Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Pyloric Stenosis [keywords]
- The clinical features of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in chinese han population: analysis from 1998 to 2010. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(2):e88925.
To investigate clinical features of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) in Chinese Han population.Three hundred and sixteen hospitalized patients with IHPS from January 1998 to February 2010 were retrospectively reviewed, and data including patient's sex, onset age, other coexisting congenital defects, pyloric circular muscle thickness evaluated by ultrasonograph, serum electrolytes concentration, and results of arterial blood gas analysis on admission were collected. The patients were divided into two groups: the duration between first onset and admission less than or equal to 10 days (early onset group), and more than 10 days (late onset group). The results of arterial blood gas and serum electrolyte concentration were compared between the two groups.There were 271 males and 45 females in 316 patients; the onset age ranged between 1 and 351 (26.5±26.6) days. The birth weight ranged between 1.6 and 4.5 (3.23±0.44) kilograms; coexisting congenital defects were found in 65 cases (20.6%). Pyloric circular muscle thickness was 4-8 (5.4±1.0) millimetres (mm). For the early onset group, the rates of hypokalemia, hypochloraemia and hypercapnia were significantly lower than those in the late onset group (18.67% VS 50%, P<0.0001; 46.03% VS 71.01%, P = 0.003; 56.58% VS 83.44%, P = 2.17×10(-5); respectively).The symptom duration in Chinese Han population was longer than that in other populations. And as the prolongation of symptom duration, the incidence of acid-base imbalance increased significantly. Infants with persistent vomiting at the age of 3∼5 weeks after birth should be considered IHPS, and go to hospital as soon as possible in order to reduce the incidence of hypokalemia, hypochloraemia and hypercapnia, and avoid deterioration.
- [Pyloric stenosis due to adenocarcinoma of the pylorus]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Col Bras Cir 2013 Oct; 40(5):430-2.
We present a case of primary malignant pylorus neoplasia, emphasizing its rarity, the difficulty of diagnosis and the importance of an adequate prepare before the endoscopic procedure. Literature shows that tumors compromising the first, third and fourth segments of duodenum are rare, especially those of the pyloric area, representing only 0.35% of all malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type, representing 50% of all malignant neoplasias at this site. The most common symptoms are weight loss, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, abdominal mass, sudden changes in intestinal habits and iron deficiency anemia secondary to chronic intestinal hemorrhage. Survival after five years is only 18%. We report a case of a seventy-one year-old male referring early satiety, epigastric pain, retrosternal burning and dyspepsia, with unspecific results in complementary exams, since complete gastric emptying was not achieved. As symptoms worsened, the patient was submitted to laparotomy, with identification of gastric dilation and severe pyloric stenosis, macroscopically suggesting malignancy. The chosen procedure was a subtotal gastrectomy. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy were not used. The patient is been followed-up without tumor recurrence so far.
- The gut or the brain?-gastrointestinal misdiagnoses of infantile brain tumors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Childs Nerv Syst 2014 Feb 18.
Central nervous system tumors account for the largest number of cancer deaths in childhood. Brain tumors in infants less than 3 years of age are rare; symptoms and signs are often non-specific. Patent anterior fontanelles/unfused cranial sutures in infants can accommodate rising intracranial pressure without acutely compromising the neurological status. We hypothesize that vomiting as the initial symptom, in infants with brain tumors, can possibly lead to extensive gastrointestinal evaluation, delaying the diagnosis of intracranial pathology.We conducted a retrospective chart review of infants less than 3 years of age diagnosed with brain tumors over the period of 4.7 years from February 2008 to October 2012 at Inova Children's Hospital, Virginia.We identified three of 21 patients (14.3 %) who presented with vomiting and underwent initial or extensive abdominal imaging investigations. All patients were relatively young (median age, 5.4 months). Working diagnoses were pyloric stenosis, viral gastritis, or gastroesophageal reflux. All patients eventually had computed tomography of the head to rule out increased intracranial pressure and were found to have large brain tumors with obstructive hydrocephalus. Tumor locations were cerebral hemispheres (2/3) and posterior fossa (1/3). All patients had biologically aggressive high-grade tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, and anaplastic/large cell medulloblastoma) and died within weeks of diagnosis.Our study highlights a clinical challenge of persistent vomiting in infants, which in the absence of convincing gastrointestinal pathology after evaluation should raise the physician's suspicion of an underlying intracranial pathology even if neurological features are absent.
