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Raynaud's disease and phenomenon [keywords]
- Systemic Sclerosis in Canada's North American Native Population: Assessment of Clinical and Serological Manifestations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Rheumatol 2013 May 15.
OBJECTIVE:Certain North American Native (NAN) populations are known to have higher rates of systemic sclerosis (SSc) compared to non-NAN; however, little is known of the specific disease characteristics in this population in Canada. This study compares the clinical and serological manifestations of SSc in NAN and white patients.
METHODS:This cross-sectional, multicenter study included subjects enrolled in the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group registry between September 2004 and June 2012. Subjects were evaluated with complete medical histories, physical examinations, and self-questionnaires. Ethnicity was defined by self-report. Disease characteristics were compared between NAN and white patients and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the independent association between ethnicity and various clinical manifestations.
RESULTS:Of 1278 patients, 1038 (81%) were white, 71 (6%) were NAN, and 169 (13%) were classified as non-white/non-NAN. There were important differences between NAN and white subjects with SSc. In multivariate analysis adjusting for socioeconomic differences and smoking status, NAN ethnicity was an independent risk factor for the severity of Raynaud phenomenon and more gastrointestinal symptoms, and was associated with a nonsignificant increase in the presence of digital ulcers.
CONCLUSION:NAN patients with SSc have a distinct clinical phenotype. Our study provides a strong rationale to pursue further research into genetic and environmental determinants of SSc.
- Limited Scleroderma with Pauci-Immune Glomerulonephritis in the Presence of Renal Cell Carcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Med Res 2013 May 8.
Connective tissue disorders increase the risk of malignancy; conversely, they may manifest as rheumatological paraneoplastic syndromes due to an underlying malignancy. We describe a patient with limited scleroderma whose rapid disease progression coincided with the discovery of a renal tumor. A female patient, aged 75 years, presented with a 3-month history of progressive difficulty grasping objects, unsteadiness, dyspnea, xerostomia, xerophthalmia, and significant weight loss. She had a 10-year history of gastroesophageal reflux and Raynaud's phenomenon. Pertinent physical examination findings included facial telangiectasias, bibasilar inspiratory rales, sclerodactyly, and absent pinprick and vibratory sensation in her toes. She also had swelling and tenderness in several metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints and both ankles. A renal mass was demonstrated on abdominal computed tomography. A left partial nephrectomy was performed, confirming an unclassified type of renal cell carcinoma, along with a focal proliferative crescentic pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. Medical therapy with rituximab, pulse methylprednisolone, and prednisone led to improvement in her symptoms. The patient's presentation is consistent with a rapid progression of pre-existing limited scleroderma with the development of new rheumatological symptoms, including vasculitis. We propose that this progression was secondary to paraneoplastic stimulation by the renal cell carcinoma. Clinicians should consider looking for a malignancy in patients with connective tissue disorders who present with a myriad of new symptoms.
- Open label study of escalating doses of oral treprostinil diethanolamine in patients with systemic sclerosis and digital ischemia: pharmacokinetics and correlation with digital perfusion. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arthritis Res Ther 2013 Apr 18; 15(2):R54.
INTRODUCTION:Treprostinil diethanolamine is an innovative salt form of the prostacyclin analogue, treprostinil sodium, developed as an oral sustained release (SR) osmotic tablet. The availability of a formulation permitting convenient systemic delivery might have applicability to scleroderma vascular complications. We evaluated pharmacokinetics and perfusion in scleroderma patients with digital ischemia following escalating twice-daily doses of treprostinil diethanolamine SR.
METHODS:In this dual-center, open-label, phase I pharmacokinetic study, scleroderma patients with digital ulcers were enrolled. Drug concentrations and perfusion, quantified by laser Doppler imaging, were measured over 12 hours at the 2mg and 4mg (or maximally tolerated) doses. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from individual plasma concentration versus time profiles using non-compartmental analysis methods. Digital perfusion and skin temperature were modeled as a function of log-transformed drug concentration and other covariates by performing repeated measures analyses using random effects models.
RESULTS:Nineteen scleroderma patients (84% female, 53% limited scleroderma) received treprostinil diethanolamine SR with dose titration up to 4mg twice daily as tolerated. Peak concentrations (mean maximum plasma concentration [Cmax] = 1176 and 2107 pg/mL) occurred approximately 3.6 hours after dose administration, and overall exposure (under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to 12 hours post dose [AUC0-12] = 7187 and 12992 hr*pg/mL) was linear between the 2mg and 4mg doses. Perfusion and digital skin temperature were positively associated with log-transformed plasma concentration at the 4mg dose (p=0.015 and p=0.013, respectively). The most frequent adverse events were similar to those seen with prostacyclin analogues.
