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Pulse pressure, wide [keywords]
- The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in costa rica. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Appetite 2014 Aug 26.
Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97g/100g; p<0.05) while Popeye's and KFC had the highest (1.57g/100g; p<0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45g/100g while sauces had 2.16g/100g (p<0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5-2.1g/100g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains.
- An intronic PICALM polymorphism, rs588076, is associated with allelic expression of a PICALM isoform. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Neurodegener 2014 Aug 29; 9(1):32.
Although genome wide studies have associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)s near PICALM with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the mechanism underlying this association is unclear. PICALM is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and modulates Ass clearance in vitro. Comparing allelic expression provides the means to detect cis-acting regulatory polymorphisms. Thus, we evaluated whether PICALM showed allele expression imbalance (AEI) and whether this imbalance was associated with the AD-associated polymorphism, rs3851179.We measured PICALM allelic expression in 42 human brain samples by using next-generation sequencing. Overall, PICALM demonstrated equal allelic expression with no detectable influence by rs3851179. A single sample demonstrated robust global PICALM allelic expression imbalance (AEI), i.e., each of the measured isoforms showed AEI. Moreover, the PICALM isoform lacking exons 18 and 19 (D18-19 PICALM) showed significant AEI in a subset of individuals. Sequencing these individuals and subsequent genotyping revealed that rs588076, located in PICALM intron 17, was robustly associated with this imbalance in D18-19 PICALM allelic expression (p = 9.54 x 10-5). This polymorphism has been associated previously with systolic blood pressure response to calcium channel blocking agents. To evaluate whether this polymorphism was associated with AD, we genotyped 3269 individuals and found that rs588076 was modestly associated with AD. However, when both the primary AD SNP rs3851179 was added to the logistic regression model, only rs3851179 was significantly associated with AD.PICALM expression shows no evidence of AEI associated with rs3851179. Robust global AEI was detected in one sample, suggesting the existence of a rare SNP that strongly modulates PICALM expression. AEI was detected for the D18-19 PICALM isoform, and rs588076 was associated with this AEI pattern. Conditional on rs3851179, rs588076 was not associated with AD risk, suggesting that D18-19 PICALM is not critical in AD. In summary, this analysis of PICALM allelic expression provides novel insights into the genetics of PICALM expression and AD risk.
- Poor Agreement Between Dialysis Unit Blood Pressure and Interdialytic Ambulatory Blood Pressure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2014 Aug 26.
Although ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring (ABPM) is often considered to have an advantage over dialysis unit blood pressure (BP) in dialysis patients, the exact relationship between these two measurements of BP has not been well determined. In a cohort of 90 Chinese dialysis patients, agreement between dialysis unit BP (predialysis and postdialysis BP) and interdialytic ABP was evaluated using Bland-Altman plots and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient for quantitative analysis, and inter-rater agreement (κ) for qualitative analysis. Limits of agreement between dialysis unit BP and ABP were wide (predialysis systolic BP: -33.5 to 20.9 mm Hg; predialysis diastolic BP: -22.2 to 11.9 mm Hg; postdialysis systolic BP: -25.4 to 26.5 mm Hg; postdialysis diastolic BP: -18.4 to 12.3 mm Hg). Lin's concordance correlation coefficient exhibited a poor agreement with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.75, 0.81, 0.64, and 0.75 for predialysis systolic BP, postdialysis systolic BP, predialysis diastolic BP, and postdialysis diastolic BP, respectively. When BP level was classified into quartiles, an increasing trend for incorrect classification rate was observed with deleterious hypertension, with the highest value in grade 3 hypertension (100% and 75.0% for predialysis and postdialysis BP, respectively). Therefore, these data suggest that agreement between dialysis unit BP and interdialytic ABP is poor in Chinese dialysis patients, and the bias for patients with higher degree of hypertension is more prominent.
- Evidence of a hyperkinetic state in children with elevated blood pressure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Hum Biol 2014 Aug 26.:1-7.
Abstract Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and elevated left ventricular mass index (LVMI) are important predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults. Children with hypertension and pre-hypertension demonstrate LVH and greater LVMI compared to normotensive children. The impact of blood pressure (BP) on early changes in left ventricular properties provides an opportunity to understand and identify cardiovascular risk early in childhood. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess left ventricular structural and functional properties in a sample of children across a wide range of BP values. Subjects and methods: Children aged 11-14-years were divided into BP groups: hypertensives (HTN; ≥95th percentile; n = 21) and normotensives (NTN; <90th percentile; n = 85) based on BP measures taken at two time points. Resting supine heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were collected along with left ventricular structural and functional properties using ultrasound sonography. Results: LVMI and TPR were not different between groups. CO, HR and left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were elevated in the HTN group. Furthermore, HR and body mass index were found to be independent predictors of BP group status in children. Conclusion: These findings show that children with elevated BP are characterized by high HR and CO and normal TPR. Also, the results identify HR as a predictor of BP group status in early childhood.