- Single-site umbilical laparoscopic pyloromyotomy in neonates less than 21-day old. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Today 2014 Feb 2.
Single-site umbilical laparoscopic pyloromyotomy for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in neonates <3-week old has rarely been reported in the literature. This article reports our initial experience with this procedure.Overall, 13 cases of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis occurred in neonates <3-week old from January 2010 to April 2013 in our hospital. All neonates were treated by a single-site laparoscopic procedure. A 5-mm trocar and endoscope were introduced through an incision in the center of the umbilicus, and two 3-mm working instruments were inserted directly into the abdomen via separate lateral fascial stab incisions in the umbilical fold, and a single-site umbilical laparoscopic pyloromyotomy was then performed.The procedure was performed in 13 infants (12 male) with mean age of 17.3 days. The average length of the operation was 26 min. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 4.5 days. All patients were discharged home on full feeds. Follow-up examinations were scheduled 2 to 6 weeks after discharge, and no postoperative complications were noted in any of the patients.These cases had shorter and thinner pylori than their older counterparts. However, the laparoscopic procedure was safe and feasible, with good postoperative results and excellent cosmesis. Surgeons should have a firm foundation of advanced minimal access surgical skills prior to attempting the procedure.
- Shifts towards pediatric specialists in the treatment of appendicitis and pyloric stenosis: trends and outcomes. [Journal Article]
- J Pediatr Surg 2014 Jan; 49(1):123-7; discussion 127-8.
Little data exists on temporal changes in the care of children with common surgical conditions. We hypothesized that an increasing proportion of procedures are performed at pediatric hospitals over time, and that outcomes are superior at these centers.We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Washington State discharge records for children 0-17years old undergoing appendectomy (n=39,472) or pyloromyotomy (n=3,500). Pediatric hospitals were defined as centers with full-time pediatric surgeons. Outcomes were examined for two time periods (1987-2000, 2001-2009).From 1987 to 2009, the proportion of procedures performed at pediatric hospitals steadily increased. The percentage for appendectomies increased from 17% to 32%, and that for pyloromyotomies increased from 57% to 99%. For pyloromyotomy, care at a pediatric hospital was associated with decreased risk of postoperative complications (OR=0.36, p<0.001) for both time periods. Appendectomy outcomes did not differ significantly in the early time period, but in the later time period specialist care was associated with lower risk of complications in children <5years (OR=0.54, p=0.03).There has been a shift towards pediatric hospitals for certain procedures, with a widening disparity in outcomes for younger children. These results suggest that procedures in younger patients may best be performed by providers familiar with these patient populations.
- Duplication cyst of pyloric canal: a rare cause of pediatric gastric outlet obstruction: rare case report. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Surg 2013 Jun; 75(Suppl 1):322-5.
Duplication of the alimentary tract may occur in any site, from the mouth to the anus, and in recent years such anomalies have received wide notice. Pyloric duplication cyst is an extremely rare congenital anomaly of the alimentary tract, whose clinical presentation often mimics those of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Gastrointestinal duplications are observed in 1 of every 4500 autopsies, predominantly in white males. It represents 2.2 % of all gastric duplications, with only 18 have been reported up to 2011 (Table 1). In most cases preoperative diagnosis is not made. We report a case of a pyloric duplication cyst in a 3-year-old girl with progressive increased vomiting. The patient had an ultrasonography, upper gastrointestinal series, and computer tomography of the abdomen. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgery and histopathology examination. The patient was asymptomatic at 12-month follow-up. The clinical and radiological analysis can reveal configurational changes consistent with a large extrinsic mass rather than muscular hypertrophy and can lead to accurate preoperative diagnosis.
- [Condition of patients who require heart surgery during treatment for advanced digestive cancer and early recurrence after surgery- an assessment from the viewpoint of digestive surgeons]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2013 Nov; 40(12):2444-7.
