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Pulmonary AND Gastric aspiration, chronic [keywords]
- The effect of gastric juice on interleukin-8 production by cystic fibrosis primary bronchial epithelial cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cyst Fibros 2013 Apr 20.
CF patients are often treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to reduce acidic gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and bronchial aspiration of duodeno-gastric contents is common in CF. We have previously demonstrated that gastric juice (GJ) from patients "on" PPI can induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) production by bronchial epithelial cells in culture. We hypothesized that such effect would be more pronounced in CF patients known to have high inflammatory susceptibility. We aimed to evaluate the effect of GJ on IL-8 production by primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC), derived from a CF patient and a healthy subject.
METHODS:PBEC obtained from one donor (normal PBEC) and one receptor (CF-PBEC) for lung transplantation were stimulated with GJ from patients "off" and "on" PPI. IL-8 levels were measured in the supernatant.
RESULTS:GJ from patients "on" PPI provoked a significant higher IL-8 production compared to GJ from patients "off" PPI, both in normal PBEC [462 (200-1468) vs. 11 (4-28) pg/ml, p=0.0001] as in CF-PBEC [1468 (841-2449) vs. 85 (26-131) pg/ml, p<0.0001]. Exposure of the cells to GJ "off" PPI and "on" PPI provoked significantly higher IL-8 production in the CF-PBEC compared to the normal PBEC ["off" PPI 85 (26-131) vs. 11 (4-28) pg/ml, p=0.01; "on" PPI 1468 (841-2449) vs. 462 (200-1468) pg/ml, p=0.01]. Filtration (0.20μm) of the GJ "on" PPI, to eliminate large particles and bacterial sub-products, resulted in a significant decrease of IL-8 production.
CONCLUSION:Patients with CF, treated with PPIs, have GJ with high pH and high endotoxin levels. These patients often have GER and bronchial aspiration. The aspirated material (GJ "on" PPI) has a significantly enhanced inflammatory effect on CF bronchial epithelial cells in culture. As chronic PPI treatment in CF may result in a paradoxically increased inflammatory effect in the airways, alternative anti-reflux therapies should be considered in CF.
- [Broncho-pulmonary salmonellosis--a case series and review of the literature]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Pneumologie 2013 Mar; 67(3):174-8.
Broncho-pulmonary salmonelloses are rare manifestations of extraintestinal focal infections in adults caused by different subspecies of Salmonella. They may appear without previous gastroenteritic symptoms especially in patients older than 60 years, as well as in patients who are immunocompromised or suffer from chronic pulmonary diseases. The transmission route is hematogenous or via aspiration of contaminated gastric fluid. Complications are acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung abscesses and pleural empyemas. Complicated und lethal courses have been described frequently. Therefore, antibiotic therapy should be initiated in every case with sufficient duration of treatment and in accordance to antibiotic resistance. Recommended antibiotics are third generation cephalosporins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin or fluoro-quinolones. In this review 4 different clinical courses of broncho-pulmonary salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Brandenburg, Salmonella groups B (O4), C (O6) and O11 to O67 are presented and discussed in the context of the current literature.
- Transpyloric versus gastric tube feeding for preterm infants. [Journal Article, Meta-Analysis, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013.:CD003487.
