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Renal AND Proteinuria [keywords]
- Podocyte involvement in lupus nephritis based on the 2003 ISN/RPS system: a large cohort study from a single centre. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rheumatology (Oxford) 2014 Mar 4.
Objective. The podocyte lesion in LN is still an intriguing controversy. We assess the associations between podocyte lesions and clinico-pathological features in a large cohort of LN patients.Methods. The clinico-pathological data of 202 patients with renal biopsy-proven LN were retrospectively studied. The degree of podocyte lesions was assessed morphologically and its correlations with clinico-pathological parameters were further analysed.Results. The podocyte foot processes of most LN patients significantly effaced, reflected by the median foot process width (FPW) of 1397.39 nm, and 13 patients met the histological criteria of lupus podocytopathy. The FPW was correlated with proteinuria (r = 0.509, P < 0.001) and the cut-off value of FPW, >1240 nm, could differentiate nephrotic proteinuria from non-nephrotic proteinuria with sensitivity 81.5% and specificity 62.7%. The FPW varied significantly with different types of LN, and the patients with combined LN presented with the most severe lesions. The complete remission rate was significantly higher and the long-term renal outcome was better in the group with calcineurin inhibitors than that with other regimens in patients with FPW >1240 nm.Conclusion. Podocyte damage was common in LN. Pure lupus podocytopathy might act as an extreme form of lupus podocyte lesion, and more patients might present with severe podocyte effacement concealed in different types of LN, which needs further investigation.
- Mpv17 in mitochondria protects podocytes against mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2014 Mar 5.
Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly recognized as contributing to glomerular diseases, including those secondary to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and deletions. Mitochondria maintain cellular redox and energy homeostasis and are a major source of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Mitochondrial ROS accumulation may contribute to stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis and thereby to glomerulosclerosis. In mice, deletion of the gene encoding Mpv17 is associated with glomerulosclerosis, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly defined. Here we report that Mpv17 localizes to mitochondria of podocytes and its expression is reduced in several glomerular injury models and in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), but not in minimal change disease (MCD). Using models of mild or severe nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NTSN) in Mpv17+/+ wildtype (WT) and Mpv17-/- knockout mice we found that Mpv17-deficiency resulted in increased proteinuria (mild NTSN) and renal insufficiency (severe NTSN) compared with WT. These lesions were associated with increased mitochondrial ROS generation and mitochondrial injury such as oxidative DNA damage. In vitro, podocytes with loss of Mpv17 function were characterized by increased susceptibility to apoptosis and ROS injury including decreased mitochondrial function, loss of mtDNA content and change in mitochondrial configuration. In summary, the inner mitochondrial membrane protein Mpv17 in podocytes is essential for the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis and protects podocytes against oxidative stress-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo.
- Estimation of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in patients with lupus nephritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lupus 2014 Mar 5.
ObjectiveBiomarkers of disease activity in lupus nephritis (LN) are needed. Ideally, such biomarkers would be capable of detecting early sub-clinical disease and could be used to gauge response to therapy, thus obviating the need for serial renal biopsies. Much of the focus in the search for LN biomarkers has been on the measurement of urinary chemokines and cytokines in LN patients. However, these have yet to be widely implemented in clinical practice. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is expressed in damaged tubules, but whether urinary (u) and tubular (t)-Kim-1 could serve as a biomarker of active LN is unknown. To investigate the disease activity and histological findings in LN, we evaluated u-Kim-1 levels and t-Kim-1 cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).MethodWe measured u-Kim-1 levels and stained t-Kim-1 expression in 57 patients with LN using an ELISA and immunohistochemistry staining. Patients were classified into two groups (active LN, n = 37; inactive LN, n = 20) based on the presence of active renal disease according to the renal SLE disease activity index. correlations of clinical, laboratory data, and histological findings with urinary and t-Kim-1 expression were assessed.ResultThe u-Kim-1 levels were significantly correlated with the expression of t-Kim-1 (R = 0.64; P = 0.004) in the SLE patients. The active LN patients exhibited elevated u-Kim-1 levels compared to the inactive LN patients. The number of t-Kim-1 cells was also correlated with histological findings (both glomerular and interstitial inflammation). The u-Kim-1 levels were also correlated with proteinuria and tubular damage in the active LN group. The number of t-Kim-1 cells at baseline was significantly correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (R = 0.72; P = 0.005) and serum creatinine (R = 0.53; P = 0.005) after 6-8 months of treatment.ConclusionThese data suggest the potential use of the u-Kim-1 levels to screen for active LN and for the estimation of t-Kim-1 expression in renal biopsies to predict renal damage, ongoing glomerular nephritis and tubulointerstitial inflammation, and tubular atrophy.
