- Targeting Neutrophils to Prevent Malaria-Associated Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Mice. [Journal Article]
- PPPLoS Pathog 2016; 12(12):e1006054
- Malaria remains one of the greatest burdens to global health, causing nearly 500,000 deaths in 2014. When manifesting in the lungs, severe malaria causes acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress ...
Malaria remains one of the greatest burdens to global health, causing nearly 500,000 deaths in 2014. When manifesting in the lungs, severe malaria causes acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). We have previously shown that a proportion of DBA/2 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) develop ALI/ARDS and that these mice recapitulate various aspects of the human syndrome, such as pulmonary edema, hemorrhaging, pleural effusion and hypoxemia. Herein, we investigated the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of malaria-associated ALI/ARDS. Mice developing ALI/ARDS showed greater neutrophil accumulation in the lungs compared with mice that did not develop pulmonary complications. In addition, mice with ALI/ARDS produced more neutrophil-attracting chemokines, myeloperoxidase and reactive oxygen species. We also observed that the parasites Plasmodium falciparum and PbA induced the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) ex vivo, which were associated with inflammation and tissue injury. The depletion of neutrophils, treatment with AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist), Pulmozyme (human recombinant DNase) or Sivelestat (inhibitor of neutrophil elastase) decreased the development of malaria-associated ALI/ARDS and significantly increased mouse survival. This study implicates neutrophils and NETs in the genesis of experimentally induced malaria-associated ALI/ARDS and proposes a new therapeutic approach to improve the prognosis of severe malaria.
- Beneficial effect of low-level laser therapy in acute lung injury after i-I/R is dependent on the secretion of IL-10 and independent of the TLR/MyD88 signaling. [Journal Article]
- LMLasers Med Sci 2016 Dec 06
- The use of low-level laser for lung inflammation treatment has been evidenced in animal studies as well as clinical trials. The laser action mechanism seems to involve downregulation of neutrophil ch...
The use of low-level laser for lung inflammation treatment has been evidenced in animal studies as well as clinical trials. The laser action mechanism seems to involve downregulation of neutrophil chemoattractants and transcription factors. Innate immune responses against microorganisms may be mediated by toll-like receptors (TLR). Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (i-I/R) lead to bacterial product translocation, such as endotoxin, which consequently activates TLRs leading to intestinal and lung inflammation after gut trauma. Thus, the target of this study was to investigate the role of TLR activation in the laser (660 nm, 30 mW, 67.5 J/cm(2), 0.375 mW/cm(2), 5.4 J, 180 s, and spot size with 0.08 cm(2)) effect applied in contact with the skin on axillary lymph node in lung inflammation induced by i-I/R through a signaling adaptor protein known as myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). It is a quantitative, experimental, and laboratory research using the C57Bl/6 and MyD88(-/-) mice (n = 6 mice for experimental group). Statistical differences were evaluated by ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons test to determine differences among groups. In order to understand how the absence of MyD88 can interfere in the laser effect on lung inflammation, MyD88(-/-) mice were treated or not with laser and subjected to occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (45 min) followed by intestinal reperfusion (4 h). In summary, the laser decreased the MPO activity and the lung vascular permeability, thickened the alveolar septa, reduced both the edema and the alveolar hemorrhage, as well as significantly decreased neutrophils infiltration in MyD88-deficient mice as well in wild-type mice. It noted a downregulation in chemokine IL-8 production as well as a cytokine IL-10 upregulation in these animals. The results also evidenced that in absence of IL-10, the laser effect is reversed. Based on these results, we suggest that the beneficial effect of laser in acute lung injury after i-I/R is dependent on the secretion of IL-10 and independent of the TLR/MyD88 signaling.
- Training and Validating a Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Computer-Aided Detection and Classification of Abnormalities on Frontal Chest Radiographs. [Journal Article]
- IRInvest Radiol 2016 Dec 05
- CONCLUSIONS: Current deep CNN architectures can be trained with modest-sized medical data sets to achieve clinically useful performance at detecting and excluding common pathology on chest radiographs.