Enteral feeding tubes for preterm infants may be placed in the stomach (gastric tube feeding) or in the upper small bowel (transpyloric tube feeding). There are potential advantages and disadvantages to both routes.To determine the effect of feeding via the transpyloric route versus feeding via the gastric route on feeding tolerance, growth and development, and adverse consequences (death, gastro-intestinal disturbance including necrotising enterocolitis, aspiration pneumonia, chronic lung disease, pyloric stenosis) in preterm infants.We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (to June 2012), conference proceedings, and previous reviews.Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing transpyloric with gastric tube feeding in preterm infants.We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We synthesised data using a fixed-effect model and reported typical risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD), and mean difference (MD).We found nine eligible trials in which a total of 359 preterm infants participated. All of the trials contained methodological weaknesses with lack of allocation concealment, absence of blinding of caregivers or assessors, and incomplete follow-up being the major potential sources of bias. The included trials did not detect any statistically significant effects on feeding tolerance or in-hospital growth rates. Meta-analyses found that infants allocated to receive transpyloric feeding had a higher risk of gastro-intestinal disturbance (typical RR 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05 to 2.09); typical RD 0.09 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.17); number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 10 (95% CI 6 to 50); six studies, 245 infants) and all-case mortality (typical RR 2.46 (95% CI 1.36 to 4.46); typical RD 0.16 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.26); NNTH 6 (95% CI 4 to 14); six studies, 217 infants). However, the trial that contributed most weight to these findings was likely to have been affected by selective allocation of the less mature and sicker infants to transpyloric feeding. We did not find any statistically significant differences in the incidence of other adverse events, including necrotising enterocolitis, intestinal perforation, and aspiration pneumonia.The available data do not provide evidence of any beneficial effect of transpyloric feeding for preterm infants. Some evidence of harm exists, including a higher risk of gastrointestinal disturbance and mortality, but these findings should be interpreted and applied cautiously because of methodological weaknesses in the included trials.
- Are the enzymatic methods currently being used to measure bronchoalveolar lavage bile salt levels fit for purpose? [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Heart Lung Transplant 2013 Apr; 32(4):418-23.
Microaspiration after gastroesophageal reflux has been implicated in the chronic loss of allograft function in lung transplant patients. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) assessment for pepsin and bile salts is a common method to document reflux and aspiration. Clinically used methods for bile salt analysis include tandem mass spectrometry and diagnostic enzymatic kits designed to measure bile salts in serum. In clinical research, the enzymatic kits have been commonly used for BALF assays in lung transplant recipients, with reports of detection limits of 0.2 μmol/liter, and the levels used to inform clinical decisions. This study assessed the sensitivity of detection by 2 enzymatic assay kits compared with tandem mass spectrometry.These 2 kits were used to measure (1) the absorbance changes for 0 to 50 μmol/liter bile salts, (2) levels in gastric juice (10-10,010 μmol/liter), and (3) bile salt levels of 40 BALF samples that were also measured using tandem mass spectrometry (0.01-1.19 μmol/liter). Measurements of pH/impedance were done in 14 of 15 patients.Neither kit had detection limits as low as claimed in previous BALF studies. The kits could be made more sensitive with a longer incubation time, (5 μmol/liter). All patients had detectable lavage bile acids using mass spectroscopy, 71% had pathologic distal gastroesophageal reflux, and 43% had pathologic proximal reflux.The enzymatic kits are not sensitive enough for use in situations where bile salt levels are much below 5 μmol/liter, which is the case in BALF. In addition, reports in the literature of levels significantly below 5 μmol/liter need reassessing. Tandem mass spectrometry with a lower limit of detection of 0.01 μmol/liter should be the method of choice.
- Long-gap esophageal atresia: a meta-analysis of jejunal interposition, colon interposition, and gastric pull-up. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Pediatr Surg 2012 Dec; 22(6):420-5.