The need for cardiac surgery among patients undergoing treatment for advanced digestive cancer is limited to the following situations:(i) heart diseases that can be life threatening if left untreated and that cannot be cured by medicinal treatment alone (e.g., cardiac tumors) and (ii) heart diseases (e.g., infectious endocarditis and pulmonary thromboembolism) occurring after digestive cancer surgery that need emergency treatment and that are resistant to medicinal treatment. We encountered 2 cases that required cardiac surgery.( Case 1) A 68-year-old woman with advanced gastric carcinoma accompanied by pyloric stenosis and left atrial myxoma underwent radical surgery for gastric cancer( Stage IIIA). Subsequently, the left atrial myxoma was resected before adjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of gastric cancer was administered. One month after the surgery, multiple liver metastases appeared. However, they disappeared after chemotherapy was completed, and the patient survived for more than 3 years with complete response. (Case 2) A 67-year-old woman who underwent a Hartmann operation for obstructive rectal cancer (Stage II) experienced infectious endocarditis after the surgery. Because the endocarditis was resistant to medicinal treatment and acute heart failure was anticipated, cardiac surgery was performed. Approximately 2 months after the surgery, the bacilli( methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]) were not found in blood culture. However, multiple liver metastases appeared immediately after the disappearance of the bacilli, and the patient died 3 months after the surgery. In both cases, cancer recurrence occurred early after cardiac surgery. Excessive surgical stress due to cardiac surgery may have promoted cancer recurrence. A decision pertaining to the timing of cardiac surgery is difficult in cases of patients with advanced digestive cancer and co-existing heart disease, which cannot be cured by medicinal treatment.
- [A case of unresectable gastric cancer in a patient who maintained a good quality of life with multidisciplinary treatment]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2013 Nov; 40(12):2280-2.
Herein, we report the case of 57-year-old woman who visited our hospital for abdominal distention, difficulty in walking, and edema of the legs in January 2012. She underwent gastroendoscopy, resulting in a diagnosis of advanced gastric cancer of the pyloric antrum. A diagnosis of unresectable advanced gastric cancer was made because computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of ascites (suspected to indicate peritoneal dissemination), para-aortic lymph node metastases, and brain metastases. Stenting was performed for pyloric stenosis and cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) was administered to facilitate oral intake. We administered two courses of chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel. However, CT showed the presence of ascites and growth of the main tumor in the first month after the initiation of chemotherapy. We performed CART, and treatment was changed to S-1/paclitaxe(l 5 courses). Ascites decreased markedly and activities of daily living improved. However, 11 months after the initiation of therapy, the patient died.
- [A case of locally advanced gastric cancer in which pathological complete response( PCR) was obtained after combination chemotherapy with S-1/cisplatin]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2013 Nov; 40(12):2238-40.
A 72-year-old man with advanced gastric cancer was referred to our hospital. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a type 3 tumor in the gastric antrum and pyloric stenosis. Computed tomography( CT) demonstrated that the tumor had directly infiltrated the pancreatic parenchyma and that the paraaortic lymph nodes were enlarged. We judged the tumor to be unresectable and performed gastrojejunostomy. Postoperatively, the patient was treated with 9 courses of combination chemotherapy comprising S-1 and cisplatin( CDDP), and significant tumor reduction was obtained. Therefore, we performed radical distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy. Histological examination revealed a complete absence of cancer cells in the stomach and all of the lymph nodes( pathological complete response: pCR). Seven months after surgery, the patient is in good health with no recurrence. This case suggests that aggressive chemotherapy can be a useful treatment to enable radical surgery for unresectable locally advanced gastric cancer.
- [Two cases of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced gastric cancer successfully treated with S-1, cisplatin, and trastuzumab combination therapy followed by curative resection]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2013 Nov; 40(12):2203-6.
We report 2 cases of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive advanced gastric cancer successfully treated with a combination therapy of S-1, cisplatin( CDDP), and trastuzumab followed by curative resection. Case 1 involved a 62-year-old man with type 3 HER2-positive gastric cancer spanning the antrum of the stomach to the duodenal bulb and directly invading the pancreatic head( cT4b[ Panc] N3H0P0M0, Stage IIIC). We diagnosed it as an unresectable cancer, and selected S-1, CDDP, and trastuzumab for combination chemotherapy. S-1 (120 mg/body/day) was administered orally for 2 weeks, followed by 1 drug-free week as a course, and CDDP (60 mg/m2) and trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose and 6 mg/kg maintenance) were administered by intravenous infusion on day 1. After the third course, significant tumor and lymph node reduction was observed; however, pyloric stenosis developed. Distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed. Case 2 involved a 62-year-old woman with type 4 HER2-positive gastric cancer from the angle of the stomach to the duodenal bulb and directly invading the pancreatic head (cT4b [Panc] N2H0P0M0, Stage IIIC). After the third course of combination therapy, significant tumor reduction and disappearance of lymph nodes metastasis was observed. We diagnosed the patient as having a resectable cancer, and performed distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy.