Rectal Prolapse [keywords]
- [Incontinence - Etiology, diagnostics and Therapy]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2016 Aug; 141(17):1251-60.
Fecal incontinence is defined by the unintentional loss of solid or liquid stool, and anal incontinence includes leakage of gas and / or fecal incontinence. Anal-fecal incontinence is not a diagnosis but a symptom. Many patients hide the problem from their families, friends, and even their doctors. Epidemiologic studies indicate a prevalence between 7-15 %, up to 30 % in hospitals and up to 70 % in longterm care settings. Anal-fecal incontinence causes a significant socio-economic burden. There is no widely accepted approach for classifying anal-fecal incontinence available. Anal-fecal continence is maintained by anatomical factors, rectoanal sensation, and rectal compliance. The diagnostic approach comprises muscle and nerve injuries by iatrogenic, obstetric or surgical trauma, descending pelvic floor or associated diseases. A basic diagnostic workup is sufficient to characterize the different manifestations of fecal incontinence in most of the cases. This includes patient history with a daily stool protocol and digital rectal investigation. Additional investigations may include anorectal manometry, anal sphincter EMG, conduction velocity of the pudendal nerve, needle EMG, barostat investigation, defecography and the dynamic MRI. Therapeutic interventions are focused on the individual symptoms and should be provided in close cooperation with gastroenterologists, surgeons, gynecologists, urologists, physiotherapeutics and psychologists (nutritional-training, food fibre content, pharmacological treatment of diarrhea/constipation, toilet training, pelvic floor gymnastic, anal sphincter training, biofeedback). Surgical therapy includes the STARR operation for rectoanal prolapse and sacral nerve stimulation for chronic constipation and anal-fecal incontinence. Surgery should not be applied unless the diagnostic work-up is complete and all conservative treatment options failed.
- A standardized approach for the assessment and treatment of internationally adopted children with a previously repaired anorectal malformation (ARM). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Surg 2016 Aug 5.
A significant number of internationally adopted children have congenital birth defects. As a specialist center for colorectal diagnoses, we evaluate such children with an anorectal malformation (ARM) and have found that a significant number need a reoperation. Knowledge of the common complications following ARM surgery has led us to develop treatment algorithms for patients with unknown past medical and surgical history, a situation typically encountered in the adopted population.The results of investigations, indications, and rate of reoperation were assessed for adopted children with an ARM evaluated between 2014 and 2016.56 patients (28 males) were identified. 76.8% required reoperative surgery. Mislocation of the anus outside the sphincter complex was seen in 50% of males and 39.3% of females. Anal stricture, rectal prolapse, retained vaginal septum, and a strictured vaginal introitus were also common.The reoperative surgery rate in the internationally adopted child with an ARM is high. Complete, systematic evaluation of these children is required to identify complications following initial repair. Development of mechanisms to improve the primary surgical care these children receive is needed.
- Incarcerated gravid uterus through a rectal prolapse: First case report. [LETTER]
- Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016 Aug 12.
- [Efficacy of laparoscopic tunnel-like peri-anterior superior iliac spine suspension or combined with stapled transanal rectal resection in the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse with outlet obstruction constipation]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2016 Aug 25; 19(8):933-8.
To explore the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic tunnel-like peri-anterior superior iliac spine suspension(L-TASISS) or combined with stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) in the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) with outlet obstructive constipation (OOC).A total of 119 POP patients complicated with OOC( II( to IIII( stage evaluated by POP-Q) received L-TASISS or combined with STARR in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from August 2010 to January 2015. Clinical and follow-up data of these patients were analyzed retrospectively and compared before and after operation.Among 119 cases, 51 cases(42.9%) underwent L-TASISS alone, and 68 cases (57.1%) received L-TASISS combined with STARR. All the 119 patients were successfully operated without conversion to open surgery. The operation time was (67.8±10.9) minutes, the intra-operative blood loss was (10.3±3.8) ml, the indwelling catheter time was (3.6±1.1) days, and hospital stay was (5.1±1.8) days. One month after operation, abdominal wall pain or stress occurred in 15 cases, of whom 3 cases were improved by local block injection, 1 case by incision stitches release, the rest ameliorated spontaneously within 3 months after surgery. No potential ureterostenosis, hydroureterosis, internal iliac vascular thrombosis resulting from compression of the mesh and other complications related to the mesh were found. One year after operation, all the patients were followed up. The OOC remission rate was 78.2%(93/119), of whom 76 cases were satisfied and 17 patients were completely satisfied. One case(0.8%) with stress urinary incontinence did not improve. Fifteen cases(12.6%) with algopareunia or dyspareunia did not achieve remission, but there was no new algopareunia or dyspareunia case. Eleven patients (9.2%) presented recurrence of symptoms, of whom 9 cases(7.6%) complained of sensation of incomplete evacuation. Two cases(1.7%) were graded as POP-Q II(, and 1 case (0.8%) as POP-Q III( after surgery. Constipation Score of all the patients was 1.4±0.9 (compared to 7.8±3.6 preoperatively) according to Rome III( criteria. Enterocele occurred in 53 cases (44.5%) preoperatively corresponded with only 1 case (0.8%) after operation (χ(2)=64.77, P=0.000). One hundred and six cases (86.6%) with defecation difficulties and 87 cases (73.1%) with sensation of incomplete evacuation before operation were significantly improved after surgery, corresponding with 7(5.9%) and 9 (7.6%) symptomatic cases respectively (χ(2)=155.78, P=0.000). Three cases (2.5%) with preoperative fecal incontinence symptoms were improved after operation as well.The procedure of L-TASISS or combined with STARR for POP patients with OCC has good short-term efficacy, and is safe and feasible.
