(Renal AND Proteinuria)
- Are filtered plasma proteins processed in the same way by the kidney? [Journal Article]
- JTJ Theor Biol 2016 Dec 7; 410:18-24
- In order to understand the mechanism of albuminuria we have explored how other plasma proteins are processed by the kidney as compared to inert molecules like Ficolls. When fractional clearances are ...
In order to understand the mechanism of albuminuria we have explored how other plasma proteins are processed by the kidney as compared to inert molecules like Ficolls. When fractional clearances are plotted versus protein radius there is a remarkable parallelism between protein (molecular weight range 30-150kDa) clearance in healthy controls, in Dent's disease, in nephrotic states and the clearance of Ficolls. Although there are significant differences in the levels of fractional clearances in these states. Dent's disease results in a 2-fold increase in the fractional clearance of proteins as compared to healthy controls whereas in nephrotic states there is a further 3-fold increase in fractional clearance. Previous thinking that albumin uptake was controlled primarily by the megalin/cubilin receptor does not explain the albumin urinary excretion data and is therefore an incorrect concept. Protein clearance in nephrotic states approach the fractional clearance of inert Ficolls for a given radius. It therefore appears that there are two pathways processing these proteins. A low capacity pathway associated with megalin/cubilin that degrades filtered protein (that is inhibited in Dent's disease) and a high capacity pathway that retrieves the filtered protein and returns it to the blood supply (without retrieval nephrotic protein excretion will occur and this will account for hypoproteinemia). On the other hand low molecular weight proteins (<20kDa) are processed entirely differently by the kidney. They are not retrieved but are comprehensively degraded in the kidney with the degradation products predominantly returned to the blood supply.
- Matrine ameliorates adriamycin-induced nephropathy in rats by enhancing renal function and modulating Th17/Treg balance. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Sep 15; 791:491-501
- Matrine (MAT) is an active alkaloid extracted from Radix Sophora flavescens. The present study was to investigate whether MAT could effectively treat Adriamycin-induced nephropathy (AIN). AIN was ind...
Matrine (MAT) is an active alkaloid extracted from Radix Sophora flavescens. The present study was to investigate whether MAT could effectively treat Adriamycin-induced nephropathy (AIN). AIN was induced in rats using a single injection of Adriamycin (ADR). Renal interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-17 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) levels, and the expression of forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) and retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor γt (Rorγt) was measured. AIN rats developed severe albuminuria, hypoalbuminaemia, hyperlipidaemia and podocyte injury. Daily administration of MAT (100mg/kg or 200mg/kg) significantly prevented ADR-induced podocyte injury, decreased AIN symptoms and improved renal pathology manifestations. Of note, treatment with MAT (100mg/kg) plus prednisone (Pre, 5mg/kg) had equivalent efficacy to that of Pre alone (10mg/kg). Additional findings showed that ADR triggered a disordered cytokine network and abnormal expression of Foxp3 and Rorγt in rats, as reflected by increased levels of IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β, Rorγt and decreased levels of IL-10 and Foxp3. Interestingly, MAT weakened the disordered cytokine network and normalized the expression of Foxp3 and Rorγt. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between the values of Foxp3/Rorγt and renal pathology scores. Finally, MAT normalized regulatory T cells (Treg)/ T-helper17 cells (Th17) ratio in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of AIN rats. These data indicate MAT prevents AIN through the modification of disordered plasma lipids and recovery of renal function, and this bioactivity is at least partly attributed to the suppression of renal inflammation and the regulation of the Treg/Th17 imbalance.
- Mechanistic insight of diabetic nephropathy and its pharmacotherapeutic targets: An update. [Review]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Aug 25; 791:8-24
- Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a chronic complication of diabetes, is charecterized by glomerular hypertrophy, proteinuria, decreased glomerular filtration, and renal fibrosis resulting in the loss of re...
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a chronic complication of diabetes, is charecterized by glomerular hypertrophy, proteinuria, decreased glomerular filtration, and renal fibrosis resulting in the loss of renal function. Although the exact cause of DN remains unclear, several mechanisms have been postulated, such as hyperglycemia-induced renal hyper filtration and renal injury, AGEs-induced increased oxidative stress, activated PKC-induced increased production of cytokines, chemokines, and different inflammatory and apoptotic signals. Among various factors, oxidative stress has been suggested to play a major role underlying the onset and propagation of DN. It triggers several signaling pathways involved in DN, like AGEs, PKC cascade, JAK/STAT signaling, MAPK, mTOR, and SMAD. Oxidative stress-induced activation of both inflammatory and apoptotic signals are two major problems in the pathogenesis of DN. The FDA approved pharmacotherapeutic agents affecting against polyol pathway principally include anti-oxidants, like α-lipoic acid, vitamin E, and vitamin C. Kremezin and benfotiamine are the FDA approved AGEs inhibitors, another therapeutic target against DN. Ruboxistaurin, telmizartan, rapamycin, fenofibrate, aliskiren, and manidipine are some FDA approved pharmacotherapeutics effective against DN via diverse mechanisms. Beside this, some therapeutic agents are still waiting for FDA approval and few drugs without FDA approval are also prescribed in some countries for the management of DN. Despite the medications available in the market to treat DN, the involvement of multiple mechanisms makes it difficult to choose an optimum therapeutic agent. Therefore, much research is required to find out new therapeutic agent/strategies for an adequate pharmacotherapy of DN.
