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Raynaud's disease and phenomenon [keywords]
- Microvascular abnormalities in patients with early systemic sclerosis: less severe morphological changes than in patients with definite disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Scand J Rheumatol 2014 Nov 7.:1-8.
Objectives: To evaluate the morphological and functional abnormalities of the microcirculation associated with markers of vascular injury in patients with early systemic sclerosis (SSc). Method: Forty-six patients with early SSc were compared with 80 patients with definite SSc, 40 patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon (PRP), and 45 healthy subjects. Widefield nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) (10-25 × magnification), videocapillaroscopy (200 × magnification), and laser Doppler imaging (LDI) assessment were performed in all participants. The number of capillaries/mm, enlarged, giant and ramified capillaries, microhaemorrhages, and the avascular score were determined by widefield NFC and videocapillaroscopy. Fingertip blood flow (FBF) was measured using LDI before and after cold stimulus (CS). Serum endothelin-1 (ET-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Upon both widefield NFC and videocapillaroscopy, patients with early SSc showed significantly higher numbers of capillaries/mm, lower enlarged and giant capillaries, and a lower avascular score than definite SSc patients (p < 0.001). They also had more enlarged capillaries, microhaemorrhages and a higher avascular score compared to PRP and controls (p < 0.001). FBF before and after CS were significantly higher in controls than in PRP, early SSc, and definite SSc patients (p < 0.001), with no difference between early and definite SSc. Serum levels of ET-1, vWF, and TGF-β1 were similar between early and definite SSc patients. Conclusions: Early SSc patients showed functional changes and vascular injury marker levels similar to patients with established disease. Nonetheless, the morphological changes were less severe in early SSc, thus providing an opportunity for further prevention of vasculopathy progression.
- Frequency and impact of disease symptoms experienced by patients with systemic sclerosis from five European countries. [Journal Article]
- Clin Exp Rheumatol 2014 Nov-Dec; 32 Suppl 86(6):88-93.
Knowledge about the nature and impact of symptoms faced by patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) is needed to identify targets for research and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the frequency and impact on everyday activities of SSc symptoms among patients from five European countries.European patients with SSc were invited through announcements by patient associations to complete an online survey. The survey included items assessing the frequency of 40 SSc symptoms and the impact on daily activities, if present. Chi-square tests were utilised to assess the differences in frequency and impact of symptoms across countries.In total, 537 patients were included from France (n=111), the Netherlands (n=229), Spain (n=61), Switzerland (n=50), and the United Kingdom (n=86). Symptoms experienced by ≥70% of patients in all countries were fatigue, Raynaud's phenomenon, joint pain, and muscle pain. Twenty symptoms were experienced by ≥50% of patients in all countries. Thirty symptoms had an impact on daily activities in ≥50% of patients who reported that the symptom was present in all countries. There were significant differences among countries in the prevalence of 17 out of 40 symptoms. Furthermore, in 24 out of 40 symptoms significant differences in the proportion of patients reporting impact of a specific symptom on everyday activities were observed.European patients with SSc experience a broad range of symptoms that have an impact on everyday activities. International research initiatives should target common SSc symptoms cooperatively. Further research is needed to better understand the differences in SSc symptoms among countries.
- Systemic sclerosis and silicone breast implant: a case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Rheumatol 2014.:809629.
Environmentally induced systemic sclerosis is a well-recognized condition, which is correlated with exposure to various chemical compounds or drugs. However, development of scleroderma-like disease after exposure to silicone has always been a controversial issue and, over time, it has triggered spirited debate whether there is a certain association or not. Herein, we report the case of a 35-year-old female who developed Raynaud's phenomenon and, finally, systemic sclerosis shortly after silicone breast implantation surgery.
- Seronegative polyarthritis revealing antisynthetase syndrome: a multicentre study of 40 patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rheumatology (Oxford) 2014 Oct 27.
