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Raynaud's disease and phenomenon [keywords]
- Effectiveness of calcium channel blockers for Raynaud phenomenon. [Journal Article, Meta-Analysis]
- Am Fam Physician 2014 Aug 1; 90(3):143-4.
- IgG4-related skin disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Dermatol 2014 Jul 26.
Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently established clinical entity characterized by high levels of circulating IgG4 and tissue infiltration of IgG4(+) plasma cells. IgG4-RD exhibits a distinctive fibro-inflammatory change involving multiple organs, such as pancreas, and salivary and lacrimal glands. The skin lesions of IgG4-RD have been poorly characterized and may stem from not only direct infiltration of plasma cells but also IgG4-mediated inflammation. Based on the documented cases together with ours, we categorized the skin lesions into seven subtypes: (1) cutaneous plasmacytosis (multiple papulonodules or indurations on the trunk and proximal part of limbs), (2) pseudolymphoma and angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (plaques and papulonodules mainly on the periauricular, cheek, and mandible regions), (3) Mikulicz's disease (palpebral swelling, sicca syndrome, and exophthalmos), (4) psoriasis-like eruption (strikingly mimicking psoriasis vulgaris), (5) unspecified maculopapular or erythematous eruptions, (6) hypergammaglobulinemic purpura (bilateral asymmetrical palpable purpuric lesions on the lower extremities) and urticarial vasculitis (prolonged urticarial lesions occasionally with purpura), and (7) ischemic digit (Raynaud's phenomenon and digital gangrene). It is considered that the subtypes (1)-(3) are induced by direct infiltration of IgG4(+) plasma cells, while the other (4)-(7) types are caused by the secondary mechanisms. IgG4-related skin disease is defined as IgG4(+) plasma cell-infiltrating skin lesions that form plaques, nodules or tumors (1-3), but may manifest secondary lesions caused by IgG4+ plasma cells and/or IgG4 (4-7). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Old medications and new targeted therapies in systemic sclerosis. [REVIEW]
- Rheumatology (Oxford) 2014 Jul 26.
SSc is a multiorgan disease with significant morbidity that is associated with poor health-related quality of life. Treatment of this condition is often organ based and non-curative. However, there are newer, potentially disease-modifying therapies available to treat certain aspects of the disease. This review focuses on old and new therapies in the management of SSc in clinical practice.
- Therapeutic potentials of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in cardiovascular disease. [Journal Article]
- Rev Cardiovasc Med 2014; 15(2):158-67.
Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and more recently for pulmonary arterial hypertension (World Health Organization functional class I). PDE5 inhibitors can induce vasodilation; in addition, through a complex pathway involving nitric oxide, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and protein kinase G, it can reduce apoptosis and suppress cell proliferation. The presence of PDE5 inhibitors in various tissues and systemic vasculature make them potential targets in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In many in vitro and in vivo studies, PDE5 inhibitors have been shown to have positive effects in systolic and diastolic congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. They also improved vasoconstriction in Raynaud phenomenon, peripheral artery disease, and hypoxic brain conditions. This article reviews the therapeutic potentials of PDE5 inhibitors in different cardiovascular diseases.
- [In Process Citation]. [Journal Article]
- MMW Fortschr Med 2014 Jun 12; 156(11):32.
- Combined use of ursodeoxycholic acid and bosentan prevents liver toxicity caused by endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan monotherapy: two case reports. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Med Case Rep 2014 Jul 11; 8(1):250.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a fatal disease characterized by progressive remodeling of the pulmonary arteries and an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. Up to 50% of patients with systemic sclerosis have pulmonary arterial hypertension, which significantly affects the prognosis. The endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan is used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and shows a great beneficial effect. However, the most frequent side effect of bosentan is liver toxicity, which often requires dose reduction and discontinuation.We report two cases (a 64-year-old Japanese woman and a 69-year old Japanese woman) of systemic sclerosis, both with severe Raynaud's phenomenon and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Both patients had initially received bosentan monotherapy, which caused liver toxicity as indicated by increased levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase. After dose reduction or discontinuation of bosentan, these liver function abnormalities were normalized and the patients subsequently received retreatment with a combination of bosentan and ursodeoxycholic acid. The results of liver function tests did not show any abnormalities after this combination therapy.These reports suggest the usefulness of ursodeoxycholic acid for preventing liver toxicity caused by bosentan. Thus, the addition of ursodeoxycholic acid to the treatment protocol is expected to be useful when liver toxicity emerges as a side effect of bosentan.
- Clinical and laboratory features of overlap syndromes of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, or rheumatoid arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Rheumatol 2014 Jul 4.
