Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Pulmonary AND Pneumonia, eosinophilic [keywords]
- Predicting Sputum Eosinophilia in Exacerbations of COPD Using Exhaled Nitric Oxide. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Inflammation 2013 May 17.
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) may be a pulmonary biomarker in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this prospective study, the relationship between FENO and airway inflammation was assessed in COPD exacerbations. FENO and lung function were measured, and sputum was collected from 49 ex-smoking COPD patients, first at the time of hospital admission and again at discharge following treatment. There was a significant positive correlation between the percentage of sputum eosinophils and FENO concentrations, both at exacerbation (r = 0.593, p < 0.001) and discharge (r = 0.337, p = 0.044). The increase in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after treatment was greater in patients with sputum eosinophilia (ΔFEV1 0.35 ± 0.12 vs. 0.13 ± 0.04 L, p = 0.046), and FENO was a strong predictor of sputum eosinophilia (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.89). The optimum cut point was 19 parts per billion (sensitivity: 90 %; specificity: 74 %). Our data suggest that FENO is a good surrogate marker of eosinophilic inflammation in COPD patients with exacerbations.
- Acute eosinophilic pneumonia related to a mesalazine suppository. [Journal Article]
- Asia Pac Allergy 2013 Apr; 3(2):136-9.
It has been well known that mesalazine can cause the interstitial lung disease, such as Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP), Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP), or eosinophilic pneumonia. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), mesalazine, and sulfasalazine are important drugs for treating inflammatory bowel disease. Topical products of these limited systemic absorption and have less frequent side effects, therefore suppository form of these drugs have been used more than systemic drug. Most cases of measalzine-induced lung toxicity develop from systemic use of the drug. A 30-year-old woman had an interstitial lung disease after using mesalazine suppository because of ulcerative colitis. The lung biopsy demonstrated eosinophilic pneumonia combined with BOOP. She was recovered after stopping of mesalazine suppository and treatment with systemic steroid.
- Group V Secretory Phospholipase A2 Is Involved in Macrophage Activation and Is Sufficient for Macrophage Effector Functions in Allergic Pulmonary Inflammation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Immunol 2013 May 6.
We reported that Pla2g5-null mice lacking group V secretory phospholipase A2 (gV-sPLA2) showed reduced eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation and Th2 cytokine generation when challenged with an extract from house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae, compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Adoptive transfer studies suggested that gV-sPLA2 in dendritic cells was necessary for sensitization of Pla2g5-null mice, but was not sufficient to induce the effector phase of pulmonary inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate that gV-sPLA2 is inducibly expressed in mouse and human macrophages (M) activated by IL-4 and is required for the acquisition of M effector functions that facilitate the effector phase of pulmonary inflammation. We demonstrate that gV-sPLA2 expression in M is sufficient for the development of pulmonary inflammation, even when inflammation is induced by intrapulmonary administration of IL-4. The concentrations of CCL22/CCL17 and effector T cell recruitment are severely impaired in Pla2g5-null mice. Intratracheal transfers of enriched CD68(+) cells isolated from the lungs of D. farinae-challenged WT donor mice induce eosinophilia, chemokine production, and recruitment of T cells into the lungs of Pla2g5-null recipients previously sensitized by WT D. farinae-loaded dendritic cells. Our studies identified a unique function of gV-sPLA2 in activation of M and in their capacity to recruit T cells to amplify the effector phase of pulmonary inflammation.
- Eosinophilic pneumonia associated with concomitant cigarette and marijuana smoking. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
A 29-year-old Caucasian man presented for the evaluation of a new onset of shortness of breath associated with cough and wheeze for 1 day. The history was significant for a recent travel of 20 h duration to Houston, a new onset of cigarette smoking for 2 weeks and marijuana smoking. The patient was afebrile and did not have any leg swelling; initial diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia was made and the patient was started on antibiotics. Despite being on antibiotics, his medical condition continued to deteriorate and extensive diagnostic workup for infectious and autoimmune aetiology including bronchoalveolar lavage was completed and was inconclusive. Ultimately, the patient underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy which led to the diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Steroids were started with a good treatment response. The patient was discharged on a tapering dose of steroids; a follow-up chest x ray at 6 weeks was within normal limits.
- Childhood-onset Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss Syndrome): A Contemporary Single-center Cohort. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Rheumatol 2013 May 1.
OBJECTIVE:To date only 38 cases of childhood-onset eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (cEGPA; formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) have been reported. Additional patients with cEGPA could enhance the understanding of this rare and life-threatening condition. Our objectives were (1) to determine the frequency of specific organ system involvement; (2) to examine initial therapeutic regimen; and (3) to document disease and therapy-related morbidity in a contemporary cohort of patients with cEGPA.
METHODS:Retrospective review of patients evaluated at the Cleveland Clinic between 2003 and 2011 who met either American College of Rheumatology or Lanham criteria for EGPA and whose age was < 18 years at symptom onset.
RESULTS:Nine patients (8 female; 7 white) were identified. Median age at onset of rhinitis/asthma symptom was 13 years and median age at diagnosis of cEGPA was 15 years. All patients demonstrated eosinophilia, upper airway disease (allergic rhinitis, chronic sinusitis, and/or nasal polyps), and pulmonary involvement. Other frequently involved organ systems included musculoskeletal (67%), gastrointestinal (67%), cutaneous (67%), neurologic (56%), and cardiac (44%). Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) serologies were negative in all patients. The medications used most frequently for initial therapy included oral (44%) or intravenous corticosteroids (56%) and azathioprine (67%). Disease or therapeutic complications occurred in half of the cohort and included heart failure, stroke, and sequela from longterm, high-dose steroids.
CONCLUSION:Eosinophilia, in combination with upper airway, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiac manifestations, is frequently observed in cEGPA. ANCA titers are often negative. Steroids are the mainstay of initial therapy but steroid-related side effects occur regularly.
- Characteristics of liver injury in drug-induced systemic hypersensitivity reactions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Am Acad Dermatol 2013 Apr 27.
BACKGROUND:The liver is the most commonly involved internal organ in drug-induced systemic hypersensitivity. However, data obtained from these patients have yet to be analyzed in depth with respect to liver injury.
METHODS:The medical records of 136 patients who developed delayed-type drug hypersensitivity were reviewed at a tertiary referral hospital. Culprit drugs, the pattern and degree of liver injury, and the effect of systemic corticosteroids were evaluated in the group of patients with drug-induced systemic hypersensitivity and liver dysfunction (aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase ≥80 IU/L). Clinical characteristics of patients with drug-induced systemic hypersensitivity and liver injury were analyzed.
RESULTS:Among the 61 patients with drug-induced systemic hypersensitivity and liver dysfunction, the clinical phenotypes were drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (n = 29, 48%), Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (n = 11, 18%), and maculopapular rash (n = 17, 28%). Antibiotics (n = 27, 44%) were the most common cause of drug-induced systemic hypersensitivity with liver dysfunction. Whereas patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis had mild hepatocellular-type liver injury of relatively brief duration, those with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms/drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome had more severe and prolonged hepatocellular injury in addition to moderate to severe cholestatic-type liver injury. The use of systemic corticosteroids did not significantly affect either recovery from liver injury or mortality.
LIMITATIONS:This study was retrospective and the number of subjects was small.
CONCLUSION:The results suggest that the severity, pattern, and duration of liver injury differ according to the drug-hypersensitivity phenotype. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of systemic corticosteroids in drug-induced systemic hypersensitivity and liver injury.
- Localized Pleuropulmonary Crystal-storing Histiocytosis: 5 Cases of a Rare Histiocytic Disorder With Variable Clinicoradiologic Features. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Surg Pathol 2013 Jun; 37(6):906-912.