There is still no consensus about the optimal surgical approach for esophageal replacement in the case of long-gap esophageal atresia (LGEA) or extensive corrosive strictures. The aim of this article was to perform a meta-analysis comparing the most widely used techniques for esophageal replacement in children: jejunal interposition (JI), colon interposition (CI), and gastric pull-up (GPU).Review of the English-language literature published in the past 5 years about esophageal replacement in children was done. The focus was on postoperative survival rate, morbidity (gastrointestinal complications such as anastomotic stenosis/leakage and respiratory complications such as pneumothorax, pneumonia, and atelectasis), and long-term follow-up when available. Among long-term gastrointestinal outcomes were dysphagia, reflux, and dumping; among long-term respiratory outcomes were recurrent pneumonia and recurrent aspiration leading to chronic lung disease. Data were computed by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 2.2.064).A total of 15 studies (4 comparative retrospective, 8 retrospective, and 3 prospective) including 470 patients (264 LGEA) were identified; 344 (73%) patients underwent CI, 99 (21%) GPU, and 27 (6%) JI. Among these 15 studies, 9 provided data about long-term follow-up.Proper prospective comparative studies are lacking. GPU and CI appear comparable regarding postoperative mortality, anastomotic complications, and graft loss. On the long-term, GPU seems to be associated with a higher respiratory morbidity but fewer gastrointestinal complications than CI. Based on this article only two series provide data about JI, and they show highly divergent results. JI appears to be a valid replacement technique when performed by experienced centers; however larger numbers are needed to assess the outcomes of this procedure.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease in lung transplant patients with cystic fibrosis. [Evaluation Studies, Journal Article]
- Am J Surg 2012 Nov; 204(5):e21-6.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in lung transplant patients is being increasingly investigated because of its reported association with chronic rejection. However, information concerning the characteristics of GERD in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is scarce.We compared esophageal pH monitoring, manometry, gastric emptying studies, and barium swallow of 10 lung transplant patients with CF with those of 78 lung transplant patients with other end-stage pulmonary diseases.In lung transplant patients with CF, the prevalence of GERD was 90% (vs 54% controls, P = .04), of whom 70% had proximal reflux (vs 29% controls, P = .02).Lung transplant patients with CF have a significantly higher prevalence and proximal extent of GERD than do other lung transplant recipients. These data suggest that CF patients in particular should be routinely screened for GERD after transplantation to identify those who may benefit from antireflux surgery, especially given the risks of GERD-related aspiration and chronic allograft injury.
- In the face of chronic aspiration, prolonged ischemic time exacerbates obliterative bronchiolitis in rat pulmonary allografts. [Journal Article]
- Am J Transplant 2012 Nov; 12(11):2930-7.
Aspiration of gastric fluid into the lung mediates the development of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) in orthotopic WKY-to-F344 rat pulmonary transplants that have been subjected to immunosuppression with cyclosporine. However, the contribution of ischemic time to this process remains unknown. In this study, the effect of long (n = 16) and short (n = 12) ischemic times (average of 6 h and of 73 min, respectively) on rat lung transplants receiving aspiration of gastric fluid was assessed. Long ischemic times (LIT) led to significantly (p < 0.05) greater development of OB (ratio of OB lesions/total airways = 0.45 ± 0.07, mean ± standard error) compared to short ischemic times (ratio = 0.19 ± 0.05). However, the development of OB was dependent on aspiration, as controls receiving aspiration with normal saline showed little development of OB, regardless of ischemic time (p < 0.05). These data suggest that LIT, while insufficient by itself to lead to OB, works synergistically with aspiration of gastric fluid to exacerbate the development of OB.
- Possibilities of interventional endoscopic ultrasound. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastrointest Endosc 2012 Jul 16; 4(7):301-5.
Since endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) was developed in the 1990s, EUS has become widely accepted as an imaging tool. EUS is categorized into radial and linear in design. Radial endoscopes provide cross-sectional imaging of the mediastinum, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland, and pancreas, which has highly accuracy in the T and N staging of esophageal, lung, gastric, rectal, and pancreatic cancer. Tumor staging is common indication of radial-EUS, and EUS-staging is predictive of surgical resectability. In contrast, linear array endoscope uses a side-viewing probe and has advantages in the ability to perform EUS-guides fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), which has been established for cytologic diagnosis. For example, EUS-FNA arrows accurate nodal staging of esophageal cancer before surgery, which provides more accurate assessment of nodes than radial-EUS imaging alone. EUS-FNA has been also commonly used for diagnose of pancreatic diseases because of the highly accuracy than US or computed tomography. EUS and EUS-FNA has been used not only for TNM staging and cytologic diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, but also for evaluation of chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cystic lesions, and other pancreatic masses. More recently, EUS-FNA has developed into EUS-guided fine needle injection including EUS-guided celiac plexus neurolysis, celiac plexus block, and other "interventional EUS" procedures. In this review, we have summarized the new possibilities offered by "interventional EUS".
