Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Rectal Prolapse [keywords]
- Perineal sigmoidopexy utilizing transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to treat full thickness rectal prolapse: a feasibility trial in porcine and human cadaver models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Endosc 2014 Jul 25.
Perineal approaches for rectal prolapse repair have low complication rates but high recurrence rates, while abdominal approaches that include sigmoidopexy have lower recurrence rates but higher complication rates. To optimize both recurrence and complication rates, we developed a novel procedure that uses transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to perform a sigmoidopexy via a perineal approach.We created a rectal prolapse model in six swine and two human cadavers using a previously published technique. The rectum was mobilized and eviscerated transanally. After marking the planned point of sigmoid transection, the rectum was returned to the peritoneal cavity. A TEM proctoscope was inserted transanally alongside the rectum, and the lateral sigmoid colon walls were sutured to the sacrum. The sigmoid colon was then transected where previously planned, and a primary sigmoid anastomosis was performed. Total operative time, sigmoidopexy operative time, and suture security were measured and compared to standard rectosigmoidectomy and abdominal sigmoidopexy times.No sigmoid colon, iliac vessel, bladder, or ureteral injuries occurred. At least two sigmoidopexy sutures were secure on inspection in all animals and human cadavers, with increasing success of secure suture placement as experience increased. Operative length was similar to traditional abdominal sigmoidopexy.TEM sigmoidopexy is technically feasible. This approach has the potential to reduce the recurrence rate associated with perineal approaches alone, but further study is needed to confirm this hypothesis.
- Surgical treatments for rectal prolapse: how does a perineal approach compare in the laparoscopic era? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Endosc 2014 Jul 23.
Patients with rectal prolapse often have significant comorbidities that lead surgeons to select a perineal resection for treatment despite a reported higher recurrence rate over abdominal approaches. There is a lack of data to support this practice in the laparoscopic era. The objective of this study was to evaluate if risk-adjusted morbidity of perineal surgery for rectal prolapse is actually lower than laparoscopic surgery.A retrospective review of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database as performed for patients undergoing surgical treatment of rectal prolapse between 2005 and 2011. Outcomes were analyzed according to procedure-type: laparoscopic rectopexy (LR), laparoscopic resection/rectopexy (LRR), open rectopexy (OR), open resection/rectopexy (ORR), and perineal resection (PR). A multivariate logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted morbidity and mortality between each procedure. Main outcome measures were 30-day morbidity and mortality.Among 3,254 cases sampled, a laparoscopic approach was used in 22 %, an open abdominal approach in 30 %, and PR in 48 %. Patients undergoing PR were older (76) and had a higher ASA (3) compared to laparoscopic (58, 2) and open abdominal procedures (58, 2). Risk-adjusted mortality could not be assessed due to a low overall incidence of mortality (0.01 %). Overall morbidity was 9.3 %. ORR was associated with a higher risk-adjusted morbidity compared to PR (OR: 1.89 CI (1.19-2.99), p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in risk-adjusted morbidity found between LR and LRR compared to PR (OR 0.44 CI (0.19-1.03), p = 0.18; OR 1.55 CI (0.86-2.77), p = 0.18). Laparoscopic cases averaged 27 min longer than open cases (p < 0.001).Laparoscopic rectal prolapse surgery has comparable morbidity and mortality to perineal surgery. A randomized trial is indicated to validate these findings and to assess recurrence rates and functional outcomes.
- Laparoscopic ventral rectopexy in an elderly population with external rectal prolapse: clinical and anal manometric results. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Colorectal Dis 2014 Jul 18.
We report the clinical and anal manometric results of elderly patients treated with laparoscopic ventral rectopexy (LVR) for full-thickness rectal prolapse.From March 2009 to June 2012, patients were consecutively included. A modified laparoscopic Orr-Loygue procedure with posterior mobilisation was used. The patients were evaluated preoperatively, 2 months postoperatively and after 1 year. We registered Wexner incontinence scores and laxative uses by a questionnaire and performed simple anal manometry.A total of 46 patients underwent operation, all women. The median age was 83 years (range 34-99), median prolapse size was 8 cm (range 2-15), and 30 % had previous prolapse surgery. The median operative time was 135 min (range 90-215), and the median length of stay was 2 days (range 1-14). The 30-day morbidity rate was 15 %, and there were two (4 %) deaths within 30 days. There was a significant reduction in incontinence scores after 2 months and 1 year. The anal resting pressures improved from 10 cm H2O slightly to 16 cm H2O after 2 months, significantly, and still significant after 1 year at 13 cm H2O. There were no changes in the use of laxatives. The median follow-up time was 1.5 years (range 0.5-3), and there were two prolapse recurrences (4 %) in this period.Laparoscopic ventral rectopexy with posterior mobilisation seems to be effective and relatively well tolerated, although not without mortality in elderly debilitated patients. It improves incontinence. With increased life-year expectance, these patients may benefit from a lower risk of recurrence compared with perineal procedures.
