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Renal AND Proteinuria [keywords]
- An Update on Coronary Artery Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease. [REVIEW]
- Int J Nephrol 2014.:767424.
Despite the improvements in diagnostic tools and medical applications, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially coronary artery disease (CAD), remain the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The main factors for the heightened risk in this population, beside advanced age and a high proportion of diabetes and hypertension, are malnutrition, chronic inflammation, accelerated atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, coronary artery calcification, left ventricular structural and functional abnormalities, and bone mineral disorders. Chronic kidney disease is now recognized as an independent risk factor for CAD. In community-based studies, decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria were both found to be independently associated with CAD. This paper will discuss classical and recent epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, and clinical aspects of CAD in CKD patients.
- The role of albuminuria in the follow-up of HIV-infected pediatric patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Nephrol 2014 Apr 16.
In HIV-infected adults, elevated albumin has been associated with increased inflammatory activity, HIV-related nephropathy, and type 2 diabetes. Data on albuminuria in HIV-infected children are very scarce, and guidelines do not include routine determination of urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in this population.We performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of HIV-infected pediatric patients. Urinary protein/creatinine and albumin/creatinine ratios and hematuria were determined from at least three morning urine samples, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from creatinine levels. Persistent renal damage was defined according to the presence of at least two sequentially abnormal values in one of the parameters. The relationship between renal damage, HIV-related variables, and metabolic comorbidities (dyslipidemia, fat redistribution, glucose intolerance, hypertension) was investigated.Symptom-free renal damage was observed in 13 of 68 patients (19.1 %) and mainly consisted of persistent proteinuria (17.6 %); glomerular proteinuria was twice as prevalent as tubular proteinuria. GFR were normal in all cases. No relationship between renal markers and HIV-related variables or metabolic comorbidities was observed.Mild proteinuria affected approximately one fifth of patients in our cohort. The determination of albuminuria allowed the differentiation between glomerular and tubular proteinuria, although no relationship with metabolic comorbidities was observed.
- Renal involvement in non-hodgkin lymphoma: proven by renal biopsy. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(4):e95190.
To determine the spectrum of renal lesions in patients with kidney involvement in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) by renal biopsy.The clinical features and histological findings at the time of the renal biopsy were assessed for each patient.We identified 20 patients with NHL and renal involvement, and the diagnosis of NHL was established following the kidney biopsy in 18 (90%) patients. The types of NHL include the following: chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (n = 8), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 4), T/NK cell lymphoma (n = 3), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (n = 2), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (n = 1), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (n = 1) and mantle cell lymphoma (n = 1). All presented with proteinuria, and 15 patients had impaired renal function. The pathological findings included (1) membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis-like pattern in seven patients; (2) crescent glomerulonephritis in four; (3) minimal-change disease in three, and glomeruli without specific pathological abnormalities in three; (4) intraglomerular large B-cell lymphoma in one; (5) intracapillary monoclonal IgM deposits in one; (6) primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the kidneys in one; and (7) lymphoma infiltration of the kidney in eight patients.A wide spectrum of renal lesions can be observed in patients with NHL, and NHL may be first proven by renal biopsies for evaluation of kidney injury or proteinuria. Renal biopsy is necessary to establish the underlying cause of renal involvement in NHL.
- Association Between Urinary Sodium, Creatinine, Albumin, and Long-Term Survival in Chronic Kidney Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hypertension 2014 Apr 14.
Dietary sodium intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk in the general population. In patients with chronic kidney disease, sodium intake has been associated with progressive renal disease, but not independently of proteinuria. We studied the relationship between urinary sodium (UNa) excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio and mortality or requirement for renal replacement therapy in chronic kidney disease. Adult patients attending a renal clinic who had ≥1 24-hour UNa measurement were identified. Twenty-four-hour UNa measures were collected and UNa to creatinine ratio calculated. Time to renal replacement therapy or death was recorded. Four hundred twenty-three patients were identified with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 48 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Ninety patients required renal replacement therapy and 102 patients died. Mean slope decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was -2.8 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) per year. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. Patients who died or required renal replacement therapy had significantly higher UNa excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio, but the association with these parameters and poor outcome was not independent of renal function, age, and albuminuria. When stratified by albuminuria, UNa to creatinine ratio was a significant cumulative additional risk for mortality, even in patients with low-level albuminuria. There was no association between low UNa and risk, as observed in some studies. This study demonstrates an association between UNa excretion and mortality in chronic kidney disease, with a cumulative relationship between sodium excretion, albuminuria, and reduced survival. These data support reducing dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease, but additional study is required to determine the target sodium intake.
- The Impact of Blood Pressure on Kidney Function in the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Kidney Blood Press Res 2014 Apr 9; 38(2-3):205-216.
Background/Aims: Intensive blood pressure (BP) target decreases blood perfusion of kidneys that attenuates the benefits of BP treatment in elderly hypertensive individuals. The optimal BP goal for renal function in the hypertensive elderly has been unclear. We investigated the impact of BP on renal function to define the appropriate BP target in the elderly. Methods: A total of 28,258 elderly subjects were categorized into normotensive (Norm), hypotensive (Hypo) and hypertensive (Hyper) groups according to BP levels. Systolic, diastolic and pulse BP (SBP, DBP and PBP) were further stratified by 10 mmHg. Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, uric acid, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal insufficiency prevalence (RIP) and proteinuria prevalence (PP) were compared among different groups and BP strata. The RIP and PP in the elderly with obesity, hyperlipidemia or diabetes in Norm, Hypo and Hyper groups were evaluated. Results: GFR in Hypo and Hyper groups was significantly lower than that in Norm group. The RIP and PP was higher in Hypo and Hyper groups than that in the Norm group. Proteinuria became more prevalent when SBP was >140 mmHg or <90 mmHg. DBP>80mmHg increased PP while DBP<70 mmHg increased RIP. PBP>60 mmHg led to an increased RIP and PP. Obesity or hyperlipidemia only combined with hypertension caused a significantly increased RIP and PP. Diabetes independent of hypertension contributed to higher RIP and PP. Conclusions: The most beneficial BP target for kidney function in the elderly may be SBP of 90-140 mmHg and DBP of 70-80 mmHg. PBP <60 mmHg may be appropriate. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Overflow proteinuria as a manifestation of unrecognized polymyositis. [Journal Article]
- Int Med Case Rep J 2014.:71-4.
Polymyositis is a rare and gradually progressive autoimmune disease of skeletal muscle. Two main types of renal involvement have been described: acute tubular necrosis related to rhabdomyolysis and glomerulonephritis. However, cases of overflow proteinuria related to polymyositis have rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of a 41-year-old male who presented with edema of both lower extremities. Laboratory studies revealed elevated creatine phosphokinase level, hypoalbuminemia, and a moderate amount of proteinuria, although albuminuria was not dominant. Urine electrophoresis showed an abnormally restricted zone in the β-fraction, which suggested overflow proteinuria of non-glomerular origin. Despite intravenous hydration, his serum creatine phosphokinase level did not decrease and his symptoms did not improve. Electromyography showed myopathy, and muscle biopsy revealed findings consistent with polymyositis. After corticosteroid therapy, his creatine phosphokinase level and proteinuria decreased and his clinical symptoms improved. This case demonstrates an atypical presentation of polymyositis manifested by overflow proteinuria.
- Comparison of renal response parameters for juvenile membranous plus proliferative lupus nephritis versus isolated proliferative lupus nephritis: a cross-sectional analysis of the CARRA Registry. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lupus 2014 Apr 11.
Lupus nephritis (LN) affects many patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is a significant cause of disease morbidity. Membranous plus proliferative LN (M + PLN) may represent a more difficult to treat subtype of juvenile LN, compared to isolated proliferative LN (PLN). In this retrospective observational study, we utilized data from the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatism Research Alliance (CARRA) registry to compare response rates for pediatric M + PLN versus PLN. Response was assessed at the most recent CARRA registry visit gathered ≥6 months after diagnostic kidney biopsy. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) less than 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2), indicating renal insufficiency, was found in 16.1% of patients with M + PLN and 6.1% of patients with PLN (P = 0.071). We found no significant difference in achievement of response in either hematuria or proteinuria between PLN and M + PLN groups or between subgroups determined by presence of class III vs. class IV proliferative disease. Exposure rates to mycophenolate, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab were similar between groups. Future studies will be necessary to correlate pediatric LN renal histology data with treatment response as well as other disease outcome measures.
- Disturbed circadian rhythm of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system: relevant to nocturnal hypertension and renal damage. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Nephrol 2014 Apr 12.
The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the development of hypertension and renal damage. Disruption of diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation is an additional risk factor for renal damage. However, little is known regarding whether intrarenal RAS circadian rhythm exists or if it influences the disruption of diurnal BP and renal damage.We investigated the circadian rhythm of urinary angiotensinogen (U-AGT) that reflects intrarenal RAS activity in 14 individuals without chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 36 CKD patients classified according to circadian BP rhythms.BP values were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime in both individuals without CKD and CKD patients. U-AGT levels were not different between the daytime and nighttime in individuals without CKD, but were significantly higher in the daytime in CKD patients (log U-AGT/creatinine: daytime, 2.39 ± 0.99; nighttime, 2.24 ± 1.06; p = 0.001). Furthermore, in CKD patients showing a riser pattern of circadian BP, U-AGT levels did not decrease during the nighttime compared with those in the daytime (log U-AGT/creatinine: daytime, 2.51 ± 0.65; nighttime, 2.52 ± 0.71; p = 0.78). Circadian fluctuation of albuminuria and proteinuria occurred parallel to that of the U-AGT levels. U-AGT levels were significantly and positively correlated with the levels of BP and circadian fluctuation of U-AGT was correlated with diurnal BP changes.These data suggest that the circadian rhythm of intrarenal RAS activation may lead to renal damage and hypertension, which are associated with diurnal BP variation.
- Comparison of laboratory findings in pa-tients with glomerulonephritis classified according to histopathologic diagnosis. [Journal Article]
- Minerva Med 2014 Apr; 105(2):149-56.
The aim of the present study was to assess whether laboratory investigations have predictional values for histopathological diagnosis of glomerulonephritis before performing renal biopsy.The study enrolled 452 patients, who underwent kidney biopsy and were examined retrospectively; 128 patients with the histopathological diagnosis of glomerulonephritis were included in the study. Serum CRP, albumin, uric acid levels, 24 hour urine protein presence, leucocyte count, C3, C4, IgG, IgA and IgM levels were assessed.The most common diagnosis of glomerulonephritis was IgAN with the percentage of 29.7% within the groups. Male gender was predominant except lupus group. Only the ones with crescentic glomerulonephritis had higher CRP levels. In 20% of patients with IgAN, in 8.3% of the ones with MN, in 35% of crescentic group, in 42% of FSGS group, in 30% of patients with MPGN and in 33% of the ones with lupus nephritis uric acid levels were found as elevated. In IgAN, FSGS and lupus nephritis normoalbuminemia and nephritic proteinuria, in MN and crescentic glomerulonephritis hypoalbuminemia, nephrotic proteinuria, in MPGN hypoalbuminemia, nephritic proteinuria were established. Serum Ig G levels were lower in MN and MPGN. Serum IgA levels were found as elevated in IgAN. Serum C4 levels were found as lower in lupus nephritis and MPGN.In patients admitted in clinical picture of glomerulopathy, since measurements of serum CRP, albumin, uric acid, C3, C4,IgG, IgA, IgM levels, leucocyte count and 24 hour urine protein amount can lead to predict the histopathological diagnosis, their significance in routine investigations has been suggested also in our study.
- Systolic Blood Pressure and Outcomes in Stage 3-4 Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Evidence from a Taiwanese Cohort. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Hypertens 2014 Apr 11.
Systolic blood pressure (SBP) goal for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is ≤140mm Hg. However, the SBP target provides no suggested lower limit, and some studies indicate that a lower SBP target may be harmful. We aimed to investigate the J-shaped relationship between SBP and clinical outcomes in CKD patients and the factors that modify this relationship.This prospective observational study enrolled 2,144 CKD stage 3-4 patients between November 2002 and May 2009 and followed them until July 2010 or death. Patients included were also enrolled within the Integrated CKD Care Program for Delaying Dialysis in a medical center and its branch hospital. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and disease variables at baseline and end of observation were measured.In diabetic CKD patients, the hazard ratio (HR) at SBP 96-110mm Hg vs. 111-120mm Hg was 2.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-5.58) for cardiovascular outcomes and was 3.14 (95% CI = 1.16-8.49) for renal outcomes. In nondiabetic CKD patients, this J-shaped relationship was not seen. Heavy proteinuria was further found to modify the J-shaped relationship in diabetic CKD patients. The HR for renal outcomes at SBP 96-110mm Hg vs. 111-120mm Hg was 4.07 (95% CI = 1.18-13.99) in diabetic CKD patients with heavy proteinuria vs. 1.72 (95% CI = 0.13-22.5) in those without heavy proteinuria.Diabetic CKD patients have a J-shaped relationship between SBP and cardiovascular or renal outcomes, but nondiabetic CKD patients do not. The optimal SBP range might be narrower in the diabetic CKD patients.