CONCLUSIONS:Oral treprostinil diethanolamine was effectively absorbed in patients with scleroderma. Drug administration was temporally associated with improved cutaneous perfusion and temperature. Treprostinil diethanolamine may provide a new therapeutic option for Raynaud's phenomenon and the peripheral vascular disease of scleroderma. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00848939.
- [Diffuse infiltrative lung disease in scleroderma. Analysis of radio-clinical and functional semiology]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Pneumol Clin 2013 Jun; 69(3):132-8.
Scleroderma (SD) is a systemic disease that predominantly affects the skin. Diffuse infiltrative lung disease (DILD) is rare and occurs most often in the course of the disease. We analyzed seven cases of DILO of SD recorded between 2003 and 2010 among 196 PID (3.6%). Functional signs were limited to respiratory dyspnea, it was associated to dysphagia in six cases, dry syndrome in five cases and Raynaud's phenomenon in four cases. Clinical examination found crackles in the bases of the thorax in all cases and specific cutaneous signs in six cases. The chest radiograph showed that interstitial disease predominates at the lung bases in all cases with a large aspect of the pulmonary arteries in two cases. The chest CT scan confirmed the predominance of basal and peripheral damage with signs of fibrosis in six cases. The pulmonary function objectified a severe restrictive ventilatory defect in all cases. Bronchoscopy showed a normal macroscopic appearance in all cases, the broncho-alveolar lavage was predominated by neutrophilic formula in four cases. SCL 70 antibodies were positive in four cases. All patients were treated by steroids with improvement of dyspnea and stabilization of radiographs. A patient had died in an array of acute respiratory failure and one patient was lost to follow-up. DILD in scleroderma is rare and seldom reveals the disease, it affects the patient's prognosis especially when associated with arterial pulmonary hypertension.
- [Systemic scleroderma]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Hautarzt 2013 Apr; 64(4):299-310; quiz 311-2.
Systemic scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the skin, internal organs and the musculoskeletal system. The presence of Raynaud phenomenon, anti-nuclear antibodies and pathologic capillaroscopy are early signs of the disease. Limited cutaneous SSc, diffuse cutaneous SSc and SSc-overlap syndromes are the main clinical subtypes. Multidisciplinary care is mandatory. Follow-up examinations should be performed at least annually in order to recognize in a timely fashion treatable organ involvement such as pulmonary arterial hypertension. Besides symptomatic treatment of organ involvement, immunosuppressive therapy is indicated for a progressive inflammatory course.
- [Myositis-specific autoantibodies]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Brain Nerve 2013 Apr; 65(4):449-60.
Abstract Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of acquired skeletal muscle diseases that include polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and inclusion body myositis. Studies have shown many myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) that are useful for the diagnoses as well as classification of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, because they have been shown to correlate with distinct clinical phenotypes. Anti-Jo-1, anti-PL-7, anti-PL-12, anti-EJ, anti-KS, anti-OJ, anti-Ha, and anti-Zo antibodies target aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, and represent anti-synthetase syndrome. Anti-synthetase syndrome is characterized by myositis, interstitial lung disease, arthritis, fever, Raynaud's phenomenon, and mechanic's hands. Anti-Mi-2, anti-MDA5 (anti-CADM140), anti-TIF1 (anti-155/140, anti-p155), anti-NXP-2 (anti-MJ), and anti-SAE antibodies are specific for dermatomyositis. In particular, anti-MDA5 antibodies are clinically associated with amyopathic dermatomyositis developing into rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease, whereas anti-TIF1 and anti-NXP-2 antibodies are closely correlated with cancer-associated dermatomyositis in adults. In addition, anti-TIF1 and anti-NXP-2 antibodies are predominant MSAs found in juvenile dermatomyositis, and the latter was correlated with a high incidence of calcinosis. Furthermore, anti-SRP and anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (anti-HMG-CoA) antibodies have been found in patients with necrotizing myopathy. Moreover, a recent study suggested the presence of autoantibodies to a 43-kDa muscle protein in patients with inclusion body myositis. Although the pathogenic role of MSAs remains unknown, recent studies have shown that myositis autoantigens are expressed at high levels in regenerating muscle fibers, which may initiate or amplify autoimmune responses in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.
- Cutaneous manifestations in patients with POEMS syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Dermatol 2013 Apr 4.
