity increased the risk of: (1) venous thromboembolism (VTE), (2) bleeding, (3) other adverse events, and (4) infections during the early postoperative period (up to 6 to 8 weeks) after THA or TKA?
METHODS:Data from the REgulation of Coagulation in ORthopaedic surgery to prevent Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (RECORD) clinical trial program of rivaroxaban for prevention of VTE after THA or TKA were analyzed retrospectively. Data for 12,355 patients were reviewed to identify complication rates in morbidly obese patients (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)) compared with patients with a BMI less than 40 kg/m(2). Explorative analyses compared the rates of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT), symptomatic DVT, symptomatic pulmonary embolism, bleeding, and other adverse events by BMI group.
RESULTS:There were no significant differences in asymptomatic DVT, symptomatic DVT, symptomatic pulmonary embolism, or bleeding, but there were increases in other adverse events (including receipt of blood transfusion, erythema, peripheral edema, diarrhea, gastrointestinal or abdominal pain) and infections (including respiratory tract or lung infections, wound inflammation or infection, and extrasurgical-site infections), in patients with a BMI of 40 kg/m(2) or greater compared with patients with a BMI less than 40 kg/m(2).
CONCLUSIONS:After THA or TKA, morbid obesity is not associated with an increased risk of VTE or bleeding but is associated with increased early postoperative complications, including erythema, peripheral edema, diarrhea and gastrointestinal or abdominal pain, wound inflammation or infection, extrasurgical-site infections, and respiratory tract or lung infections.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
- Usefulness of cardiothoracic chest ultrasound in the management of acute respiratory failure in critical care practice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chest 2013 May 9.