- Primary Leiomyosarcoma in the Inferior Vena Cava Extended to the Right Atrium: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Oncol 2016 Sep-Dec; 9(3):599-609
- A 38-year-old woman had developed an abdominal distention, lower extremity edema, and dyspnea. Imaging examination revealed a large mass in the right atrium which was connected to lesions within the ...
A 38-year-old woman had developed an abdominal distention, lower extremity edema, and dyspnea. Imaging examination revealed a large mass in the right atrium which was connected to lesions within the inferior vena cava. Although complete resection of the mass was not possible, partial surgical tumor resection was performed to avoid pulmonary embolization and circulatory collapse. Leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed histologically, and chemotherapy (doxorubicin) followed by radiotherapy was started. By reviewing papers published in the past 10 years that included 322 patients, we also discuss the clinical presentations and prognosis of leiomyosarcoma in the inferior vena cava.
- Association of Biomarkers with Serious Cardiac Adverse Events during Abiraterone Acetate Treatment in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer. [Review]
- TOTransl Oncol 2016; 9(6):600-605
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests a higher than expected risk of cardiac SAEs during abiraterone treatment which may well be due to the small sample size and the unrestricted entry criteria. However, baseline and frequent NT-proBNP and TnT monitoring predicted a higher risk for cardiac SAE. Larger studies should confirm our findings.
- Negative pressure pulmonary edema following cervical disc hernia surgery. [Journal Article]
- MCMed Clin (Barc) 2016 Dec 01
- Fluid Therapy in Lung Disease. [Review]
- VCVet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2016 Dec 01
- Fluid therapy is the cornerstone of supportive care in veterinary medicine. In dogs and cats with preexisting confirmed or suspected pulmonary disease, concerns may exist that the fluid therapy may i...
Fluid therapy is the cornerstone of supportive care in veterinary medicine. In dogs and cats with preexisting confirmed or suspected pulmonary disease, concerns may exist that the fluid therapy may impair gas exchange, either through increases in hydrostatic pressures or extravasation. Colloidal therapy is more likely to magnify lung injury compared with isotonic crystalloids. Radiographic evidence of fluid overload is a late-stage finding, whereas point-of-care ultrasound may provide earlier information that can also be assessed periodically at the patient side. Cases should be evaluated individually, but generally a conservative fluid therapy plan is preferred with close monitoring of its tolerance.
- Diethylcarbamazine attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by apoptosis of inflammatory cells. [Journal Article]
- PRPharmacol Rep 2016 Sep 24; 69(1):81-89
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that DEC attenuates ALI through the prevention of inflammatory cells accumulation by stimulating apoptosis. DEC accelerates the resolution of inflammation and may be a potential pharmacological treatment for ALI.
- Acute lung injury and persistent small airway disease in a rabbit model of chlorine inhalation. [Journal Article]
- TAToxicol Appl Pharmacol 2016 Nov 29
- Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterize...
Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed. Male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to chlorine while the lungs were mechanically ventilated. After chlorine exposure, the rabbits were extubated and were allowed to survive for up to 24h after exposure to 800ppm chlorine for 4min to study acute effects or up to 7days after exposure to 400ppm for 8min to study longer term effects. Acute effects observed 6 or 24h after inhalation of 800ppm chlorine for 4min included hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, airway epithelial injury, inflammation, altered baseline lung mechanics, and airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. Seven days after recovery from inhalation of 400ppm chlorine for 8min, rabbits exhibited mild hypoxemia, increased area of pressure-volume loops, and airway hyperreactivity. Lung histology 7days after chlorine exposure revealed abnormalities in the small airways, including inflammation and sporadic bronchiolitis obliterans lesions. Immunostaining showed a paucity of club and ciliated cells in the epithelium at these sites. These results suggest that small airway disease may be an important component of persistent respiratory abnormalities that occur following acute chlorine exposure. This non-rodent chlorine exposure model should prove useful for studying persistent effects of acute chlorine exposure and for assessing efficacy of countermeasures for chlorine-induced lung injury.
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- Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects of Scorpionism in the World: A Systematic Review. [Review]
- WEWilderness Environ Med 2016; 27(4):504-518
- CONCLUSIONS: The large number of scorpion stings worldwide is concerning and reaffirms the need for new prevention measures and policies to reduce the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality rates from these poisonous arachnids.