- Day case robotic ventral rectopexy compared with day case laparoscopic ventral rectopexy: a prospective study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Tech Coloproctol 2016 Aug 17.
Ventral rectopexy to the promontory has become one of the most strongly advocated surgical treatments for patients with full-thickness rectal prolapse and deep enterocele. Despite its challenges, laparoscopic ventral rectopexy with or without robotic assistance for selected patients can be performed with relatively minimal patient trauma thus creating the potential for same-day discharge. The aim of this prospective case-controlled study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and cost of day case robotic ventral rectopexy compared with routine day case laparoscopic ventral rectopexy.Between February 28, 2014 and March 3, 2015, 20 consecutive patients underwent day case laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for total rectal prolapse or deep enterocele at Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble. Patients were selected for day case surgery on the basis of motivation, favorable social circumstances, and general fitness. One out of every two patients underwent the robotic procedure (n = 10). Demographics, technical results, and costs were compared between both groups.Patients from both groups were comparable in terms of demographics and technical results. Patients operated on with the robot had significantly less pain (p = 0.045). Robotic rectopexy was associated with longer median operative time (94 vs 52.5 min, p < 0.001) and higher costs (9088 vs 3729 euros per procedure, p < 0.001) than laparoscopic rectopexy.Day case robotic ventral rectopexy is feasible and safe, but results in longer operative time and higher costs than classical laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for full-thickness rectal prolapse and enterocele.
- Perineal rectosigmoidectomy for incarcerated rectal prolapse (Altemeier's procedure). [Journal Article]
- Ulus Cerrahi Derg 2016; 32(3):217-20.
Perineal procedures have higher recurrence and lower mortality rates than abdominal alternatives for the treatment of rectal prolapse. Presence of incarceration and strangulation also influences treatment choice. Perineal rectosigmoidectomy is one of the treatment options in patients with incarceration and strangulation, with low mortality and acceptable recurrence rates. This operation can be performed especially to avoid general anesthesia in old patients with co-morbidities. We aimed to present perineal rectosigmoidectomy and diverting loop colostomy in a patient with neurological disability due to spinal trauma and incarcerated rectal prolapse.
- [Alloplastic material in prolapse surgery : Indications and postoperative outcome of ventral rectopexy]. [JOURNAL ARTICLE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT]
- Chirurg 2016 Aug 11.
In rectopexy the use of meshes provides stability by mechanical support as well as by the induction of scar formation; however, one of the problems of conventional methods of mesh rectopexy is that many patients postoperatively suffer from functional disorders, such as fecal incontinence and stool evacuation disorders. One reason is the damage of vegetative nerves following dorsal and lateral mobilization of the rectum, which is required for positioning of the mesh. In 2004 D'Hoore and Penninckx first described the method of ventral rectopexy, a new technique of mesh rectopexy which allows preservation of the autonomic nerves.Does ventral rectopexy provide advantages regarding functional outcome, complications and recurrence rates?A search was carried out in the databases PubMed and Medline for studies on ventral rectoplexy. Presentation and analysis of the current state of relevant studies relating to ventral rectopexy.Ventral rectopexy is characterized by a low complication rate and good functional results in terms of improvement of incontinence, constipation and stool evacuation disorders. The indications for ventral rectopexy are considered in patients with external prolapse of the rectum. Also in a well-selected patient population internal prolapse, rectocele as well as enterocele accompanied by obstructive defecation syndrome represent relative indications for ventral rectopexy.In order to obtain a valid assessment of the value of this procedure it is crucial to improve the current lack of evidence (level 3) by prospective randomized studies that compare ventral rectopexy with other surgical techniques and nonsurgical treatment options.
