Pyloric Stenosis [keywords]
- Treating idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis with sequential therapy: A clinical study. [Journal Article]
- J Paediatr Child Health 2016 Jul; 52(7):734-8.
The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of treating idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis with sequential therapy (ST).From January 2010 to June 2013, 49 children with idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis were divided into two groups to accept either atropine ST (ST group, n = 26) or laparoscopic surgery (operation group, n = 23). The remission rate of vomiting, complications, hospital stay and medical expenditure were compared between the two groups. The body weight and the thickness of the pyloric muscle at 6 months after the treatments were also compared.The remission rate of vomiting was lower in the ST group (88.5%; 23/26) than in the operation group (100%, 23/23). The difference in the incidence rate of complications, body weight and pyloric muscle thickness was not statistically significant between the two groups. However, the hospital stay was significantly longer, while the medical expenditure was significantly lower in the ST group than in the operation group.Atropine ST is safe, effective and cost-effective as compared with operation; however, the efficacy of ST is lower than operation.
- Recurrent pyloric stenosis. [CASE REPORTS]
- Pediatr Int 2016 Jul 7.
Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is the most commonly encountered surgical disease among pediatric patients. Incomplete pyloromyotomy is not uncommon complication of pyloromyotomy. However, recurrent pyloric stenosis is extremely rare. Up until now, there are only five cases reported in the English literature. We report a child with recurrent pyloric stenosis who was managed by redo pyloromyotomy.
- Neonatal gastric outlet obstruction by isolated pyloric atresia, an often forgotten diagnosis. [Journal Article]
- Acta Chir Belg 2016 Apr; 116(2):89-95.
Pyloric atresia (PA) is a rare condition, and may be misdiagnosed and especially confused for duodenal atresia pre-operatively. We looked for clues to avoiding pre-operative misdiagnosis and hence allow the best neonatal medical and surgical management.A retrospective case-note review was carried out of the five patients managed in four centres with the diagnosis of isolated PA. We focused on antenatal ultrasound findings, postnatal clinical and radiological features, operative findings, surgical procedures and outcomes.Four patients had polyhydramnios and one double bubble sign on antenatal ultrasound. After birth, non-bilious vomiting and upper abdominal distension were the main symptoms. Gastric decompression showed non-bilious gastric fluid. Radiological findings were a large gastric air bubble with no gas beyond in all cases. The diagnosis of duodenal atresia was postulated at first in all cases. The diagnosis of PA was established peroperatively. One patient referred late, died 13-day post-operatively of cardiopulmonary failure secondary to a severe pneumonia that may be related to aspiration syndrome. Outcomes were otherwise satisfactory.Even though it is a rare diagnosis, PA has a specific clinical and radiological presentation underlined here that should be kept in mind when managing a neonate with a gastric outlet obstruction.
- Adult idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. [Journal Article]
- N Z Med J 2016; 129(1437):77-9.
- Differential learning processes for laparoscopic and open supraumbilical pyloromyotomy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Surg Int 2016 Jun 25.
To compare the learning curves for mastering OP and LP surgical techniques, in terms of effects on completion times and postoperative outcomes/complications.A retrospective analysis was performed for 198 patients with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. The learning curves were in regard to two groups of surgeons: three of whom performed 106 OPs while three others performed 92 LPs. Treatment-related complications were divided into two categories: specific complications relating to the pyloromyotomy and non-specific complications. A logistic regression model with repeated data was used to explore the occurrence of complications.The overall postoperative complication rates were not significantly different between the OP (15.1 %) and the LP (11.8 %) groups. Specific complications were more frequent in the LP group (6.4 versus 2.8 %), while non-specific complications were more frequent in the OP group (12.1 versus 5.3 %). The occurrence of complications exhibited a statistically decreasing risk with each supplementary procedure that was performed (p = 0.0067) in the LP group, but not in the OP group (p = 0.9665).From a learning process perspective, laparoscopy is mainly associated with a significantly higher risk of specific complications. This risk decreases in line with the surgeon's level of experience, whereas non-specific complications remain stable in open procedures.
- Functional Dyspepsia and Gastroparesis. [Journal Article]
- Dig Dis 2016; 34(5):491-9.
Upper gastrointestinal disorders typically present with common symptoms. The most relevant non-mucosal diseases are gastroparesis, functional dyspepsia and rumination syndrome. The literature pertaining to these 3 conditions was reviewed.Gastroparesis is characterized by delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction of the stomach. The cardinal symptoms include postprandial fullness (early satiety), nausea, vomiting and bloating. The most frequently encountered causes of these symptoms are mechanical obstruction (pyloric stenosis), iatrogenic disease, gastroparesis, functional dyspepsia, cyclical vomiting and rumination syndrome. The most common causes of gastroparesis are neuropathic disorders such as diabetes, idiopathic, post-vagotomy and scleroderma among myopathic disorders. Principles of management of gastroparesis include exclusion of mechanical obstruction with imaging and iatrogenic causes with careful medication and past surgical history. Prokinetics and anti-emetics are the mainstays of treatment. Functional dyspepsia is characterized by the same symptoms as gastroparesis; in addition to delayed gastric emptying, pathophysiological abnormalities include accelerated gastric emptying, impaired gastric accommodation and gastric or duodenal hypersensitivity to distension and nutrients. Novel treatments include tricyclic antidepressants in patients with normal gastric emptying, acotiamide (acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor) and 5-HT1A receptor agonists such as buspirone. Rumination syndrome is characterized by repetitive regurgitation of gastric contents occurring within minutes after a meal. Episodes often persist for 1-2 h after the meal, and the regurgitant consists of partially digested food that is recognizable in its taste. Regurgitation is typically effortless or preceded by a sensation of belching. This has been summarized as a 'meal in, meal out, day in, day out' behavior for weeks or months, differentiating rumination from gastroparesis. Patients often have a background of psychological disorder or a prior eating disorder. Treatment is based on behavioral modification.Precise identification of the cause and pathophysiology of upper gastrointestinal symptoms is essential for optimal management.