- Azilsartan Improves Glycemic Status and Reduces Kidney Damage in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Hypertens 2014 Mar 5.
Azilsartan medoxomil (AZL-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker, demonstrates antihypertensive and organ protective effects in hypertension. We investigated the efficacy of AZL-M to ameliorate metabolic syndrome and kidney damage associated with type 2 diabetes using Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats.ZDF rats were treated with vehicle or AZL-M for 8 weeks. Zucker diabetic lean (ZDL) rats were used as controls. Urine and plasma samples were collected for biochemical analysis, and kidney tissues were used for histopathological and immunohistopathological examination at the end of the 8-week protocol.ZDF rats were diabetic with hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance, and AZL-M ameliorated the diabetic phenotype. ZDF rats were hypertensive compared with ZDL rats (181±6 vs. 129±7mm Hg), and AZL-M decreased blood pressure in ZDF rats (116±7mm Hg). In ZDF rats, there was marked renal damage with elevated proteinuria, albuminuria, nephrinuria, 2-4-fold higher tubular cast formation, and glomerular injury compared with ZDL rats. AZL-M treatment reduced renal damage in ZDF rats. ZDF rats demonstrated renal inflammation and oxidative stress with elevated urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 excretion, renal infiltration of macrophages, and elevated kidney malondialdehyde levels. AZL-M reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in ZDF rats.Overall, we demonstrate that AZL-M attenuates kidney damage in type 2 diabetes. We further demonstrate that anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of AZL-M contribute to its kidney protective action.
- A multicenter randomized controlled trial of tonsillectomy combined with steroid pulse therapy in patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014 Mar 3.
The study aim was, for the first time, to conduct a multicenter randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of tonsillectomy in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN).Patients with biopsy-proven IgAN, proteinuria and low serum creatinine were randomly allocated to receive tonsillectomy combined with steroid pulses (Group A; n = 33) or steroid pulses alone (Group B; n = 39). The primary end points were urinary protein excretion and the disappearance of proteinuria and/or hematuria.During 12 months from baseline, the percentage decrease in urinary protein excretion was significantly larger in Group A than that in Group B (P < 0.05). However, the frequency of the disappearance of proteinuria, hematuria, or both (clinical remission) at 12 months was not statistically different between the groups. Logistic regression analyses revealed the assigned treatment was a significant, independent factor contributing to the disappearance of proteinuria (odds ratio 2.98, 95% CI 1.01-8.83, P = 0.049), but did not identify an independent factor in achieving the disappearance of hematuria or clinical remission.The results indicate tonsillectomy combined with steroid pulse therapy has no beneficial effect over steroid pulses alone to attenuate hematuria and to increase the incidence of clinical remission. Although the antiproteinuric effect was significantly greater in combined therapy, the difference was marginal, and its impact on the renal functional outcome remains to be clarified.
- Amyloid A amyloidosis in a Japanese patient with familial Mediterranean fever associated with homozygosity for the pyrin variant M694I/M694I. [Journal Article]
- Mod Rheumatol 2014 Mar; 24(2):349-52.
Abstract Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease common in eastern Mediterranean populations. The most severe complication is the development of secondary amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis. A 51-year-old Japanese male who had been suffering from periodic fever since in his twenties was referred to our hospital for proteinuria. Histological findings from renal biopsy revealed the deposition of AA amyloid fibrils, suggesting that renal dysfunction was due to AA amyloidosis. Gene analysis of the patient and his mother showed that both were homozygous for the M694I mutation in the MEFV gene. His mother was also a carrier of the SAA1.3 allele, which is not only a univariate predictor of survival but also a risk factor for the association of AA amyloidosis with rheumatoid arthritis in Japanese patients, and the SAA1-13T allele in the 13T/C polymorphism on the 5'-flanking region of the SAA1 gene. The patient was also a carrier of the SAA-13T allele. Colchicine resulted in not only an amelioration of the acute febrile attacks of FMF inflammation, but also an improvement in kidney dysfunction due to AA amyloidosis.
- Inhibition of cellular transdifferentiation by losartan minimizes but does not reverse type 2 diabetes-induced renal fibrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2014 Mar 3.
