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Pulmonary AND Bronchogenic carcinoma [keywords]
- A Rare Case of Sternal Erosion Due to bronchogenic Carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- Ethiop J Health Sci 2014 Jan; 24(1):89-92.
Primary sternal malignancy is very uncommon. Secondary sternal malignancy is usually caused by either hematological dissemination or by direct extension due to parasternal lymph node involvement from breast or lung carcinoma.A 72 years old smoker presented with a dull aching pain over the sternum. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax revealed osteolytic erosion of manubrium sterni, along with a mass of lesion in the upper lobe of left lung and left sided mediastinal lymphadenopathy. CT guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the left lung mass showed squamous cell carcinoma and FNAC of the sternal lesion revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma.Direct erosion of sternum in case of squamous cell carcinoma of lung is a rarity. We have reported this case to increase the awareness of clinicians regarding the possibility of direct sternal involvement from lung cancer. Moreover, local removal can improve the prognosis.
- The King's anaesthetic. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Med Biogr 2013 Nov 28.
King George VI underwent an operation for pneumonectomy in September 1951. Part of the operation anaesthetic record has survived. With conjecture, on a typical scenario of a 55-year-old male undergoing pulmonary resection for carcinoma in the early 1950s and other facts in the public domain, the King's anaesthetic has been reconstructed to give an approximation of the events that in the last few months of his life caused his speech to change from that achieved by his personal voice coach and recently portrayed on celluloid in the film 'The King's Speech'. The popularity and success of the film 'The King's Speech' brought to mind that King George VI died of bronchogenic carcinoma, a result, not recognised at the time, of the cigarette smoking habit that is a prominent feature of the story in celluloid.
- Transbronchial needle aspiration cytology (TBNA) in endobronchial lesions: a valuable technique during bronchoscopy in diagnosing lung cancer and it will decrease repeat bronchoscopy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2014 Feb 16.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths around the world. Globally, lung cancer is the largest contributor to new cancer diagnosis and to death from cancer. Various conventional diagnostic techniques (CDTs) such as endobronchial forcep biopsy (FB), bronchial washing (BW) and bronchial brushing (BB), and transbronchial needle aspiration cytology (TBNA) are employed during fiber-optic bronchoscopy.This is a prospective study conducted between June 2012 and September 2013 at Bronchoscopy unit of MIMSR Medical College Latur, India, to find the role of TBNA in exophytic endobronchial lesions in confirming the diagnosis of lung cancer and to find additive yield over other techniques such as BB, BW and FB, and included 150 patients on the basis of clinical and radiological features of malignancy. In exophytic endobronchial lesions, predominant endoscopic findings were cauliflower, polypoidal-like or nodular or multinodular endobronchial growth. TBNA, FB, BB and BW were performed in all the cases during FOB. Histopathological and cytological examinations of specimens were performed at Pathology department. The statistical analysis was done using chi-square test.Total 150 patients, between age group 24-80 years, mean age was 57.93 years, male population constitutes 86.17 % of total. 76.14 % cases were smoker of them 61.87 % cases having history of >40 pack years. Commoner symptoms were cough (91.33 %), hemoptysis (54.00 %) and chest pain (46.66 %), and mass lesion (40.66 %), hilar opacity (31.33 %) and collapse segmental/lobar (29.33 %) were commoner radiological abnormalities. Yield of TBNA, CDT and TBNA plus CDT in exophytic lesions is 60.66, 79.33 and 84.66 %, respectively, in diagnosis of lung malignancies (P < 0.001). Sensitivity of forcep biopsy and TBNA in diagnosing lung malignancy was 88.18 and 71.65 %, respectively (P < 0.01). FOB-related hypoxemia documented in two cases and minor bleeding in six cases. Other complications such as significant bleeding, pneumothorax and death were not seen. Minor bleeding was seen with forcep biopsy mainly in 4.0 % cases. TBNA has decreased repeat procedure, decreases cost for diagnosis. IHC on TBNA specimens had increased histological-type confirmation.Transbronchial needle aspiration is a beneficial, safe and minimally invasive bronchoscopic technique with insignificant side effect in the diagnosis bronchogenic carcinoma. TBNA considered safe, especially when fleshy vascular endobronchial growth is present and risk of bleeding is high with forcep biopsy. Inadequate tissue sampling due to the presence of necrosis, blood clot over the lesion and formation of crush artifacts by FB makes TBNA valuable in these lesions. TBNA will definitely decrease need for repeat bronchoscopy.
- Robust selection-based sparse shape model for lung cancer image segmentation. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2013; 16(Pt 3):404-12.
Accurate cellular level segmentation of lung cancer is the prerequisite to extract objective morphological features in digitized pathology specimens. It is of great importance for image-guided diagnosis and prognosis. However, it is challenging to correctly and robustly segment cells in lung cancer images due to cell occlusion or touching, intracellular inhomogeneity, background clutter, etc. In this paper, we present a novel segmentation algorithm combining a robust selection-based sparse shape model (top-down) and an efficient local repulsive balloon snake deformable model (bottom-up) to tackle these challenges. The algorithm has been extensively tested on 62 cases with over 6000 tumor cells. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can produce better performance than other state-of-the-art methods.