- Prognostic significance of NGAL in early stage chronic kidney disease. [Journal Article]
- MUMinerva Urol Nefrol 2016 Oct 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Altough NGAL has a positive correlation with disease severity, it doesn't seem to be a marker of disease progression in patients with early stage CKD. But further studies stated in different patient groups may also explain the usability of NGAL in clinical practice.
- Familial Lecithin Cholesterol Acyl Transferase Deficiency with Chronic Kidney Disease. [Case Reports]
- JAJ Assoc Physicians India 2016; 64(10):90-91
- Familial lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive (AR) disease caused by mutation in the LCAT gene. LCAT enzyme esterifies cholesterol molecules in high-de...
Familial lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive (AR) disease caused by mutation in the LCAT gene. LCAT enzyme esterifies cholesterol molecules in high-density lipoprotein(HDL) and low density-lipoprotein (LDL) particles. This enzyme deficiency is characterised by progressive corneal opacification, glomerulopathy, mild - moderate haemolytic anaemia and very low plasma levels of HDL. We here report a 34 year-old lady who presented with hypertension, nephrotic proteinuria, renal failure, corneal ring opacities, anemia and dyslipidemia. The diagnosis of familial LCAT deficiency was confirmed by clinical examination, characteristic dyslipidemia, undetectable LCAT levels in plasma and positive family history.
- Decreased urinary excretion of the ectodomain form of megalin (A-megalin) in children with OCRL gene mutations. [Journal Article]
- PNPediatr Nephrol 2016 Oct 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Decreased excretion of urinary A-megalin in four out of five patients with OCRL mutations suggests that LMW proteinuria may be caused by impaired megalin recycling within the proximal tubular cells. Homologous enzymes, similar to inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase B in mice, may help to compensate for defective OCRL-1 function during early childhood.
- Clinical Usefulness of the Oxford Classification in Determining Immunosuppressive Treatment in IgA Nephropathy. [Journal Article]
- AMAnn Med 2016 Oct 21; :1-42
- CONCLUSIONS: This finding may provide a rationale for using the Oxford classification as a guidance to initiate immunosuppression in the early stages of IgA nephropathy.
- Role of galectin-3 in autoimmune and non-autoimmune nephropathies. [Review]
- ARAutoimmun Rev 2016 Sep 23
- Galectins are evolutionary conserved β-galactoside binding proteins with a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of approximately 130 amino acids. In mammals, 15 members of the galectin family have b...
Galectins are evolutionary conserved β-galactoside binding proteins with a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of approximately 130 amino acids. In mammals, 15 members of the galectin family have been identified and classified into three subtypes according to CRD organization: prototype, tandem repeat-type and chimera-type galectins. Galectin-3 (gal-3) is the only chimera type galectin in vertebrates containing one CRD linked to an unusual long N-terminal domain which displays non-lectin dependent activities. Although recent studies revealed unique, pleiotropic and context-dependent functions of gal-3 in both extracellular and intracellular space, gal-3 specific pathways and its ligands have not been clearly defined yet. In the kidney gal-3 is involved in later stages of nephrogenesis as well as in renal cell cancer. However, gal-3 has recently been associated with lupus glomerulonephritis, with Familial Mediterranean Fever-induced proteinuria and renal amyloidosis. Gal-3 has been studied in experimental acute kidney damage and in the subsequent regeneration phase as well as in several models of chronic kidney disease, including nephropathies induced by aging, ischemia, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, unilateral ureteral obstruction and chronic allograft injury. Because of the pivotal role of gal-3 in the modulation of immune system, wound repair, fibrosis and tumorigenesis, it is not surprising that gal-3 can be an intriguing prognostic biomarker as well as a promising therapeutic target in a great variety of diseases, including chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure and cardio-renal syndrome. This review summarizes the functions of gal-3 in kidney pathophysiology focusing on the reported role of gal-3 in autoimmune diseases.
- Urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and eGFR may identify patients to be treated with immuno-suppression at diagnosis in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. [Journal Article]
- NNephrology (Carlton) 2016 Oct 20
- CONCLUSIONS: IMN subjects with high NAG/C and low eGFR have greater risk of progression, and immunosuppressive treatment is suggested at diagnosis.
New Search Next
- Attenuation of Renal Functional Decline Following Angioplasty and Stenting in Atherosclerotic Renovascular Disease. [Journal Article]
- NNephron 2016 Oct 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Revascularization may be indicated for patients with ARVD and progressively worsening renal function. This patient subgroup should ideally be evaluated in future randomized controlled trials.