- Allicin: Chemistry and Biological Properties. [REVIEW]
- Molecules 2014; 19(8):12591-12618.
Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) is a defence molecule from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with a broad range of biological activities. Allicin is produced upon tissue damage from the non-proteinogenic amino acid alliin (S-allylcysteine sulfoxide) in a reaction that is catalyzed by the enzyme alliinase. Current understanding of the allicin biosynthetic pathway will be presented in this review. Being a thiosulfinate, allicin is a reactive sulfur species (RSS) and undergoes a redox-reaction with thiol groups in glutathione and proteins that is thought to be essential for its biological activity. Allicin is physiologically active in microbial, plant and mammalian cells. In a dose-dependent manner allicin can inhibit the proliferation of both bacteria and fungi or kill cells outright, including antibiotic-resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Furthermore, in mammalian cell lines, including cancer cells, allicin induces cell-death and inhibits cell proliferation. In plants allicin inhibits seed germination and attenuates root-development. The majority of allicin's effects are believed to be mediated via redox-dependent mechanisms. In sub-lethal concentrations, allicin has a variety of health-promoting properties, for example cholesterol- and blood pressure-lowering effects that are advantageous for the cardio-vascular system. Clearly, allicin has wide-ranging and interesting applications in medicine and (green) agriculture, hence the detailed discussion of its enormous potential in this review. Taken together, allicin is a fascinating biologically active compound whose properties are a direct consequence of the molecule's chemistry.
- Diet, Physical Activity, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in Irish Children: The Cork Children's Lifestyle Study Protocol. [Journal Article]
- JMIR Res Protoc 2014; 3(3):e44.
Childhood obesity is complex, and its aetiology is known to be multifaceted. The contribution of lifestyle behaviors, including poor diet and physical inactivity, to obesity remains unclear. Due to the current high prevalence, childhood obesity is an urgent public health priority requiring current and reliable data to further understand its aetiology.The objective of this study is to explore the individual, family, and environmental factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity, with a specific focus on diet and physical activity. A secondary objective of the study is to determine the average salt intake and distribution of blood pressure in Irish children.A cross-sectional survey was conducted of children 8-11 years old in primary schools in Cork, Ireland. Urban schools were selected using a probability proportionate to size sampling strategy, and a complete sample of rural schools from one area in Cork County were invited to participate. Information collected included physical measurement data (anthropometric measurements, blood pressure), early morning spot and 24 hour urine samples, a 3 day estimated food diary, and 7 days of accelerometer data. Principal- (school head) reported, parent/guardian-reported, and child-reported questionnaires collected information on lifestyle behaviors and environmental attributes. The Cork Children's Lifestyle Study (CCLaS) was designed by the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health in University College Cork, Ireland in 2011 and 2012. Piloting and modification of study methods was undertaken. Data collection took place between April 2012 and June 2013.Overall, 27/46 schools and 1075/1641 children, of which 623 were boys, participated. Preliminary data analysis is underway. It is anticipated that the results of the CCLaS study will be available in late 2014.The CCLaS study has collected in-depth data on a wide range of individual, family, social, and environmental correlates which will allow us to access multilevel influences on childhood obesity. This study will contribute to the evidence base by highlighting current knowledge and gaps regarding the predominant drivers of childhood obesity.
- Congenital heart malformations induced by hemodynamic altering surgical interventions. [Journal Article, Review]
- Front Physiol 2014.:287.
Embryonic heart formation results from a dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Blood flow during early embryonic stages plays a critical role in heart development, as interactions between flow and cardiac tissues generate biomechanical forces that modulate cardiac growth and remodeling. Normal hemodynamic conditions are essential for proper cardiac development, while altered blood flow induced by surgical manipulations in animal models result in heart defects similar to those seen in humans with congenital heart disease. This review compares the altered hemodynamics, changes in tissue properties, and cardiac defects reported after common surgical interventions that alter hemodynamics in the early chick embryo, and shows that interventions produce a wide spectrum of cardiac defects. Vitelline vein ligation and left atrial ligation decrease blood pressure and flow; and outflow tract banding increases blood pressure and flow velocities. These three surgical interventions result in many of the same cardiac defects, which indicate that the altered hemodynamics interfere with common looping, septation and valve formation processes that occur after intervention and that shape the four-chambered heart. While many similar defects develop after the interventions, the varying degrees of hemodynamic load alteration among the three interventions also result in varying incidence and severity of cardiac defects, indicating that the hemodynamic modulation of cardiac developmental processes is strongly dependent on hemodynamic load.
