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Renal AND Proteinuria [keywords]
- Bone and kidney toxicity induced by nucleotide analogues in patients affected by HBV-related chronic hepatitis: a longitudinal study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Antimicrob Chemother 2014 Dec 18.
Nucleotide analogues may promote renal and bone toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate markers of osteorenal toxicity in patients affected by hepatitis B virus-related chronic hepatitis treated with lamivudine plus adefovir who were switched to tenofovir.We evaluated 60 consecutive patients at the time of the switch of treatment and after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The mean baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 89.3 ± 19.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2).During the study period we observed a reduction in mean eGFR up to 6 months after switching to tenofovir, and this remained stable for the last two timepoints. At the end of study, the mean eGFR was 82.6 ± 21.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2), a reduction of 7.5%. The mean baseline proteinuria was 202.6 ± 237.6 mg/24 h. Microhaematuria was observed in 22.6% of patients and hypophosphataemia in 18.6%. After 1 month of tenofovir, we observed a worsening of serum phosphate and parathyroid hormone levels, haemoglobinuria and 24 h proteinuria. After 3 and 12 months of tenofovir, these data tended to recover to baseline levels. A total of 92.6% of patients at baseline had hypovitaminosis D. After supplementation with cholecalciferol, this percentage decreased significantly. We observed a reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in 52.7% of patients at baseline; this increased to 77.8% after 6 months of tenofovir, but at the last timepoint the percentage of patients with a reduced BMD had fallen to a level above the baseline.In conclusion, patients exposed to lamivudine plus adefovir showed relevant osteorenal damage. The switch to tenofovir provoked a slight reduction in eGFR that stabilized after 6 months. The reduced BMD at baseline did not worsen under tenofovir treatment.
- Acute renal failure is prevalent in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with low plasma ADAMTS13 activity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Thromb Haemost 2014 Dec 19.
Among patients with thrombotic microangiopathies, acute kidney injury (AKI) is the hallmark of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and is largely underestimated in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).We sought to report AKI features and outcomes in patients with TTP.We conducted a retrospective study of 92 patients with TTP assessed by low ADAMTS13 activity (< 10%) between 2001 and 2013. A logistic regression identified variables independently associated with AKI.Among the 92 patients, 54 (58.7%) presented with AKI, including 25 (46.3%) with stage 3 AKI. Fourteen (27.4%) patients had a nephrotic-range proteinuria and 21 (45.6%) had hemoglobinuria. Hematuria and leucocyturia were detected in 19 (41.3%) and 16 patients (36.4%), respectively. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 14 patients (25.9%). Six months after TTP remission, RRT-free patients had median (IQR) MDRD of 93 ml/min/1.73m2 [68.8-110] and 3 patients required long-term dialysis. Mild or moderate chronic renal disease occurred in 23/54 (42.6%) AKI patients. By multivariate analysis, serum level of complement component 3 at admission was the only factor independantly associated with AKI (OR per 0.25 unit decrease of C3: 0.85, CI [1.82-8.33]; p=0.001) CONCLUSIONS: In patients with TTP, AKI is present in more than half the patients, of whom half will have renal lasting effects. Further studies to better understand the pathophysiology of renal involvement in patients with TTP and to identify a subset of patients with TTP syndrome overlapping HUS are warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Dec 18.:CD008353.
Cordyceps sinensis (Cordyceps, Dong Chong Xia Cao), a herbal medicine also known as Chinese caterpillar fungus, is one of the most commonly used ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of people with chronic kidney disease (CKD).This review aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects and potential adverse effects of Cordyceps sinensis for the treatment of people with CKD.We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register to 14 April 2014 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We also searched CINAHL, AMED, Current Controlled Trials, OpenSIGLE, and Chinese databases including CBM, CMCC, TCMLARS, Chinese Dissertation Database, CMAC and Index to Chinese Periodical Literature.Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing Cordyceps or its products with placebo, no treatment, or conventional treatment were considered for inclusion in the review.Two authors independently assessed data quality and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using the random-effects model and the results expressed as risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes or mean difference (MD) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI).We included 22 studies that involved 1746 participants. Among people with CKD who were not receiving dialysis, Cordyceps preparations were found to significantly decrease serum creatinine (14 studies, 987 participants): MD -60.76 μmol/L, 95% CI -85.82 to -35.71); increase creatinine clearance (6 studies, 362 participants): MD 9.22 mL/min, 95% CI 3.10 to 15.34) and reduce 24 hour proteinuria (4 studies, 211 participants: MD -0.15 g/24 h, 95% CI -0.24 to -0.05). However, suboptimal reporting and flawed methodological approaches meant that risk of bias was assessed as high in four studies and unclear in 18 studies, and hence, these results need to be interpreted with caution.We found that Cordyceps preparation, as an adjuvant therapy to conventional medicine, showed potential promise to decrease serum creatinine, increase creatine clearance, reduce proteinuria and alleviate CKD-associated complications, such as increased haemoglobin and serum albumin. However, definitive conclusions could not be made because of the low quality of evidence.
- High Alcohol Consumption and The Risk of Renal Damage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- QJM 2014 Dec 16.
Background: The risk of renal damage in patients with high alcohol consumption is controversial. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the associations between high alcohol consumption and progression of kidney damage including chronic kidney disease (CKD), end stage renal disease (ESRD), and proteinuria. Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Databases from inception through August 2014 to identify studies investigating the association between high alcohol consumption and CKD, ESRD or proteinuria. Studies that reported odds ratios, relative risks or hazard ratios comparing the risk of CKD, ESRD or proteinuria in patients consuming high amount of alcohol versus those who did not consume alcohol were included. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Results: Twenty studies with 292,431 patients were included in our analysis to assess the associations between high alcohol consumption and progression of kidney damage. The pooled RRs of CKD, proteinuria and ESRD in patients with high alcohol consumption were 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.98), 0.85 (95% CI 0.62-1.17) and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.55-1.82), respectively. Post hoc analysis assessing the sex-specific association between high alcohol consumption and CKD demonstrated pooled RRs of 0.72 (95% CI 0.57-0.90) in males and 0.78 (95% CI 0.58-1.03) in females. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates an inverse association between high alcohol consumption and risk for developing CKD in males. There is no significant association between high alcohol consumption and the risk for developing proteinuria or ESRD.
- Serum uric acid concentration is associated with early changes of glomerular filtration rate in patients with diabetes type 1 without increased albumin excretion. [Journal Article]
- Pol Merkur Lekarski 2014 Oct; 37(220):217-20.
The early loss of renal function in patients with type 1 diabetes may begin before proteinuria. Only 30% of patients with diabetes manifest overt proteinuria. According to the previous studies, increased urinary albumin excretion, which is considered a classic marker of progression of diabetic kidney disease, can regress to normal urine albumin excretion. The current studies conducted in patients with type 1 diabetes without increased urine albumin excretion showed that the uric acid concentration was an independent factor for the development of diabetic kidney disease. The aim of study was to assess the impact of uric acid concentration and to identify risk factors of the early glomerular filtration loss in patients with type 1 diabetes and normal urinary albumin excretion.147 patients (61 women and 86 men) with type 1 diabetes without increased urine albumin excretion were analysed. GFR (gromerular filtration rate) was estimated based on the serum cystatin C concentration. Centile charts were used to determine the variation of uric acid concentration depending on GFR and gender.The mean value of the filtration rate for the study group was 117 ml/min/m2. The uric acid level above 90th percentile in relation to GFR was diagnosed in 8.2% of women and 0% of men, between 90th and 50th percentile in 44.3 % of women and 5.8% of men and below 50th percentile in 47.5% of women and 94.2% of men. Contrary to men in women higher serum acid concentration was strongly associated with higher glomerular filtration rate. Hyperfiltraion was diagnosed in 15 of women and 19 of men.The high normal uric acid concentration in women with type 1 diabetes might play a crucial role in development of hyperfiltration.
- Association of hypovitaminosis D with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and inflammation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Bras Nefrol 2014 Dec; 36(4):430-436.
Introduction: Nowadays it is described a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), which is associated with some clinical manifestations and increased inflammatory activity. Objective: To evaluate the association between vitamin D insufficiency with SLE and inflammatory markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study, in which have been evaluated 45 SLE patients and 24 controls without the disease. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] less than 30 ng/mL were considered inadequate. Disease activity was assessed by the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). High sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were evaluated for verification of the inflammatory status. For assessment of renal involvement, analysis of abnormal elements and urinay sediment (AES), quantitative hematuria and pyuria, proteinuria and creatinine clearance in 24-hour urine and serum anti-double stranded DNA were performed. Results: The prevalence of 25(OH)D insufficiency was 55% in SLE patients and 8% in the controls participants (p = 0.001). The median of 25(OH)D was lower in patients than in controls. Patients with insufficient 25(OH)D had higher levels of IL-6 and higher prevalence of hematuria in the AES. There was no correlation between vitamin D and SLEDAI or lupus nephritis. Conclusion: In our study, vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in patients with SLE and was associated with higher levels of IL-6 and hematuria.