Hypothesis/ INTRODUCTION: Transformer Growth Factor (TGF-β1) and angiotensin II (AngII) induce epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and myofibroblastic transdifferentiation (MFT) contributing to renal fibrosis. The present study evaluated the capacity of an AT1 receptor blocker (losartan) to induce the regression of pre-existing fibrosis via interference with MFT and EMT in a rat model of type 2 diabetes, and in cultured mesangial cells (MCs) stimulated with high glucose and AngII.After 12 weeks of diabetes induction (D12 group), animals showing evidence of nephropathy, were divided in groups untreated for additional 8 weeks (D20 group) and treated for additional 8 weeks with losartan (D20+los group).D12 animals presented hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, proteinuria, increased levels of TGF-β1 and MFT/EMT markers. Losartan stabilized all of these parameters and hindered the progression of fibrosis, but it did not reverse the pre-existing fibrotic manifestations. Losartan reduced TGF-β1 in the tubules, but not in the glomeruli. Stimulated MC exhibited myofibroblast phenotype and capacity for migration, which were completely reversed by losartan.Cellular transition may play a role in diabetes-inducing renal fibrogenesis in both AngII-TGF-β1 axis-dependent and independent manners. Losartan was efficient in preventing cells from undergoing further transdifferentiation, but this strategy was not sufficient to induce regression of the pre-existing tissue fibrosis.
- Endothelial mitochondrial oxidative stress determines podocyte depletion in segmental glomerulosclerosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Invest 2014 Mar 3.
Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) is a primary kidney disease that is commonly associated with proteinuria and progressive loss of glomerular function, leading to development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). FSGS is characterized by podocyte injury and depletion and collapse of glomerular capillary segments. Progression of FSGS is associated with TGF-β activation in podocytes; however, it is not clear how TGF-β signaling promotes disease. Here, we determined that podocyte-specific activation of TGF-β signaling in transgenic mice and BALB/c mice with Adriamycin-induced glomerulosclerosis is associated with endothelin-1 (EDN1) release by podocytes, which mediates mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction in adjacent endothelial cells via paracrine EDN1 receptor type A (EDNRA) activation. Endothelial dysfunction promoted podocyte apoptosis, and inhibition of EDNRA or scavenging of mitochondrial-targeted ROS prevented podocyte loss, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, and renal failure. We confirmed reciprocal crosstalk between podocytes and endothelial cells in a coculture system. Biopsies from patients with FSGS exhibited increased mitochondrial DNA damage, consistent with EDNRA-mediated glomerular endothelial mitochondrial oxidative stress. Our studies indicate that segmental glomerulosclerosis develops as a result of podocyte-endothelial crosstalk mediated by EDN1/EDNRA-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and suggest that targeting the reciprocal interaction between podocytes and endothelia may provide opportunities for therapeutic intervention in FSGS.
- A novel SMARCAL1 mutation associated with a mild phenotype of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Nephrol 2014 Mar 3; 15(1):41.
Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD, OMIM #242900) is an autosomal-recessive pleiotropic disorder characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, renal dysfunction and T-cell immunodeficiency. SIOD is caused by mutations in the gene SMARCAL1.We report the clinical and genetic diagnosis of a 5-years old girl with SIOD, referred to our Center because of nephrotic-range proteinuria occasionally detected during the follow-up for congenital hypothyroidism. Mutational analysis of SMARCAL1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bidirectional sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that patient was compound heterozygous for two SMARCAL1 mutations: a novel missense change (p.Arg247Pro) and a well-known nonsense mutation (p.Glu848*).This report provided the clinical and genetic description of a mild phenotype of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia associated with nephrotic proteinuria, decreasing after combined therapy with ACE inhibitors and sartans. Our experience highlighted the importance of detailed clinical evaluation, appropriate genetic counseling and molecular testing, to provide timely treatment and more accurate prognosis.
- Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on Renal Function among HIV-Infected Tanzanian Adults: A Retrospective Cohort Study. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(2):e89573.
Data regarding the outcomes of HIV-infected adults with baseline renal dysfunction who start antiretroviral therapy are conflicting.We followed up a previously-published cohort of HIV-infected adult outpatients in northwest Tanzania who had high prevalence of renal dysfunction at the time of starting antiretroviral therapy (between November 2009 and February 2010). Patients had serum creatinine, proteinuria, microalbuminuria, and CD4(+) T-cell count measured at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation and at follow-up. We used the adjusted Cockroft-Gault equation to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs).In this cohort of 171 adults who had taken antiretroviral therapy for a median of two years, the prevalence of renal dysfunction (eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) decreased from 131/171 (76.6%) at the time of ART initiation to 50/171 (29.2%) at the time of follow-up (p<0.001). Moderate dysfunction (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) decreased from 21.1% at antiretroviral therapy initiation to 1.1% at follow-up (p<0.001), as did the prevalence of microalbuminuria (72% to 44%, p<0.001). Use of tenofovir was not associated with renal dysfunction at follow-up.Mild and moderate renal dysfunction were common in this cohort of HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy, and both significantly improved after a median follow-up time of 2 years. Our work supports the renal safety of antiretroviral therapy in African adults with mild-moderate renal dysfunction, suggesting that these regimens do not lead to renal damage in the majority of patients and that they may even improve renal function in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction.