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Pulmonary infarction, pleural effusion in [keywords]
- Middle cerebral artery infarction in a cancer patient: a fatal case of Trousseau's syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Hong Kong Med J 2014 Feb; 20(1):74-7.
Trousseau's syndrome is defined as any unexplained thrombotic event that precedes the diagnosis of an occult visceral malignancy or appears concomitantly with a tumour. This report describes a young, previously healthy man diagnosed to have an acute middle cerebral arterial ischaemic stroke and lower-limb deep vein thrombosis, who subsequently succumbed to pulmonary arterial embolism. During the course of his illness, he was diagnosed to have a malignant pleural effusion secondary to an occult adenocarcinoma. This report highlights the need for a high degree of suspicion for occult malignancy and non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis in young (<60 years old) ischaemic stroke patients with no identifiable conventional cardiovascular risks. In selected patients, transoesophageal echocardiography is the diagnostic investigation of choice, since transthoracic imaging is not sensitive. Screening tests for serum tumour markers and prompt heparinisation of these patients are suggested whenever ischaemic stroke secondary to malignancy-induced systemic hypercoagulability is suspected.
- Patient, treatment and discharge factors associated with hospital readmission within 30 days after surgical cytoreduction for epithelial ovarian carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- Gynecol Oncol 2013 Sep; 130(3):407-10.
Hospital readmissions are common, costly and increasingly viewed as adverse events. In gynecologic oncology, data on readmissions are limited. The goal of this study was to examine the patient, treatment and discharge factors associated with unplanned readmission after cytoreductive surgery.We identified all patients with stages II-IV ovarian cancer who underwent surgical cytoreduction at our institution between 2003 and 2011. A retrospective chart review was performed, and clinical variables were extracted. Utilizing linear and logistic regression, these clinical variables were correlated with risk of readmission.A total of 460 patients were included in the analysis, with the majority having a stage IIIC high grade serous cancer. Optimal cytoreduction (<1.0 cm residual disease) was obtained in 368 patients (81%), and 233 patients (50%) underwent at least one radical procedure. Perioperative complications were observed in 148 patients (32%). A large proportion of our cohort was discharged to rehabilitation facilities (12%) or with a visiting nurse (38%). Fifty five patients (12%) were readmitted within 30 days. On multivariate logistic regression, reoperation and perioperative cardiopulmonary event were the only factors associated with readmission (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.7-6.0). Discharge home with ancillary services was not protective against readmission, even when controlling for perioperative complications (OR=1.18, 95% CI=0.53-2.64).Readmission after surgical cytoreduction affected 12% of our population. Multivariate analyses suggested perioperative complications, particularly reoperation and cardiopulmonary event, placed the patient at the greatest risk. Age, comorbidities, surgical radicality and discharge with visiting nurse services/rehabilitation facility did not affect the likelihood of readmission.
- A 70-year-old woman with acute chest pain and a paracardiac mass. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Chest 2013 Mar; 143(3):866-9.
- Short-term effectiveness of radiochemoembolization for selected hepatic metastases with a combination protocol. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2012 Oct 7; 18(37):5249-59.