- Cognitive and neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nutr Neurosci 2014 Aug 17.
Objectives The aim of this review was to provide an overview of studies conducted to determine the effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on cognition and neurological health. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed and various search terms including chlorogenic acid, CGA, CA, memory, neuroscience, cognition, nutrition, antioxidant, pharmacokinetics, neuroprotection, and neurodegeneration. Results Many studies have linked CGA consumption to a wide range of health benefits, including neuroprotection, cardioprotection, weight loss, chemopreventive properties, anti-inflammatory activity, decreased blood pressure, decreased diet-induced insulin resistance, decreased blood pressure, anxiolytic effects, and antihyperalgesic effects. Pre-clinical and clinical studies both provide evidence that CGA supplementation could protect against neurological degeneration and the resulting diseases associated with oxidative stress in the brain; however, no formal, well-controlled studies have been performed to date. Discussion Recent research suggests that dietary consumption of CGA could produce a wide range of health benefits and physiological effects. There is also mounting evidence that the consumption of polyphenols, including CGA, in the diet could reduce the risk of developing neurodegenerative conditions. Further studies should be conducted with a focus on the effects of CGA on cognition and the nervous system and employing well-designed clinical studies.
- The kallikrein-kinin pathways in hypertension and diabetes. [Journal Article]
- Prog Drug Res 2014.:15-36.
Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of mortality worldwide. Hypertension and diabetes are the two major risk factors in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, ischemic heart disease, and cardiac failure. In Kuwait, high rate of prevalence of hypertension and diabetes has been documented. Previous studies have indicated altered activities of the BK-generating components in hypertension and diabetes. Bradykinin is pharmacologically active polypeptide that can promote both cardiovascular and renal function, for example, vasodilation, natriuresis, diuresis, and release of nitric oxide (NO). In addition, B2 kinin receptors are present in the cardiac endothelial cells which may enhance the biosynthesis and release of NO. It has been demonstrated that reduced urinary (renal) kallikrein levels may be associated with the development of high blood pressure in humans and spontaneously hypertensive and diabetic rats. The BK may produce its pharmacological effects via NO and cyclic GMP release. Furthermore, it is established that the BK has cardioprotective actions in myocardial ischemia and can prevent left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, transgenic mice carrying tissue kallikrein gene and overexpressing tissue kallikrein had reduced blood pressure. NO synthase and renal tissue kallikrein are both involved in blood pressure regulation. The ability of kallikrein gene delivery and the use of kinin B2 receptor agonists to produce a wide spectrum of beneficial effects make it a powerful candidate in treating hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal diseases. Strategies that activate kinin receptors might be applicable to the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Increased plasma prekallikrein levels in diabetic patients may serve as an indicator of developing hypertension and renal damage. Also high plasma and urine concentrations of tissue kallikrein may cause higher glucose levels in the blood.
- Prevalence and factors associated with polypharmacy in Victorian adults with intellectual disability. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Res Dev Disabil 2014 Aug 14; 35(11):3071-3080.
Although polypharmacy is a medication safety concern leading to increased risk of non-adherence, adverse drug reaction and drug-drug interactions, polypharmacy and associated risk factors has rarely been investigated involving people with ID at a population level. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the prevalence of polypharmacy and to evaluate the role of different factors associated with polypharmacy in a state-wide representative population of adults with ID. In a population-based survey in Victoria, Australia, 897 people with ID 18 years of age or older were selected by simple random sampling. The data were collected from proxy respondents on behalf of people with ID. Polypharmacy was defined as the concomitant use of five or more medications. The data were weighted to reflect the age/sex/geographic distribution of the population. Results revealed that more than 76% of adults with ID had used prescribed medicine and about 21% were exposed to polypharmacy in the last two weeks. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, polypharmacy was significantly associated with older age, unemployment and inability to get help from family and friends if needed. After controlling for age, sex and severity of intellectual disability, polypharmacy was associated with having a blood pressure, blood cholesterol and blood glucose level check. Polypharmacy was also associated with a greater number of visits to general practitioners, fair or poor reported health status and inability to walk unaided. Subjects with epilepsy, diabetes, stroke, osteoporosis and cancer had a higher probability of polypharmacy. None of the disease inducing behaviors was associated with polypharmacy. This study highlights the need that medication should be regularly reviewed overall in ID population and particularly when polypharmacy exists.