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Rectal Prolapse [keywords]
- Sacral colpopexy: long-term mesh complications requiring reoperation(s). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Urogynecol J 2014 Oct 17.
Sacral colpopexy (SC) is a classic procedure used for the surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. Although the procedure boasts excellent success rates, there are risks of complications and reoperation may be required. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of complications following SC, requiring reoperation(s), and to describe the reoperations performed.A retrospective monocentric study of patients who were operated on following a mesh complication after SC was conducted, at Lille University Hospital, between January 2007 and January 2013. Information relating to medical and surgical history, SC surgical technique, type of complication, and reoperation techniques was gathered.Twenty-seven patients required surgery for complications after SC. Nineteen patients were treated for vaginal mesh exposures (VME), four for intravesical mesh (including one with VME), one for ano-rectal dyschezia, one for spondylodiscitis with a VME, one for mesh infection, and one for vaginal fistula communicating with a collection in the ischio-coccygeal muscle. The median time between the initial SC and the first reoperation was 3.9 ± 5.7 years. The median operating time was 40 ± 95 min, and the length of hospital stay was 3.0 ± 3.0 days. Ten patients needed several interventions.This case series provides a description of surgical interventions for complications related to sacral colpopexy. These complications may be serious and occur years after the initial surgery.
- Case-matched series of a non-cross-linked biologic versus non-absorbable mesh in laparoscopic ventral rectopexy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Colorectal Dis 2014 Oct 15.
Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy (LVR) is an emerging technique for selected patients with rectal prolapse and obstructed defaecation syndrome. Data are insufficient to conclude which type of mesh affords the greatest benefit. Our aim was to compare the outcomes of LVR using a non-cross-linked biologic versus a permanent mesh.Twenty nine cases of LVR with permanent mesh were matched based on age and surgical indication with an equal number of patients using biologic mesh. Cases were retrospectively reviewed from a prospectively maintained database. Symptom resolution, patient satisfaction and recurrence of prolapse were measured among those who underwent LVR with either a biologic (Biodesign®, Cook Medical) or polypropylene mesh.Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, surgical indication and primary symptoms were not different between the two groups. After a median follow-up of 15.4 months, all patients reported being either completely or partially satisfied. Rates of complete or partial symptom resolution (p = 0.26) or satisfaction (p = 0.27) did not differ between groups. After LVR, similar rates of additional procedures were performed in the biologic (21 %) and the permanent (28 %) mesh group. Among patients with full-thickness prolapse (n = 33), there were five cases (15 %) of recurrence, one in the biologic group and four in the permanent mesh group (p = 0.37). There were no mesh-related complications in either group.LVR using a non-cross-linked biologic mesh appears to have comparable rates of symptom improvement and patient satisfaction in the short term. Longer follow-up will be required to determine if prolapse recurrence depends on mesh type.
An 83-year-old woman underwent an elective perineal proctosigmoidectomy (Altemeier procedure) for a rectal prolapse. On postoperative day 1, the patient presented with impressive subcutaneous emphysema involving the chest, neck and face without any other symptoms. A CT scan showed free air in the retroperitoneum, the intraperitoneal cavity, the mediastinum and a subcutaneous emphysema of the neck and the face. Air was also found around the coloanal anastomosis and an anastomotic leak was proven by rectal contrast agent. In this situation, a rectoscopy followed by a laparoscopy were immediately performed. The leak could not be visualised. Peritoneal lavage and drainage, followed by protective sigmoidostomy were carried out. After surgery, the follow-up was uneventful except a persistent but asymptomatic leak with a presacral cavity. The coloanal dehiscence was later proven in rectoscopy. Although sutured, it is still present and colostomy closure will eventually be possible in a few months.
- Perineal rectosigmoidectomy for rectal prolapse. [Journal Article]
- Int J Surg 2013 Oct; 11(8):622.
- Apex technique in the treatment of obstructed defecation syndrome associated with rectal intussusception and full rectal mucosa prolapse. [Journal Article]
- Dis Colon Rectum 2014 Nov; 57(11):1324-8.
The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the use of a modified stapling technique, called the apex technique, to treat rectal intussusception and full rectal mucosal prolapse. It was conducted as a retrospective study at 3 centers (2 in Brazil and 1 in Chile).The apex technique is performed by using a HEM/EEA-33 stapler. A pursestring suture is placed at the apex of the prolapse, on the 4 quadrants, independent of the distance to the dentate line. A second pursestring is then placed to define the band of rectal mucosa to be symmetrically resected.Outcome measures included width of the resected full-thickness rectal wall; the intensity of postoperative pain on a visual analog scale from 1 to 10; full mucosal prolapse and rectal intussusception assessed by physical examination, cinedefecography, or echodefecography; and change in the constipation scale.Forty-five patients (30 women/15 men; mean age, 59.5 years) with rectal intussusception and full mucosal prolapse were included. The median operative time was 17 (range, 15-30) minutes. Bleeding after stapler fire requiring manual suture occurred in 3 patients (6.7%); 25 (55.6%) patients reported having no postoperative pain. Hospital stay was 24 hours. The mean width of the resected rectal wall was 5.9 (range, 5.0-7.5) cm. Stricture at the staple line was seen in 4 patients, of whom 1 required dilation under anesthesia. The median follow-up time was 120 (range, 90-120) days. A small residual prolapse was identified in 6 (13.3%) patients. Imaging demonstrated complete disappearance of rectal intussusception in all patients, and the mean postoperative constipation score decreased from 13 (range, 8-15) to 5 (range, 3-7).The apex technique appears to be a safe, quickly performed, and low-cost method for the treatment of rectal intussusception. In this series, imaging examinations showed the disappearance of rectal intussusception, and a significant decrease in constipation score suggested improvement in functional outcomes.
- Clinical outcomes of perineal proctectomy among patients of advanced age. [Journal Article]
- Dis Colon Rectum 2014 Nov; 57(11):1298-303.
Rectal prolapse occurs primarily in older patients who often have significant comorbidities. With the aging population, increasing numbers of elderly patients are presenting with rectal prolapse. The perineal approach is preferred for these patients because it involves less perioperative risk than an abdominal procedure, but the outcomes of this procedure in elderly patients are unknown.The aim of this study was to examine whether clinical outcomes after perineal proctectomy are similar among elderly patients versus patients of younger age.This study was a retrospective review.This study was conducted in mixed academic and private practice; the operations were performed at 16 hospitals.Patients who had perineal proctectomy for rectal prolapse from 1994 to 2012 were grouped according to age: <70 (group A), 70 to 79 (group B), 80 to 89 (group C), and ≥90 years (group D).Perineal proctectomy with or without concurrent levatorplasty was performed.The primary outcomes measured were postoperative complications, recurrence, and survival after perineal proctectomy.Four hundred patients underwent 518 perineal proctectomies: group A, N = 113; group B, N = 113; group C, N = 208; and group D, N = 84. The immediate and late complication rates were 5.6% and 3.5% and did not vary by age. Recurrence was 22.6% and was significantly different between groups, with the lowest recurrence in group D, 14.3% (p = 0.007). Reoperation after recurrence was less likely in group D. The main type of reoperation was perineal proctectomy (41.5%), but, for group D, recurrence was usually managed nonoperatively (58.3%). Median survival after operation was more than 4 years in the advanced age group.Retrospective data, which did not allow analysis of patients with rectal prolapse who did not undergo surgery, were used in this study.When selected appropriately, patients 90 years of age or older have outcomes similar to younger patients; therefore, age alone should not be a contraindication to surgery. In addition, elderly patients have a median survival of more than 4 years after surgery, so the operative risk can be worth the benefit accrued.
- Effective treatment of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome using argon plasma coagulation. [Journal Article]
- Prz Gastroenterol 2014; 9(4):249-53.
Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a chronic, multiform, non-cancerous disorder of the rectum, the final diagnosis of which is based upon histopathological criteria. This disorder is often accompanied by latent proctoptosis. We present a patient who (in 1996) was the first case in which argon plasma coagulation (APC) was used for SRUS treatment. In the years 2004-2005 the same patient underwent 15 APC sessions (at monthly intervals) obtaining full recovery from SRUS, although she had been treated unsuccessfully for 17 years prior to that. Six-year observation did not show any relapse. Local therapy with APC seems to be an important alternative in SRUS treatment without prolapse of the rectum and could become a basic method for bleeding treatment in SRUS.
- The value of fluoroscopic defecography in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of defecation disorders in children. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Radiol 2014 Sep 30.