- A Comparison of Biochemical and Histopathologic Staging in Cats With Chronic Kidney Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Pathol 2014 Dec 16.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in elderly cats. Frequently, a diagnosis is made in later stages of disease, by which time many renal lesions are irreversible. As such, little headway has been made in identifying an etiology and preventing this common disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and severity of both reversible and irreversible histopathologic changes in the kidneys of cats at each stage of CKD and, in addition, to determine if lesion prevalence and character were different between stages. A total of 46 cats with CKD were classified according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) as stage I (3 cats), stage II (16 cats), stage III (14 cats), and stage IV (13 cats). Eleven young, nonazotemic and 10 geriatric, nonazotemic cats were included as controls. The severity of tubular degeneration, interstitial inflammation, fibrosis, and glomerulosclerosis was significantly greater in later stages of CKD compared with early stages of disease. Proteinuria was associated with increased severity of tubular degeneration, inflammation, fibrosis, tubular epithelial single-cell necrosis, and decreased normal parenchyma. Presence of hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis, fibrointimal hyperplasia, or other vascular lesions were not found to be significantly different between hypertensive and normotensive cats. The greater prevalence and severity of irreversible lesions in stage III and IV CKD implies that therapeutic interventions should be targeted at earlier stages of disease.
- Frequency of COL4A3/COL4A4 Mutations amongst Families Segregating Glomerular Microscopic Hematuria and Evidence for Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response. Focal and Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Is a Frequent Development during Ageing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(12):e115015.
Familial glomerular hematuria(s) comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of conditions which include Alport Syndrome (AS) and thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN). Here we investigated 57 Greek-Cypriot families presenting glomerular microscopic hematuria (GMH), with or without proteinuria or chronic kidney function decline, but excluded classical AS. We specifically searched the COL4A3/A4 genes and identified 8 heterozygous mutations in 16 families (28,1%). Eight non-related families featured the founder mutation COL4A3-p.(G1334E). Renal biopsies from 8 patients showed TBMN and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Ten patients (11.5%) reached end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) at ages ranging from 37-69-yo (mean 50,1-yo). Next generation sequencing of the patients who progressed to ESKD failed to reveal a second mutation in any of the COL4A3/A4/A5 genes, supporting that true heterozygosity for COL4A3/A4 mutations predisposes to CRF/ESKD. Although this could be viewed as a milder and late-onset form of autosomal dominant AS, we had no evidence of ultrastructural features or extrarenal manifestations that would justify this diagnosis. Functional studies in cultured podocytes transfected with wild type or mutant COL4A3 chains showed retention of mutant collagens and differential activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) cascade. This signifies the potential role of the UPR cascade in modulating the final phenotype in patients with collagen IV nephropathies.
- Relationship between Immune Parameters and Organ Involvement in Children with Henoch-Schonlein Purpura. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(12):e115261.
Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common type of connective tissue diseases which increasingly occurs in children in recent years and its pathogenesis remains unclear. In order to explore the immune parameters and underlying pathogenesis mechanism of children with HSP, the study involved 1232 patients with HSP having different clinical symptoms and their laboratory indicators were evaluated. Th1/Th2 imbalance and overactivity of Th2 cells can cause increase in the synthesis and release of immunoglobulins in children with HSP. The number of red blood cells and white blood cells in urine was directly proportional to the level of IgA and inversely proportional to the level of serum complements (C3 and C4). Activation of these complements caused by immunoglobulin in patients with HSP plays an important role in renal injury. The urinary protein content in children with HSP along with proteinuria was positively correlated with IgE level, and IgE mediated type 1 hypersensitivity can cause increase in capillary permeability and weakened the charge barrier; hence, it could be considered as one of the causes of proteinuria in HSP. Additionally, the NK cells percentage was reduced and impaired immune function of NK cells were related to the immune injury of the digestive tract and kidney.
- Biomarkers in diabetic nephropathy: Present and future. [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Diabetes 2014 Dec 15; 5(6):763-76.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end stage renal disease in the Western world. Microalbuminuria (MA) is the earliest and most commonly used clinical index of DN and is independently associated with cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. Although MA remains an essential tool for risk stratification and monitoring disease progression in DN, a number of factors have called into question its predictive power. Originally thought to be predictive of future overt DN in 80% of patients, we now know that only around 30% of microalbuminuric patients progress to overt nephropathy after 10 years of follow up. In addition, advanced structural alterations in the glomerular basement membrane may already have occurred by the time MA is clinically detectable.Evidence in recent years suggests that a significant proportion of patients with MA can revert to normoalbuminuria and the concept of nonalbuminuric DN is well-documented, reflecting the fact that patients with diabetes can demonstrate a reduction in glomerular filtration rate without progressing from normo-to MA. There is an unmet clinical need to identify biomarkers with potential for earlier diagnosis and risk stratification in DN and recent developments in this field will be the focus of this review article.