To introduce the combination method of radiochemoembolization for the treatment of selected hepatic metastases.Twenty patients with biopsy proven hepatic metastases were selected from those who underwent transarterial radiochemoembolization, a novel combination protocol, between January 2009 and July 2010. Patients had different sources of liver metastasis. The treatment included transarterial administration of three chemotherapeutic drugs (mitomycin, doxorubicin and cisplatin), followed by embolization with large (50-150 μm) radioisotope particles of chromic 32P. Multiphasic computer tomography or computer tomography studies, with and without contrast medium injections, were performed for all patients for a short-term period before and after the treatment sessions. The short-term effectiveness of this procedure was evaluated by modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST), which also takes necrosis into account. The subjective percentage of necrosis was also assessed. The response evaluation methods were based on the changes in size, number, and the enhancement patterns of the lesions between the pre- and post-treatment imaging studies.Patients had liver metastasis from colorectal carcinomas, breast cancer, lung cancer and carcinoid tumors. The response rate based on the mRECIST criteria was 5% for complete response, 60% for partial response, 10% for stable disease, and 25% for progressive disease. Regarding the subjective necrosis percentage, 5% of patients had complete response, 50% had partial response, 25% had stable disease, and 20% had progressive disease. Based on traditional RECIST criteria, 3 patients (15%) had partial response, 13 patients (65%) had stable disease, and 4 patients (20%) had disease progression. In most patients, colorectal carcinoma was the source of metastasis (13 patients). Based on the mRECIST criteria, 8 out of these 13 patients had partial responses, while one remained stable, and 5 showed progressive disease. We also had 5 cases of breast cancer metastasis which mostly remained stable (4 cases), with only one partial response after the procedure. Six patients had bilobar involvement; three of them received two courses of radiochemoembolization. The follow up imaging study of these patients was performed after the second session. In the studied patients there was no evidence of extrahepatic occurrence, including pulmonary radioactive deposition, which was proven by Bremsstrahlung scintigraphy performed after the treatment sessions. For the short-term follow-ups for the 2 mo after the therapy, no treatment related death was reported. The mostly common side effect was post-embolization syndrome, presented as vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. Nineteen (95%) patients experienced this syndrome in different severities. Two patient had ascites (with pleural effusion in one patient) not related to hepatic failure. Moreover, no cases of acute liver failure, hepatic infarction, hepatic abscess, biliary necrosis, tumor rupture, surgical cholecystitis, or non-targeted gut embolization were reported. Systemic toxicities such as alopecia, marrow suppression, renal toxicity, or cardiac failure did not occur in our study group.Radiochemoembolization is safe and effective for selected hepatic metastases in a short-term follow-up. Further studies are required to show the long-term effects and possible complications of this approach.
- [Bilaterale pneumonia after myocardial infarction]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Praxis (Bern 1994) 2012 Aug 8; 101(16):1045-9.
A 63-year-old man was admitted with fever and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates accompanied by pleural effusion a few days after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary angioplasty and stent implantation. The diagnosis of early postmyocardial infarction syndrome (Dressler's syndrome) with pulmonary infiltrates was made after ruling out possible differential diagnosis such as pneumonia and congestive heart failure. Infiltrates and markers of inflammation resolved rapidly with systemic steroid therapy. Etiology, diagnosis and treatment of this immunological reaction with inflammation of pericardium, pleura and often pulmonary parenchyma are discussed.
- Increased emergency department computed tomography use for common chest symptoms without clear patient benefits. [Journal Article]
- J Am Board Fam Med 2012 Jan-Feb; 25(1):33-41.
The aim of this study was to examine changes in the utilization of computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of common chest symptoms and the rate of clinically significant diagnoses in emergency departments after 2004.This study analyzed the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, comparing 1997 to 1999 and 2005 to 2007. Set in US emergency departments, individuals older than 14 years old were eligible. The main outcome was proportion of common chest symptom-related visits (n = 17,098) associated with a CT order before 2000 and after 2004. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of these visits associated with a clinically significant diagnosis (pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, pneumonia, and pleural effusion); an incidental diagnosis such as lung mass; and a clinically nonsignificant diagnosis such as nonspecific chest pain.The proportion of common chest symptom-related visits associated with a CT order increased from 2.1% in 1997 to 1999 to 11.5% in 2005 to 2007 (P < .001), whereas the overall proportion of these visits associated with a clinically significant diagnosis decreased from 23.6% in 1997 to 1999 to 19.1% in 2005 to 2007 (P < .001).The rate of acute myocardial infarction diagnosis decreased from 6.6% to 3.3% (P < .001), whereas the rate of pulmonary embolism diagnosis did not change (0.33% vs. 0.47%; P = .24) from 1997 to 1999 to 2005 to 2007. The rate of incidental diagnoses did not change (0.13% vs. 0.17%; P = .69), whereas the rate of clinically nonsignificant diagnoses increased from 35.6% to 45.8% (P < .001) from 1997 to 1999 to 2005 to 2007.CT ordering in emergency departments for the evaluation of common chest symptoms has increased dramatically without improving the rate of pulmonary embolism or other clinically significant diagnoses. Overuse of CT exposes patients to radiation and increases health care costs without any apparent diagnostic benefit.
- [A case of clopidogrel-induced eosinophilic pneumonia]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi 2011 Nov; 49(11):838-42.