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of antisynthetase syndrome (ASS) revealed by polyarthritis.First we conducted a retrospective single-centre study to assess the frequency of ASS patients who presented with polyarthritis without pulmonary and/or muscle symptoms. Secondly, we conducted a larger, multicentre study in order to describe the clinical characteristics of these patients. Exclusion criteria were the presence of RF, the presence of ACPA and overlap with another CTD.In the single-centre study, polyarthritis was the first manifestation in 12 of 45 ASS patients (27%). An additional 28 patients were collected for the multicentre study, resulting in a total population of 40 ASS patients who presented with polyarthritis. The mean delay from polyarthritis onset to ASS diagnosis was 27 months (s.d. 40). Pulmonary and muscle symptoms were uncommon at ASS diagnosis (40% and 32.5%, respectively) and were dramatically delayed [mean delay after polyarthritis onset of 41 months (s.d. 53) and 21 months (s.d. 14), respectively]. Mechanic's hands and cutaneous signs of DM occurred in 25% and 22.5%, respectively, with a mean delay of 10 months (s.d. 10) and 31 months (s.d. 21), respectively. When present (32%), RP was the earliest non-articular manifestation [mean delay 3 months (s.d. 23) after polyarthritis onset]. On HEp-2 cells, antinuclear and/or cytoplasmic fluorescence was found in 70% of cases, with specificity for various anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (anti-ARS) antibodies.ASS may be revealed by polyarthritis. To decrease the delay in diagnosis of ASS, pulmonary and muscle symptoms and anti-ARS antibodies might usefully be searched for in seronegative polyarthritis patients, especially in those with RP.
- An automated system for detecting and measuring nailfold capillaries. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2014; 17(Pt 1):658-65.
Nailfold capillaroscopy is an established qualitative technique in the assessment of patients displaying Raynaud's phenomenon. We describe a fully automated system for extracting quantitative biomarkers from capillaroscopy images, using a layered machine learning approach. On an unseen set of 455 images, the system detects and locates individual capillaries as well as human experts, and makes measurements of vessel morphology that reveal statistically significant differences between patients with (relatively benign) primary Raynaud's phenomenon, and those with potentially life-threatening systemic sclerosis.
- Nailfold capillaroscopic changes in dermatomyositis and polymyositis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Rheumatol 2014 Oct 17.
Inflammatory myopathies (IM) are a group of muscle diseases occurring both in children and adults. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) alterations are described in IM, but available data are discordant, including differences between polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM). The aim of this study was to describe the capillaroscopic differences between PM and DM patients and possible correlation with clinical and serological features. We analyzed 52 unselected patients with IM in a cross-sectional study in a 6-month period. NVC findings of 29 DM and 23 PM patients were compared with those of 52 patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Tortuosities, capillary loss, enlarged and giant capillaries, microhemorrhages, and ramified capillaries were scored by a semiquantitative rating; disorganization of the vascular array, avascular areas, and scleroderma pattern were scored as presence/absence. Sex, mean age, and mean disease duration were similar in both groups. Disorganization of the vascular array, enlarged and giant capillaries, capillary loss, and scleroderma-like pattern were observed almost only in IM patients. Significant differences were observed between PM and DM with higher frequency and mean score of NVC changes in DM. In DM patients with disease duration ≤6 months (14/29 patients), capillary density was significantly reduced (P = 0.039) and giant capillaries more frequent (P = 0.027), compared with patients with longer disease duration, while a scleroderma pattern tended to be more frequent in patients with a disease duration of less than 6 months. On the contrary, no differences were observed for ramified capillaries with regard to disease duration. Capillaroscopic alterations are identified only in DM patients as expression of diffuse microangiopathy; surprisingly, more severe changes were associated with shorter disease duration, while persistence of ramified capillaries with long-standing disease.
- Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- J Dermatol 2014 Nov; 41(11):986-91.
Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO.
- Clinical differences between Thai systemic sclerosis patients with positive versus negative anti-topoisomerase I. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Rheum Dis 2014 Oct 8.