Defecography is a study to assess anorectal function during evacuation.To investigate the value of fluoroscopic defecography in directing diagnostic and therapeutic management in children with defecation disorders.We reviewed all fluoroscopic defecography studies performed (2003-2009) in children with defecation problems and normal anorectal motility studies. Results were classified into three groups: (1) normal pelvic floor function; (2) pelvic floor dyssynergia, including incomplete relaxation of pelvic musculature, inconsistent change in anorectal angle and incomplete voluntary evacuation; (3) structural abnormality, including excessive pelvic floor descent with an intra-rectal intussusception, rectocele or rectal prolapse.We included 18 patients (13 boys, median age 9.1 years). Indication for fluoroscopic defecography was chronic constipation in 56%, fecal incontinence in 22% and rectal prolapse in 22%. Defecography showed pelvic floor dyssynergia in 9 children (50%), a structural abnormality in 4 (22%) and normal pelvic floor function in 5 (28%). In 12 children (67%) the outcome of fluoroscopic defecography directly influenced therapeutic management. After defecography 4 children (22%) were referred for anorectal biofeedback treatment, 4 children (22%) for surgery, 2 children (11%) for additional MR defecography, and 1 child to the psychology department, and medication was changed in 1 child. In 6 children (33%) the result did not change the management. In 9 children (75%) the change of management was successful.Fluoroscopic defecography can be a useful tool in understanding the pathophysiology and it may provide information that impacts management of children with refractory defecation disorders.
- Doppler-guided ligation of hemorrhoidal arteries with mucopexy: A technique for the future. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Visc Surg 2014 Sep 24.
The transanal hemorrhoidal de-arterialization (THD) procedure is an effective treatment of hemorrhoidal disease. The ligation of hemorrhoidal arteries ("de-arterialization") can provide a significant reduction of arterial blood flow to the hemorrhoidal tissues. Plication of redundant rectal mucosa/submucosa ("mucopexy") can reposition prolapsing tissue to its original anatomical site. In this paper the surgical technique using a specific device (THD(®) Doppler) and peri-operative patient management are illustrated.After appropriate clinical assessment, patients undergo the THD procedure under general or spinal anesthesia, in either the dorsal lithotomy or prone jackknife position. A specifically designed device is used. In all patients, THD is performed, consisting of selective ligation of hemorrhoidal arteries identified by Doppler and marked with a mucosal stitch overlying the artery. In patients with hemorrhoidal or mucosal prolapse, a mucopexy is also performed using continuous suture(s) that include the redundant prolapsing mucosa and submucosa.In long-term follow-up, THD results in resolution of symptoms in the majority of patients. The most common complication is transient but sometimes-painful tenesmus. Rectal bleeding occurs in only a very limited number of patients. There is little or no risk of fecal incontinence or chronic pain. Ano-rectal manometry and endo-anal ultrasound show no evidence of injury to physiologic sphincteric function.THD is a safe procedure and is, at present, one of the most effective treatments of hemorrhoidal disease.
- Mesh-related and intraoperative complications of pelvic organ prolapse repair. [Journal Article]
- Cent European J Urol 2014; 67(3):296-301.
To evaluate the rates of complications of pelvic organ prolapse repair and to determine their risk factors.The study included 677 patients operated for pelvic organ prolapse with trocar guided Prolift mesh. Patients were followed up within 1 and 3 months. A phone interview was conducted and patients with complaints were invited and evaluated in office settings.Mean age was 60 years. For the phone interview, 86.5% of patients were available. Overall complication rates were 22.5% (152/677). Fifteen patients (2.2%) developed bleeding over 500 cc; pelvic hematomas - 5.5%; perineal hematomas - 2.5%; urethral injuries - 0.3%; bladder injury in 1.6%; rectal damage in 0.7% and ureteral trauma in 0.2%. MESH RELATED COMPLICATIONS INCLUDED: erosions in 4.8%; vaginal synechiae - 0.3%; protrusion of mesh into the bladder - 0.15%; vesicovaginal fistula with mesh protrusion - 0.3%; mesh shrinkage - 1%; dyspareunia and pain in 2.4% cases. Pelvic abscess was found in 0.6% including one case of lethal necrotizing fasciitis. The risk factors of complications were assessed via logistic regression analysis.Younger age, less prominent prolapse, hematomas and concomitant hysterectomies are associated with higher risk of complications.