Background Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes syndrome is a rare multisystem paraneoplastic condition associated with plasma cell dyscrasia. Methods From our institution's dysproteinemia database, 107 patients met criteria for polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes syndrome between January 1, 2000, and October 1, 2009. Medical records were reviewed for documented syndrome features at diagnosis. We assessed prevalence of skin findings and associations between dermatologic and other characteristic disease findings. Results Of the 107 patients, 96 (90%) had a recognized cutaneous manifestation. Hyperpigmentation and hemangioma were most common (47%), followed by hypertrichosis (38%). Vascular skin changes - acrocyanosis (34%), Raynaud phenomenon (20%), hyperemia/erythema (20%), flushing (16%), or rubor (11%) - occurred in 62%; white nails, sclerodermoid changes, and clubbing occurred in 30%, 26%, and 6%, respectively. Mean number of skin findings per patient was 2.9 (median, 3.0; range, 0-7). Presence of cutaneous manifestation was associated with abnormal pulmonary function tests (P < 0.001); immunoglobulin G gammopathy was associated with hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis. No other significant associations were seen. Conclusions The high prevalence of skin findings (90%) shows the value of dermatologic evaluation in diagnosis of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes syndrome. Our data indicate new associations between skin findings and other disease characteristics.
- Images in clinical medicine. Primary Raynaud's phenomenon. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- N Engl J Med 2013 Apr 4; 368(14):1344.
- [Scleroderma: an update on the pathogenesis and treatment]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2013 Jan-Feb; 51(1):50-7.
Scleroderma is a multiorganic disease characterized by inflammatory, vascular and sclerotic changes in skin and internal organs. It is considered as a tripartite disease, associated to autoimmune, fibroblast and endothelial defect, due to genetic, environmental and infectious factors. This disease can be classified in systemic and localized form. The Raynaud phenomenon occurs in 90% of the patients with the diagnosis. It explains the microcirculation involvement and the reduction in the number of capillaries. Malformation of nail bed capillaries is readily demonstrated by nail bed microscopy and has been shown to correlate both with disease severity and with degree of internal organ involvement. The MRSS-51 validates the skin involvement and has the main predictive value to determine the patient survival. MRSS-51 should not be considered as an activity disease parameter or used to validate the effectiveness of treatment. Nowadays, multiple treatment alternatives exist for scleroderma disease; however these treatments offer poor results for the cutaneous manifestations.
- Cryofibrinogenemia. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Rheumatol 2013 Apr; 19(3):142-8.
Cryofibrinogenemia is a cryoprotein that was first identified in 1955 by Korst and Kratochvil. Unlike cryoglobulin, the precipitate forms only in plasma and not in the serum. The presence of cryofibrinogen in plasma can be asymptomatic. Cryofibrinogenemia is considered a rare disorder: its prevalence varies from 0% to 7% in healthy subjects and from 8% to 13% in hospitalized patients. Nevertheless, cryofibrinogenemia, when a cryopathy is clinically suspected, has been reported in 12% to 51% of patients. Skin manifestations are usually the first signs and are usually moderate; in addition, cold intolerance, Raynaud phenomenon, purpura, or livedo reticularis often occurs. Skin necrosis, acral ulcers, and gangrene can lead to surgery and amputation. Systemic manifestations are common, and arterial or venous thrombotic events are frequent. Cryofibrinogenemia may be primary (essential) or secondary to other underlying disorders, such as carcinoma, infection, vasculitis, collagen disease, or associated with cryoglobulinemia. The histological features of cryofibrinogenemia can confirm the presence of cryofibrinogen within small and medium arteries, plus occlusive thrombotic diathesis composed of eosinophilic refractile deposits within vessel lumina. Cryofibrinogenemia is a treatable and potentially reversible disease.In moderate forms, it can be treated by simply avoiding cold temperatures. The use of corticosteroids in association with low-dose aspirin is the treatment of choice for moderate forms, although stanozolol is an alternative maintenance therapy. Immunosuppressive therapies, plasmapheresis, and/or intravenous fibrinolysis are useful at treating severe forms of cryofibrinogenemia. The use of anticoagulants is limited to the management of thrombotic events. Treatment of secondary cryofibrinogenemia involves the management of associated diseases. Regular follow-ups are needed because of the high risk of recurrence. Moreover, up to half of patients with cryofibrinogenemia considered as essential may develop lymphomas in the following years. Compared with cryoglobulinemia, less is known about cryofibrinogenemia. Its diagnosis should be considered when suggestive clinical manifestations are present and when there are specific biopsy findings. Although identification of cryofibrinogen in blood samples is simple and inexpensive, cryofibrinogenemia can be asymptomatic, and a lack of diagnosis criteria can make diagnosis difficult to confirm. This review describes the clinical manifestations and the biological and pathological features and discusses the criteria used to diagnose and manage cryofibrinogenemia.