Because overlap syndromes (OSs) are rarely described, we analyzed retrospectively their frequencies and correlations in Brazilian series of 31 patients with dermatomyositis (DM)/polymyositis (PM) associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) attended at a referral single center. Myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs: anti-Jo-1, anti-PL-7, anti-PL-12, anti-EJ, anti-OJ, anti-SRP, anti-Mi-2) and myositis-associated autoantibodies (MAAs: anti-PM-Scl75, anti-PM-Scl100, anti-Ku) as well as specific autoantibodies related to SLE, SSc, and RA were investigated. The mean age of the OS patients (9 DM and 22 PM) was 44.6 ± 15.4 years, with a predominance of women (83.9 %) and white ethnicity (58.1 %). PM was the most frequent inflammatory myopathy, and the clinical presentation of DM/PM was significantly different among the OS groups. Overlap was found with SSc (48.4 %), SLE (29.0 %), and RA (22.6 %). The clinical manifestations of DM/PM were identified simultaneously with SSc and RA in the majority of cases, in contrast to identification in the SLE group (p < 0.05). All patients were positive for antinuclear antibodies, and the prevalence of MSA and MAA was 38.8 % in all OS groups, mutually exclusive, and more frequent in the SSc group. Comparing the clinical and laboratory features, there was a higher frequency of vascular (skin ulcers, Raynaud's phenomenon) and pulmonary (interstitial lung disease) involvement in the SSc group (p < 0.05). Moreover, there were no differences among the groups in relation to disease relapse and deaths. Concluding, this is the first study to show the different characteristics of a series of patients with connective tissue disease (CTD)-OS in the heterogeneous Brazilian population.
- Clinical Course, Prognosis, and Cause of Death in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- J Immunol Res 2014.:647507.
The aim of this retrospective, single-centre study was to investigate the clinical and laboratory features and disease outcomes of 547 patients diagnosed with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) between 1975 and 2010. The patients were followed up for 11.4 ± 6.2 years. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory features, and assessed their influence on the time of diagnosis, survival, and mortality ratios, and compared them within subgroups defined by gender, glandular and extraglandular manifestations (EGMs), associated diseases, and immunoserological abnormalities. The most frequent EGMs were polyarthritis, Raynaud's phenomenon, and vasculitis among our patients; the most common associated disease was thyroiditis. During the follow-up period, 51 patients died; the median survival time was 33.71 years. Our results revealed a negative effect of cryoglobulinemia on survival ratios; additionally, the presence of vasculitis and lymphoproliferative diseases at the time of diagnosis increased the risk of mortality. The development of vasculitis was the most powerful predictor of mortality. Mortality in the group of patients with extraglandular symptoms was two- to threefold higher than in the glandular group. Attention is drawn to the importance of close monitoring and targeted diagnostic approaches in those pSS subgroups with obviously increased mortality risk.
- Nailfold capillaroscopy in juvenile rheumatic diseases: known measures, patterns and indications. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Rheumatol 2014 Jun 6.
Nailfold capillaroscopy has become an established method in adults for the evaluation of structural abnormalities of the microcirculation associated with rheumatic disease. It is a cornerstone for the diagnostic work-up of patients with Raynaud's phenomenon and the early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis. However, this non-invasive examination may also be valuable in children and adolescents with rheumatic diseases. Based on the scarce data available, this review focuses on capillaroscopic findings in healthy children and adolescents as well as in children with juvenile systemic sclerosis, juvenile dermatomyositis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. In addition, it outlines the potential benefits and limitations of nailfold capillaroscopy for routine care in paediatric rheumatology.
- [Nail-fold capillaroscopy in dermatology.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Dermatol Venereol 2014 June - July; 141(6-7):429-437.
Nail-fold capillaroscopy is a non-invasive tool to study the microcirculation and is increasingly being used in dermatology, angiology and rheumatology. More recently, the use of video-capillaroscopy has allowed computer storage of capillaroscopic images (video-capillaroscopy), enabling evaluation of changes in capillaroscopic abnormalities during the follow-up of patients with systemic sclerosis or mixed connective tissue disease. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the nail-fold dermal capillaries and of their organization can readily distinguish between a normal capillaroscopic pattern in primary Raynaud phenomenon and a specific sclerodermic pattern in secondary Raynaud phenomenon carrying a very high risk of systemic sclerosis. Apart from its important role as a diagnostic tool for distinguishing between primary and secondary Raynaud phenomenon, capillaroscopy is now used to predict the risk of development of digital ulcers and of future visceral complications in patients with systemic sclerosis. Moreover, nail-fold capillaroscopy is essential for differential diagnosis between connective tissue diseases, for the etiologic diagnosis of digital necrosis and diffuse interstitial lung disease, and in sclerodermiform syndromes.