Anti-topoisomerase I antibody (ATA) carries an increased risk of systemic sclerosis (SSc) internal organ involvement. There have been no published comparisons of the clinical characteristics of patients positive and negative for ATA in Thailand, where the positive rate for ATA is higher than among Caucasians.To define the clinical differences between SSc, positive versus negative, for ATA.A retrospective cohort study was performed among SSc patients over 18 at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, during January 2006-December 2013. SSc-overlap syndrome was excluded.Two hundred and ninety-four SSc patients were included (female : male 2.5 : 1). The majority (68.6%) were the diffuse cutaneous SSc subset (dcSSc). ATA was positive in 252 patients (85.7%), among whom 71.7% had dcSSc and 28.2% limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc). Using a multivariate analysis, hand deformity had a significantly positive association with ATA (odds ratio [OR] 7.01; 95% CI 1.02-48.69), whereas being anti-centromere (ACA) positive had a negative association (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.03-0.92). After doing a subgroup analysis of the SSc subset, the median duration of disease at time of pulmonary fibrosis detection among ATA positive dcSSc was significantly shorter than the ATA negative group (1.05 vs. 6.77 years, P = 0.01). Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) at onset was significantly more frequent in lcSSc sufferers who were ATA negative than those who were ATA positive (90.5% vs. 56.9%, P = 0.005).A high prevalence of ATA positivity was found among Thai SSc patients and this was associated with a high frequency of hand deformity, ACA negativity, a short duration of pulmonary fibrosis in dcSSc and a lower frequency of RP in lcSSc.
- Choroidal impairment and macular thinning in patients with systemic sclerosis: The acute study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Microvasc Res 2014 Sep 26.
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is a reversible vasospastic response of the extremities to cold or emotion, and can be the first manifestation or may be present before the development of an overt systemic sclerosis (SSc). The disturbance of the balance between vasodilation and vasoconstriction is not limited to the peripheral microcirculation of the skin, but it is also observed in other organs, such as the choroidal plexus of the eye. We aimed to examine the choroidal thickness (CT), the macular thickness and ganglion cell complex (GCC) average in thirty consecutive patients, without visual symptoms, classified as primary RP (pRP), RP secondary to suspected SSc, and overt SSc. All the patients underwent rheumatologic and ophthalmologic examination, capillaroscopy, test for anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-dsDNA, and anti-extractable nuclear antigens. Ophthalmologic examination included: best corrected visual acuity; slit lamp biomicroscopy; intraocular pressure measurements, fundus examination, and Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) with enhanced depth imaging scan system. Twenty-seven healthy subjects similar for gender and age were analyzed. In pRP, CT was significantly thinner than controls in the outer nasal and temporal regions. In secondary RP, the inner and outer nasal areas were significantly thinner than controls. In SSc, the central, inner inferior, inner nasal, inner superior, outer temporal, outer inferior, and outer nasal regions were significantly thinner than controls. A decreasing trend of central foveal thickness was noted. All the patients had GCC average significantly lower than controls. A thinning of choroidal and macular thickness, as well as of GCC was observed in patients with pRP and becomes more severe and extensive in RP secondary to suspected SSc and overt SSc. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the choroidal features using SD-OCT in RP. These data may be clinically useful in suggesting an early involvement of ocular microcirculation with significant reduction of choroidal perfusion.
- The 2013 ACR/EULAR Classification Criteria for Systemic Sclerosis Out-perform the 1980 Criteria. Data from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2014 Sep 18.
Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the new 2013 classification criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc) in an independent cohort of SSc subjects and to assess the contribution of individual items of the criteria to the overall sensitivity. Method: SSc subjects from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group cohort were assessed. Sensitivity was determined in several subgroups of patients. In patients without the criterion of skin thickening proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPs), we re-calculated sensitivity after removing individual criterion. Results: A total of 724 SSc patients were included. Most were females (86%), mean age was 55.8 years, mean disease duration was 10.9 years, and 59% had lcSSc. Overall, the sensitivity of the 2013 criteria was 98.3% compared to 88.3% for the 1980 criteria. This pattern was consistent among those with lcSSc (98.8% versus 85.6%), anti-centromere antibodies (98.9% vs 79.8%), disease duration ≤ 3 years (98.7% vs 84.7%) and no skin involvement proximal to the MCPs (97% vs 60%). In the latter sub-group, removing Raynaud's phenomenon and sclerodactyly from the criteria reduced the sensitivity to 77% and 79%, respectively. Removing both sclerodactyly and puffy fingers reduced the sensitivity to 62%. Conclusion: The 2013 SSc classification criteria classify more SSc patients than the 1980 criteria. The improvement in sensitivity is most striking in those with lcSSc, especially those without skin involvement proximal to the MCPs. The addition of Raynaud's phenomenon and puffy fingers to the 2013 criteria accounts for important gains in sensitivity. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.