- Aspiration of gastric fluid in pulmonary allografts: effect of pH. [Journal Article]
- J Surg Res 2013 May 1; 181(1):e31-8.
Chronic aspiration of gastric fluid potentially plays a central role in the pathogenesis of obliterative bronchiolitis, which is often associated with chronic pulmonary allograft failure. It remains unknown whether pharmaceutical-induced increases in gastric pH might effectively prevent any putative pulmonary injury associated with chronic aspiration.To test the hypothesis that neutralization of gastric fluid would affect the development of aspiration-associated obliterative bronchiolitis, an established rat lung transplant model (WKY-to-F344) was utilized. Pulmonary allograft recipients were subjected to eight weekly aspirations of gastric fluid at pH 2.5 (low-pH), gastric fluid at pH 7.4 (neutralized-pH), or saline as a control.Histologic analysis revealed that the fraction of airways affected with lesions consistent with obliterative bronchiolitis was 0.55 ± 0.08 (mean ± SEM) in rats receiving aspiration with low-pH gastric fluid, 0.49 ± 0.07 in animals receiving neutralized-pH gastric fluid, and 0.07 ± 0.05 in rats receiving normal saline only. The difference between groups receiving gastric fluid, regardless of pH, was significantly different from the saline control (P < 0.0001), whereas the difference between the groups receiving low-pH gastric fluid and neutralized-pH gastric fluid was not significant (P = 0.75).Effective management of gastroesophageal reflux disease in lung transplant recipients should probably include more than neutralization of gastric fluid.
- Major respiratory adverse events after laparascopic gastric banding surgery for morbid obesity. [Journal Article]
- Respir Med 2012 Aug; 106(8):1192-8.
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding surgery has become one of the most common restrictive surgical procedures for treatment of morbid obesity worldwide. Although short-term respiratory complications are well known, long-term data is scarce. We investigated the manifestations of major pulmonary complications showed at least six months after the procedure.A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary university medical center in the five years period of 2006-2010. We included every patient who had had major respiratory complication who needed hospitalization, at least 6 months after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedure. Demographic, pre-operative and post-operative clinical data were collected. We documented respiratory symptoms, results of physical examination, pulmonary function tests, and imaging as well as therapies given and outcome.Out of 2100 patients who underwent LAGB, thirty subjects, mean age of 45.7 (range 29-64) with an equal number of males and females were included. Mean interval between operation and onset of respiratory symptoms was 51.5 months (range 10-150 months). All had dyspeptic complaints which included: regurgitation, fullness after meals, dysphagia and food aspiration with esophageal dilatation. Major respiratory complications included aspiration pneumonia (19) including pulmonary abscess (4) and empyema (2), exacerbation of asthma (3) and hemoptysis (1). Additionally we documented the emergence of chronic diseases such as interstitial lung disease (5) and bronchiectasis (3). One patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome due to aspiration pneumonia and eventually died in the intensive care unit. The main mode of therapy was deflation of the gastric band. Those who refused to deflate or remove the gastric banding continued to suffer from dyspeptic and respiratory symptoms including recurrent pulmonary abscess.Although laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding surgery has few short-term risks and is highly effective at achieving weight reduction, we found an increased risk for major respiratory complications in the long-term period. The obesity epidemic and the increased use of surgical techniques to treat obesity will most likely lead to an increase in the incidence of long-term post-operative respiratory complications. This entity is probably under-reported and needs further research into how to reduce its incidence and morbidity.