- Mechanistic links between COPD and lung cancer: a role of microRNA let‑7? [Comment, Letter]
- Nat Rev Cancer 2014 Jan; 14(1):70.
- Lactoferrin-appended solid lipid nanoparticles of paclitaxel for effective management of bronchogenic carcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Deliv 2014 Jan 27.
Abstract Lung cancer is a dreadful disease which claims to be more life threatening as compared to total sum up of colon, prostate and breast cancers. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop an effective delivery approach for its management. Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the well-known choice as antineoplasitic agent used for the treatment of different types of human cancers such as non-small-cell lung, head and neck cancers, leukemia, breast, ovarian and melanoma. Lactoferrin (Lf), a "multifunctional protein" is crucial for natural immunity which is secreted by exocrine glands. Lf receptors are expressed on the apical surface on bronchial epithelial cells. These over-expressed LF receptors can be utilized for the transportation of Lf-conjugated drug or nanocarrier devices. The present study was aimed to develop PTX-loaded Lf-coupled solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for the treatment of lung cancer. PTX-loaded SLNs were prepared, characterized and then coupled with Lf using carbodiimide chemistry. The formulations were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential, whereas Lf conjugation was confirmed by FT-IR and (1)H NMR and efficiency of prepared system was evaluated by in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo evaluations. The ex vivo cytotoxicity studies on human bronchial epithelial cell lines, BEAS-2B, revealed superior anticancer activity of Lf-coupled SLNs than plain SLNs and free PTX. In vivo biodistribution studies showed higher concentrations of PTX accumulated in lungs via Lf-coupled SLNs than plain SLNs and free PTX. These studies suggested that Lf-coupled PTX-loaded SLNs could be used as potential targeting carrier for delivering anticancer drug to the lungs with the minimal side effects.
- About the necessity of improving the current nodal classification of non-small cell lung carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- Pathologica 2013 Aug; 105(4):117-21.
The current classification of lymph node status in non-small cell lung carcinoma has not been revised since 1997. This fact has prompted many authors to point out the limits of this classification.We tried to explore the prognostic relevance of the current TNM classification in comparison with the nodal classification based on the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes (LNR) and the nodal classification based on the number of metastatic LNs (nLN). Additionally, we tried to explore the recommended number of resected LNs. This was done through a retrospective study of 39 cases. We compared the survival curves of patients using the current, RLN and nLN classifications. In the nLN classification, we grouped patients into three categories: nNO (no metastatic LNs), nN1 (1 to 2 metastatic LNs) and nN2 (> 2 metastatic LN). In the LNR classification, we grouped patients into three categories: rNO (0%), rN1 (< or = 12) and rN2 (> 12). Concerning the total number of the resected LNs, patients were categorized into two groups according to the number of LNs: < 10 versus > or = 10 and < 15 versus > or = 15.Our results showed that the LNR classification highlighted a difference in prognosis between the rN1 and rN2 groups. Moreover, survival of patients seemed to be better when the number of the resected LNs was higher.The ratio of metastatic LNs seems to be an important prognostic factor, but further studies are necessary to standardize this classification.
- [Novel miRNA genes methylated in lung tumors]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Genetika 2013 Jul; 49(7):896-901.
MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of expression of many genes and are involved in carcinogenesis. The regulation of miRNA gene expression can involve the methylation of promoter CpG islands. In this work, the methylation of six miRNA genes (mir-107, mir-125b-1, mir-130b, mir-137, mir-375, and mir-1258) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was studied for the first time by methylation-specific PCR using a representative set of specimens (39 cases). Four new genes (mir-125b-1, mir-137, mir-375, and mir-1258) methylated in primary NSCLC tumors were identified with frequencies of 56, 31, 56, and 36%, respectively. The frequencies of miRNA promoter methylation in DNA of tumors and histologically normal tissues differed significantly (P < or = 0.05 by Fisher's test). In lung tissues of 20 donors without a history of cancer, these genes were only methylated in a few cases. It was also shown that the previously unstudied promoter CpG islands of mir-107 and mir-130b were not methylated in NSCLC. The frequencies of mir-125b-1 and mir-137 methylation were shown for the first time to correlate with NSCLC progression (clinical stage and metastasis).
- [Non-small cell lung cancer in the elderly]. [Journal Article]
- Soins Gerontol 2013 Nov-Dec; (104):45-6.
- High expression of TNFSF13 in tumor cells and fibroblasts is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Clin Pathol 2014 Feb; 141(2):226-33.
To examine high expression of tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13 (TNFSF13), which is correlated with several malignancies.TNFSF13 messenger RNA expression in tumor cells and fibroblasts in a cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray.TNFSF13 expression was significantly higher in lung adenocarcinomas compared with squamous cell carcinomas (P = .022). High TNFSF13 expression in NSCLC stroma was related with low differentiation (P = .045) and sex (male > female, P = .005). Cox proportional hazards regression univariate and multivariable analysis revealed TNFSF13 expression in NSCLC tumor cells (P = .007) or fibroblasts (P = .027) as an independent prognostic factor in the 5-year overall survival rate.Our findings indicate TNFSF13 is a prognostic factor in NSCLC and suggest TNFSF13 may be a novel therapeutic target for NSCLC.