- The cervix sign and other sonographic signs of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Abdom Radiol (NY) 2016 Jun 17.
- Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy decreases postoperative length of stay in children with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Surg 2016 May 31.
To determine the impact of laparoscopic versus open pyloromyotomy on postoperative length of stay (LOS).The 2013 National Surgical Quality Improvement Project Pediatric database was queried for all cases of pyloromyotomy performed on children <1year old with congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Demographics, clinical, and perioperative characteristics for patients with and without a prolonged postoperative LOS, defined as >1day, were compared. Logistic regression modeling was performed to identify factors associated with a prolonged postoperative LOS.Out of 1143 pyloromyotomy patients, 674 (59%) underwent a laparoscopic procedure. Patients undergoing open pyloromyotomy had a longer operative time (median 28 vs. 25min, p<0.001) but shorter duration of general anesthesia (median 72 vs. 78min, p<0.001). Patients undergoing open pyloromyotomy more frequently had a prolonged postoperative LOS (32% vs. 26%, p=0.019). Factors independently associated with postoperative LOS >1day included open pyloromyotomy (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, p-value) (1.38, 1.03-1.84, p=0.030), cardiac comorbidity (3.64, 1.45-9.14, p=0.006), pulmonary comorbidity (3.47, 1.15-10.46, p=0.027), lower weight (1.005 per 100g decrease, 1.002-1.007, p<0.001), longer preoperative LOS (1.35 per additional day, 1.13-1.62, p=0.001), longer operative time (1.11 per additional 5min, 1.05-1.17, p<0.001), higher preoperative blood urea nitrogen (1.04 per additional mg/dl, 1.01-1.07, p=0.012), and higher serum sodium (1.08 per additional mg/dl, 1.03-1.14, p=0.004).Compared to laparoscopic pyloromyotomy, open pyloromyotomy is independently associated with a higher likelihood of a prolonged postoperative LOS.
- Partially-covered stent placement versus surgical gastrojejunostomy for the palliation of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction secondary to pancreatic cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Abdom Radiol (NY) 2016 Jun 11.
To compare the outcomes of partially covered self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) placement with surgical gastrojejunostomy (GJ) in patients with gastroduodenal obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer.The medical records of 107 patients with gastroduodenal obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer who underwent fluoroscopic partially covered SEMS placement (n = 75) or surgical GJ (n = 32) at our institution were reviewed.The technical (100% vs. 100%; P > 0.999) and clinical (98.7% vs. 96.9%; P = 0.511) success rates were similar between the SEMS and GJ group. The mean gastric outlet obstruction scoring system score was higher in the SEMS group at 1 week after treatment (2.3 ± 0.5 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4; P < 0.001) but was similar between the two groups at 1 month (2.7 ± 0.5 vs. 2.8 ± 0.5; P = 0.242). The median hospital stay was shorter in the SEMS group than in the GJ group (7 vs. 14 days; P < 0.001). The overall complication (22.7% vs. 28.1%; P = 0.547) and reintervention (21.3% vs. 25.0%; P = 0.677) rates were similar between the two groups. The median patency (99 vs. 138 days; P = 0.102) and survival (106 vs. 140 days; P = 0.245) were also similar between the two groups.The outcomes of partially covered SEMS placement seem to be more favorable than surgical GJ in patients with gastroduodenal obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer.
- Optimizing antimicrobial therapy in children. [Journal Article]
- J Infect 2016 Jul 5.:S91-7.
Management of common infections and optimal use of antimicrobial agents are presented, highlighting new evidence from the medical literature that enlightens practice. Primary therapy of staphylococcal skin abscesses is drainage. Patients who have a large abscess (>5 cm), cellulitis or mixed abscess-cellulitis likely would benefit from additional antibiotic therapy. When choosing an antibiotic for outpatient management, the patient, pathogen and in vitro drug susceptibility as well as tolerability, bioavailability and safety characteristics of antibiotics should be considered. Management of recurrent staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections is vexing. Focus is best placed on reducing density of the organism on the patient's skin and in the environment, and optimizing a healthy skin barrier. With attention to adherence and optimal dosing, acute uncomplicated osteomyelitis can be managed with early transition from parenteral to oral therapy and with a 3-4 week total course of therapy. Doxycycline should be prescribed when indicated for a child of any age. Its use is not associated with dental staining. Azithromycin should be prescribed for infants when indicated, whilst being alert to an associated ≥2-fold excess risk of pyloric stenosis with use under 6 weeks of age. Beyond the neonatal period, acyclovir is more safely dosed by body surface area (not to exceed 500 mg/m(2)/dose) than by weight. In addition to the concern of antimicrobial resistance, unnecessary use of antibiotics should be avoided because of potential later metabolic effects, thought to be due to perturbation of the host's microbiome.