Crystal-storing histiocytosis (CSH) localized to the thoracic region is a rare occurrence, often secondary to lymphoproliferative or plasma cell diseases. About 10 case reports have been previously published, and 3 of these have no relationship with clonal hematologic disorders. We collected here the first series of 5 consecutive cases of CSH involving lungs (4 cases) and pleura (1 case). There were 3 women and 2 men with a mean age at diagnosis of 65 years. All cases had an underlying hematologic disorder (2 B-cell marginal-zone lymphomas, 2 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 1 pulmonary plasmacytoma). Despite a common morphology characterized by a dense and irregular growth of large eosinophilic histiocytes with intracytoplasmic refractile crystals, 2 cases presented with cystic changes at gross and imaging examinations, calcified amyloid was found in 2 cases, and 1 case showed an interstitial lung disease with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern. Histiocytes were immunoreactive for CD68 (clones PGM-1 and KP-1) but were not for CD1a and S100; the associated lymphoplasmacellular disorder had a clonal profile on molecular analysis with κ light-chain restriction. Two cases were originally misdiagnosed as cystic fibrohistiocytic tumor and carcinoid tumor, thus confirming that CSH localized to this site may result in a diagnostic challenge with a broad spectrum of differential diagnoses. The presence of intracytoplasmic crystals and a plasma cell infiltrate around a histiocytic proliferation should alert the pathologist to consider CSH and to carefully investigate the presence of clonal hematologic disease.
- Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a paediatric case. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a rare disorder in children, characterised by respiratory and systemic symptoms, with a generally good prognosis. A 11-year-old asthmatic girl was admitted to our clinic with a 3-month history of progressive cough, dyspnoea, weight loss and asthenia. Peripheral blood eosinophilia, multiple bilateral pulmonary infiltrates to the x-ray, multiple nodules with a surrounding ground-glass halo and peripheral predominance to the chest CT suggested the diagnosis of eosinophilic lung disease (ELD). Further investigations ruled out other ELD and supported diagnosis of CEP. The response to oral corticosteroids was dramatic, no relapses were reported in 2-year follow-up while the patient was under inhaled corticosteroids for pre-existing asthma.
- [Strongyloidosis Caused Loeffler's Syndrome in an Immunosuppressed Patient Who Uses Cronic Steroid]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2013; 37(1):55-7.
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode of humans that infects tens of millions of people worldwide. It is a rarely reported parasitic infestation in Turkey. Disseminated strongyloidiosis may develop in patients with immunodeficiencies. S. stercoralis hyperinfection is often accompanied by sepsis or meningitis with enteric organisms. Glucocorticoid treatment is one of the conditions most specifically associated with triggering hyperinfection, but cases have been reported in association with hematologic malignancy, malnutrition, and AIDS. Anthelminthic agents such as ivermectin have been used successfully in treating the hyperinfection syndrome. We report a case of Strongiloides stercoralis infection and Loeffler syndrome that developed in a patient who had systemıc prednisolone. Thepatient in the pulmonary disease department clinic was examined because of right lung upper lobe mass image, and referred to us with complaints of abdominal pain, diarrhea and pruritus. Peripheral smear showed 43% eosinophilia. Parasitological examination of faeces showed larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Parasitosis and Loeffler's syndrome was considered in the patient. Thepatient's complaints declined significantly after treatment with albendazole. (Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2013; 37: 55-7).
- A novel cause of eosinophilic pneumonia: recreational marijuana exposure. [Journal Article]
- J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol 2013 Apr; 20(2):183-5.
Eosinophilic pneumonia is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates visible on radiography, eosinophilic infiltration into the lung parenchyma, and frequent peripheral eosinophilia. The etiology may be idiopathic or secondary to identifiable causes, including drugs, parasites, toxins, infections, or systemic diseases such as hypereosinophilic syndrome. A 60-year-old man was seen in pulmonary clinic with 4 weeks of cough and wheeze. He was found to have pulmonary infiltrates, a peripheral eosinophilia, and bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated numerous eosinophils. Careful review of history revealed that the symptoms had started after a recreational exposure to marijuana from a different source than usual. Eosinophilic pneumonia from marijuana has been described once in conjunction with tobacco smoke in the pediatric literature, but to our knowledge this is the first report in the adult literature.