An 83-year-old man had been prescribed clopidogrel for pontine infarction since 8 months previously, and had had a cough for the last 2 weeks of this period. Laboratory examinations on admission showed a marked increase in eosinophils and elevated serum immunoglobulin E levels. Chest radiography showed bilateral ground-glass opacities, mild reticulation, and interlobar pleural effusion in the minor fissure. After clopidogrel was discontinued his symptoms resolved, and his laboratory tests showed normal results. Bronchoalveolar lavage also showed an increase in eosinophils, and transbronchial biopsy revealed infiltration of eosinophils in the subepithelium of the bronchial mucosa. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed eosinophilic pneumonia induced by clopidogrel. Reports on cases of lung diseases caused by anti-platelet drugs are rare. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report on clopidogrel-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.
- Multidetector-CT angiography in pulmonary embolism-can image parameters predict clinical outcome? [Journal Article]
- Eur Radiol 2011 Sep; 21(9):1928-37.
To assess if pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) can predict outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE).Retrospective analysis of CTA studies of patients with PE and documentation of pulmonary artery (PA)/aorta ratio, right ventricular (RV)/left ventricular (LV) ratio, superior vena cava (SVC) diameter, pulmonary obstruction index (POI), ventricular septal bowing (VSB), venous contrast reflux (VCR), pulmonary infarction and pleural effusion. Furthermore, duration of total hospital stay, necessity for/duration of ICU therapy, necessity for mechanical ventilation and mortality were recorded. Comparison was performed by logistic/linear regression analysis with significance at 5%.152 patients were investigated. Mean duration of hospital stay was 21 ± 24 days. 66 patients were admitted to the ICU; 20 received mechanical ventilation. Mean duration of ICU therapy was 3 ± 8 days. Mortality rate was 8%. Significant positive associations of POI, VCR and pulmonary infarction with necessity for ICU therapy were shown. VCR was significantly associated with necessity for mechanical ventilation and duration of ICU treatment. Pleural effusions were significantly associated with duration of total hospital stay whereas the RV/LV ratio correlated with mortality.Selected CTA findings showed significant associations with the clinical course of PE and may thus be used as predictive parameters.
- [Successful treatment of thoracic drainage using urokinase for empyema in an elderly man]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 2010; 47(6):627-33.
A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of progressive dyspnea, fever, and consciousness disturbance. Empyema was diagnosed by chest image findings and laboratory findings of pleural effusion and serum. The patient was first given an antimicrobial agent, and chest drainage was performed. Although his general condition improved, his systemic inflammation and chest radiograph findings did not. Then, thoracoscopy under local anesthesia was considered. However, surgery was almost impossible, because he was hemiparetic, with mild conscious disturbance following cerebral hemorrhage. We decided to insert another drain into the thoracic cavity and continued to perform irrigation with saline in addition to the systemic administration of antibiotics for 3 weeks. His general condition gradually improved. Although the volume of drained fluid from the thoracic cavity decreased, the empyema lesions did not completely disappear. We then performed irrigation with saline and urokinase for 3 days, from the 40th hospital day. Irrigation drainage using saline was more effective than previously, before urokinase administration; his symptoms and empyema lesions markedly improved without antibiotics treatment. He was discharged on the 95th hospital day. For the treatment of chronic emypema, surgery using recently developed thoracoscopic techniques should be considered first, but may not be appropriate for frail elderly with severe systemic complications. Conventional intrathoracic irrigation using saline containing urokinase may be a treatment of choice for intractable empyema in frail older patients with hemiplegia caused by cerebral infarction.
- A dangerous pleural effusion. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2010 Jul; 92(5):W53-4.
Bilothorax is a rare complication of biliary peritonitis and, if not treated promptly, can be life-threatening. We report a case of a middle-aged woman who had undergone a bilio-enteric bypass and subsequently a biliary leak developed, which finally led to intra-abdominal biliary collection and spontaneous bilothorax. The clinical course was rapid and mimicked venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction and pulmonary oedema, which led to a delay in diagnosis and management and finally death. We high-light the fact that bilothorax, although a rare complication of biliary surgery, should always be considered as a probable cause of massive effusion and sudden-onset respiratory and cardiovascular collapse in the postoperative period. A chest X-ray and a diagnostic pleural tap can confirm the diagnosis. Once detected, an aggressive management should be instituted to prevent organ failure and death.