- Modified MR defecography without rectal filling in obstructed defecation syndrome: Initial experience. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Radiol 2016 Sep; 85(9):1673-81.
To evaluate the role of dynamic MR defecography before rectal filling in detecting occult anterior compartment prolapse in patients with obstructed defecation.This prospective study was approved by the ethics committee. Seventy six females with obstructed defecation underwent dynamic MR defecography before and after rectal filling. Pre-rectal and post-rectal filling sequences were interpreted separately by two radiologists on two different settings with a time interval of one week. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's-matched-pairs signed rank test and t-test for matched pairs; differences were considered statistically significant at p<0.05.Fifty eight females of 76 showed additional anterior compartment derangement, with 27 diagnosed only in pre-rectal filling sequence (27/58=46.55%). Following rectal filling detected cystocele in 27 patients was not identified in 14 cases and downgraded in 13. Similarly, detected uterine prolapse in 17 patients was not visualized in 14 patients and downgraded in 3. Furthermore, rectocele was identified in 7 cases before gel enema, additional 32 detected after rectal filling. Significant statistical difference in the detection of both cystocele (p=0.0001) and uterine prolapse (p=0.0013) was identified in the non-filled sequence.Pelvic floor imaging before rectal filling is significantly better for detection of anterior compartment prolapse.
- Learning curves and surgical outcomes for proctored adoption of laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy: cumulative sum curve analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Endosc 2016 Aug 5.
Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy (VMR) is an effective and well-recognised treatment for symptoms of obstructive defecation in the context of rectal prolapse and recto-rectal intussusception. However, due to the technical complexity of VMR, a significant learning curve has been previously described. This paper examines the effect of proctored adoption of VMR on learning curves, operative times, and outcomes.A retrospective database analysis of two district general hospitals was conducted, with inclusion of all cases performed by two surgeons since first adoption of the procedure in 2007-2015. Operative time, length of stay, and in-hospital complications were evaluated, with learning curves assessed using cumulative sum curves.Three hundred and eleven patients underwent VMR during the study period and were included for analysis. Patients were near-equally distributed between surgeons (surgeon A: n = 151, surgeon B, n = 160) with no significant differences between gender, age, or ASA grade. In-hospital morbidity was 3.2 %, with 0 % mortality. Cumulative sum curve analysis suggested a change point of between 25 and 30 cases based on operative times and length of stay and was similar between both surgeons. No significant change point was seen for morbidity or mortality.VMR is an effective and safe treatment for rectal prolapse. Surgeons in this study were proctored during the adoption process by another surgeon experienced in VMR; this may contribute to increased safety and abbreviated learning curve. In the context of proctored adoption, this study estimates a learning curve of 25-30 cases, without detrimental impact on patient outcomes.
- Mesenteric Arteriovenous Dysplasia/Vasculopathy Is Distinct From Fibromuscular Dysplasia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Surg Pathol 2016 Aug 2.
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a noninflammatory, nonatherosclerotic vasculopathy that usually affects the carotid and renal arteries. We have observed FMD-like vascular changes in specimens resected for ischemia or Crohn's disease (CD). On the basis of a systematic clinicopathologic review of these 11 cases identified between 1982 and 2014, we describe a distinct mesenteric vasculopathy that involves both arteries and veins [mesenteric arteriovenous dysplasia/vasculopathy (MAVD/V)] and is characterized by (1) concentric/eccentric smooth muscle collarette around the tunica media of both the artery and the vein in ≥2 foci, (2) varying degrees of intimal and medial hyperplasia and adventitial fibrosis, and (3) lack of inflammation or thrombi. MAVD/V cases were clinically diagnosed as CD (45%), mass/lesion (27%), ischemia (9%), obstruction (9%), or rectal prolapse (9%). Abdominal pain for >1 year was the most common symptom. Most patients were women (M:F=1:2.7; mean age, 63 y). Mucosal changes mimicking CD, such as architectural distortion (55%), multifocal ulcers (73%), and pyloric gland metaplasia (64%), were common; however, no granulomas or transmural lymphoid aggregates were identified. Ischemic pattern of injury was seen in 4 cases. Upon follow-up (mean, 31.2 mo), 8 patients were found to be asymptomatic, 2 had died of unrelated causes, and 1 was lost to follow-up. We propose the name MAVD/V for a distinct noninflammatory, nonatherosclerotic, localized form of mesenteric vasculopathy that involves both arteries and veins, distinct from FMD. Unlike FMD, surgical resection appears to be curative, with a favorable clinical outcome. Awareness of this vascular entity is important as patients may be potentially misdiagnosed as having CD and ischemic bowel disease.