- [Rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome: study of cases. Hospital Daniel A Carrion, Lima, Peru, 2010-2013]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Gastroenterol Peru 2014 Apr-Jun; 34(2):133-7.
Objective:to describe the clinical, endoscopic, and histological characteristics of rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome, formerly known as Solitary rectal ulcer, in patients from a general hospital. Material and methods: All patient diagnosed as rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome during 2010-2013 was selected; the medical history war reviewed and the histological slides were reevaluated by two pathologists.
Results:17 cases of rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome were selected, the majority were males under 50 years, the most common clinical findings were rectal bleeding (82%) and constipation (65%), the endocopic findings were heterogeneous,: erythema (41%), ulcers (35%) and elevated lesions (29%). All cases presented fibromuscularhyperplasia in lamina propia and crypt distortion in the microscopic evaluation.
Conclusion:In our study of rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome. The most common clinical findings were rectal bleeding and constipation. Erythematous mucosa was the most common endoscopic finding.
- Asymptomatic intraperitoneal ascariasis: Importance of diagnostic laparoscopy. [Journal Article]
- J Minim Access Surg 2014 Jul; 10(3):157-8.
Migration of Ascaris from intestine into peritoneal cavity is rare and usually presents as acute abdomen. We report a case of 41-year-old male who was admitted for laparoscopic mesh rectopexy for rectal prolapse. During the initial laparoscopy, purulent fluid was seen in pelvis. A complete diagnostic laparoscopy was done. An omental nodule was found, which was excised and extracted in a bag. On histopathology, the omental nodule revealed gravid Ascaris lumbricoides.
- Single-incision laparoscopic rectopexy (Wells) with simultaneous sigmoidectomy in a case of complete rectal prolapse and a sigmoid tumor: report of a case. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Today 2014 Jul 8.
Recently, the technique of single-incision laparoscopic surgery for colorectal disease has rapidly disseminated in association with improvements in instrumentation and procedures, offering a less invasive procedure and excellent cosmetic results. We herein present the case of a 74-year-old female who suffered complete rectal prolapse with a pedunculated polyp (20 mm) in the sigmoid colon; the stalk of the polyp was too thick to perform endoscopic mucosal resection, which is associated with a high risk of bleeding. The patient was successfully managed using single-incision laparoscopic rectopexy (Wells) with simultaneous sigmoidectomy, a procedure that has not been reported in the literature to date. There were no perioperative complications. The patient's constipation caused by the rectal prolapse improved, and no recurrence was observed for 2 months after the operation. This case emphasizes that complete rectal prolapse is a benign disease occurring in elderly patients that is well suited to treatment with minimally invasive single-incision laparoscopic surgery.
- Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes after Abdominal Rectopexy and Delorme's Procedure for Rectal Prolapse: A Prospective Study. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2014 May; 8(5):NC04-7.
Background:Complete rectal prolapse is characterized by protrusion of full thickness rectal wall through the anal orifice. Despite its rarity more than 100 surgical procedures have been described and there are no good evidence based recommendations for selection of a surgical procedure. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical outcomes of commonly used procedures for rectal prolapse at our hospital. Materials and
Methods:Twenty seven patients presenting with complete rectal prolapse between May 2011 to May 2013 were included in this prospective study. Patients underwent either Abdominal rectopexy or Delorme's procedure after evaluation, based on clinical judgment of experienced surgeons. Patient characteristics, complications, post-operative length of hospitalization and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients were followed up for a mean duration of 14 months.
Results:Seventeen patients underwent Abdominal rectopexy (Posterior mesh rectopexy), ten patients underwent Delorme's procedure. No postoperative mortalities or major complications were noted. Post operative morbidity (minor) was 17% in Abdominal rectopexy group and 10% in Delormes group 0%. Incontinence improved in all six patients (100%) in rectopexy group, four patients (80%) in Delorme's procedure group. Two patients (11%) in rectopexy group reported increase in constipation post operatively. There was one recurrence in Delorme's procedure group with no recurrences in Abdominal rectopexy group.
Conclusion:The treatment of rectal prolapse should be individualized to achieve best results. Abdominal rectopexy can be safely applied in most of patients with minimal post operative increase in constipation and recurrence by using posterior mesh rectopexy technique. Delorme's procedure can be performed with minimal morbidity and shorter hospital stay and good functional results with acceptable recurrence rate. Delorme's can be considered as an alternative to rectopexy not only in patients unfit for laparotomy but also in individuals with a short prolpase, avoiding a laparotomy.
- Rectopexy for paediatric rectal prolapse: good outcomes but not without postoperative problems. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Surg Int 2014 Jul 3.
Rectopexy is a simple treatment of persisting complete rectal prolapse (RP) or related functional disorders in children. The results of rectopexy have been encouraging with few complications. We describe the postoperative complications and outcome of rectopexy in our institution from 2002 to 2013.Ethical committee accepted the study. Hospital records of 27 successive patients (16 males), median age 7.2 (range 2.8-17) years, who underwent rectopexy (25 laparoscopic, 2 open) were reviewed. Indication for rectopexy included RP (n = 24), solitary rectal ulcer with enterocele (n = 2) and rectocele (n = 1). Nine patients (39 %) were healthy. In the remaining 14 patients, RP was secondary to anorectal malformation (n = 2), bladder exstrophy (n = 1), sacrococcygeal teratoma (n = 1) and myelomeningocele (n = 1) or associated with mental retardation (n = 8) and Asperger's syndrome (n = 1). Five (18 %) patients had constipation. Unexpected postoperative events and complications were rated by Clavien-Dindo classification (Grades I-V).Seventeen (61 %) patients had postoperative complications (Grade I n = 5, II n = 2 and III n = 7). Readmission was required in 11 (41 %) and reoperation, endoscopy or other surgical procedure in 9 (33 %) patients. Complications included severe faecal obstruction (n = 2), constipation (n = 3), faecal soiling (n = 1) urinary retention (n = 2), enuresis (n = 1), infection (n = 2), residual mucosal prolapse (n = 5), discomfort at defecation (n = 1) and recurrent RP (n = 2). Reoperations included sigmoid resection with re-rectopexy (n = 1), resection of mucosal prolapse (n = 1), suprapubic urinary catheter (n = 2), evacuation of faecal impaction (n = 2), colonoscopy (n = 3), appendicostomy for antegrade continence enema (n = 1). Mental retardation or behavioural disorder increased the risk of postoperative faecal obstruction and constipation RR = 84 (95 % CI 4.3-1600), p = 0.0035. After median follow-up of 4.1 (range 0.6-11) years RP or related condition was cured in 26 patients. Constipation and faecal soiling require management in a total of seven patients.Long-term results of rectopexy were good. Postoperative complications from mild to moderate grade were unexpectedly frequent. Preoperative neurobehavioural disorder and constipation increase the risk of postoperative problems and should be mentioned in patient counselling.
- Classification and management of rectal prolapse after anorectoplasty for anorectal malformations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Surg Int 2014 Jun 27.
To suggest a classification, describe the risk factors and management of rectal prolapse after anorectoplasty for anorectal malformations (ARMs).We classified prolapse as minimal (rectal mucosa visible with Valsalva manoeuvre), moderate (prolapse <5 mm without Valsalva), evident (>5 mm without Valsalva) and compared patients with and without prolapse within our ARM-population.Among 150 patients, 40 (27 %) developed prolapse: 25 minimal, 6 moderate, 9 evident. Prolapse affected 33 % of males (9 % of perineal fistulas, 38 % of bulbar, 71 % of prostatic, 60 % of bladder neck and 13 % without fistula) and 21 % of females (9 % of perineal, 30 % of vestibular, 50 % of cloacas, and 25 % without fistula). Risk factors for prolapse were: tethered cord (40 vs 24 %), vertebral anomalies (39 vs 24 %), laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty (LAARP) (75 vs 25 %), and colostomy at birth (49 vs 9 %). Redo anorectoplasty was not associated with prolapse. Symptoms were present in 11 patients (28 %): in 7 % with minimal, 33 % with moderate and 77 % with evident prolapse. Nine patients (2 moderate, 7 evident) underwent surgical correction.Severe ARMs, tethered cord, vertebral anomalies, colostomy, and LAARP predispose to rectal prolapse. Classifying prolapse allows to predict symptoms and need for surgical correction, and to compare outcomes among different centers.