- Changes of blood pressure patterns and target organ damage in patients with chronic kidney disease: results of the APrODiTe-2 study. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hypertens 2016 Dec 06
- CONCLUSIONS: A large majority of Korean hypertensive CKD patients had uncontrolled BP and abnormal dipping patterns. Furthermore, better BP control and dipping status changes were associated with better renal function and proteinuria, and also less cardio-cerebrovascular damages.
- Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor . [Journal Article]
- CNClin Nephrol 2016 Dec 07
- Cetuximab is a chimeric human-murine monoclonal antibody that binds competitively and with high affinity to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is used to treat advanced squamous cell car...
Cetuximab is a chimeric human-murine monoclonal antibody that binds competitively and with high affinity to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is used to treat advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. After receiving a total of six doses of cetuximab, a 72-year-old male presented with pretibial edema, acne-like skin rash, and nephrotic syndrome. The renal biopsy findings revealed features of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), with the expansion of the subendothelial zone, reduplication of the glomerular basement, and swelling of the endothelial cells. Nine weeks after the discontinuation of cetuximab, his pretibial edema had disappeared and proteinuria decreased. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which kidney biopsy revealed evidence of TMA due to cetuximab administration. Our report suggests that it may be prudent to monitor patients receiving cetuximab closely for the possible development of nephrotic syndrome. .
- Association of glycated albumin to HbA1c ratio with diabetic retinopathy but not diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Journal Article]
- CBClin Biochem 2016 Dec 03
- CONCLUSIONS: The GA/HbA1c ratio was associated with diabetic retinopathy, but not with diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. These results suggest that the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy is associated with plasma glucose fluctuations.
- The Clinical Manifestation and Management of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease in China. [Review]
- KDKidney Dis (Basel) 2016; 2(3):111-119
- Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic hereditary kidney disease characterized by progressive enlargement of renal cysts. The incidence is 1-2‰ worldwide. M...
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic hereditary kidney disease characterized by progressive enlargement of renal cysts. The incidence is 1-2‰ worldwide. Mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) cause ADPKD. Currently, there is no pharmaceutical treatment available for ADPKD patients in China. Summary: This review focused on advances in clinical manifestation, gene diagnosis, risk factors, and management of ADPKD in China. There is an age-dependent increase in total kidney volume (TKV) and decrease in renal function in Chinese ADPKD patients. ADPKD is more severe in males than in females. Great progress has been made in molecular diagnosis in the last two decades. Nephrologists found many novel PKD mutations in Chinese ADPKD patients early through polymerase chain reaction, and then through liquid chromatography in 2000s, and recently through next-generation sequencing. Major predictive factors for ADPKD progression are age, PKD genotype, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and TKV. With respect to the management of ADPKD, inhibitors targeting mTOR and cAMP are the focus of clinical trials. Triptolide has been used to treat ADPKD patients in clinical trials in China. Triptolide significantly protected eGFR of ADPKD patients compared with placebo.
- NFκB-Induced Periostin Activates Integrin-β3 Signaling to Promote Renal Injury in GN. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Soc Nephrol 2016 Dec 05
- De novo expression in the kidney of periostin, a protein involved in odontogenesis and osteogenesis, has been suggested as a biomarker of renal disease. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s...
De novo expression in the kidney of periostin, a protein involved in odontogenesis and osteogenesis, has been suggested as a biomarker of renal disease. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of induction and the role of periostin in renal disease. Using a combination of bioinformatics, reporter assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, we found that NFκB and other proinflammatory transcription factors induce periostin expression in vitro and that binding of these factors on the periostin promoter is enriched in glomeruli during experimental GN. Mice lacking expression of periostin displayed preserved renal function and structure during GN. Furthermore, delayed administration of periostin antisense oligonucleotides in wild-type animals with GN reversed already established proteinuria, diminished tissue inflammation, and improved renal structure. Lack of periostin expression also blunted the de novo renal expression of integrin-β3 and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and AKT, known mediators of integrin-β3 signaling that affect cell motility and survival, observed during GN in wild-type animals. In vitro, recombinant periostin increased the expression of integrin-β3 and the concomitant phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and AKT in podocytes. Notably, periostin and integrin-β3 were highly colocalized in biopsy specimens from patients with inflammatory GN. These results demonstrate that interplay between periostin and renal inflammation orchestrates inflammatory and fibrotic responses, driving podocyte damage through downstream activation of integrin-β3 signaling. Targeting periostin may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating CKD.
- Evaluation of novel biomarkers in nephrotoxicity. [Journal Article]
- BMBiomark Med 2016 Dec 05
- Discoidin domain receptor 1 kinase activity is required for regulating collagen IV synthesis. [Journal Article]
- MBMatrix Biol 2016 Nov 30
- Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds to and is activated by collagens. DDR1 expression increases following kidney injury and accumulating evidence suggests that...
Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds to and is activated by collagens. DDR1 expression increases following kidney injury and accumulating evidence suggests that it contributes to the progression of injury. To this end, deletion of DDR1 is beneficial in ameliorating kidney injury induced by angiotensin infusion, unilateral ureteral obstruction, or nephrotoxic nephritis. Most of the beneficial effects observed in the DDR1-null mice are attributed to reduced inflammatory cell infiltration to the site of injury, suggesting that DDR1 plays a pro-inflammatory effect. The goal of this study was to determine whether, in addition to its pro-inflammatory effect, DDR1 plays a deleterious effect in kidney injury by directly regulating extracellular matrix production. We show that DDR1-null mice have reduced deposition of glomerular collagens I and IV as well as decreased proteinuria following the partial renal ablation model of kidney injury. Using mesangial cells isolated from DDR1-null mice, we show that these cells produce significantly less collagen compared to DDR1-null cells reconstituted with wild type DDR1. Moreover, mutagenesis analysis revealed that mutations in the collagen binding site or in the kinase domain significantly reduce DDR1-mediated collagen production. Finally, we provide evidence that blocking DDR1 kinase activity with an ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitor reduces collagen production. In conclusion, our studies indicate that the kinase activity of DDR1 plays a key role in DDR1-induced collagen synthesis and suggest that blocking collagen-mediated DDR1 activation may be beneficial in fibrotic diseases.
- Evidence from the Oxford Classification cohort supports the clinical value of subclassification of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in IgA nephropathy. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int 2016 Nov 30
- Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common finding in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Here we assessed FSGS lesions in the Oxford Classification patient cohort and correlated histology with clinic...
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common finding in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Here we assessed FSGS lesions in the Oxford Classification patient cohort and correlated histology with clinical presentation and outcome to determine whether subclassification of the S score in IgAN is reproducible and of clinical value. Our subclassification of lesions in 137 individuals with segmental glomerulosclerosis or adhesion (S1) identified 38% with podocyte hypertrophy, 10% with hyalinosis, 9% with resorption droplets within podocytes, 7% with tip lesions, 3% with perihilar sclerosis, and 2% with endocapillary foam cells. Reproducibility was good or excellent for tip lesions, hyalinosis, and perihilar sclerosis; moderate for podocyte hypertrophy; and poor for resorption droplets, adhesion only, and endocapillary foam cells. Podocyte hypertrophy and tip lesions were strongly associated with greater initial proteinuria. During follow-up of patients without immunosuppression, those with these features had more rapid renal function decline and worse survival from a combined event compared to S1 patients without such features and those without FSGS. Also in individuals with podocyte hypertrophy or tip lesions, immunosuppressive therapy was associated with better renal survival. In IgA nephropathy, the presence of podocyte hypertrophy or tip lesions, markers of podocyte injury, were reproducible. These features are strongly associated with proteinuria and, in untreated patients, carry a worse prognosis. Thus, our findings support reporting podocytopathic features alongside the S score of the Oxford Classification.
- IL-2/anti-IL-2 complexes ameliorate lupus nephritis by expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int 2016 Nov 30
- Adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells (Tregs) can delay disease progression and reduce mortality in lupus-prone mice. Here, we tested whether complex (IL-2C) consisting of IL-2 and anti-IL-2 monocl...
Adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells (Tregs) can delay disease progression and reduce mortality in lupus-prone mice. Here, we tested whether complex (IL-2C) consisting of IL-2 and anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody (JES6-1) ameliorates lupus nephritis by expanding Tregs as an alternative to problematic Treg infusion therapy. IL-2C treatment of NZB/W F1 mice induced an effective and sustained expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in both the kidneys and spleen along with decreased renal infiltration of T cells, B cells, and innate immune cells. Compared with controls, mice treated with IL-2C showed reduced proteinuria and fewer acute and chronic renal pathological lesions with improved renal function and survival. IL-2C significantly attenuated glomerular and tubular injury, vasculitis scores, and renal deposition of IgG and C3. Disease activity markers, such as high levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and immunoglobulin levels, and low levels of complement were improved in sera of IL-2C-treated mice. IL-2C treatment decreased renal expression of TNF-α and IL-6, and the frequencies of IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) and IL-17A(+)CD4(+) T cells in both the kidneys and spleen. Depletion of Tregs by anti-CD25 antibodies abrogated the beneficial effects of IL-2C. When compared with combination therapy of steroid and mycophenolate mofetil, IL-2C treatment showed similar or better outcomes. Thus, IL-2C protected lupus-prone mice against lupus nephritis by expanding Tregs. Hence, IL-2C could have therapeutic potential in lupus nephritis.
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- A 3-year follow-up of a patient with acute renal failure caused by thrombotic microangiopathy related to antiphospholipid syndrome: case report. [Journal Article]
- LLupus 2016 Dec 02
- CONCLUSIONS: Treatment modalities such as anticoagulation, immunosuppression and plasma exchange are likely to be necessary when severe acute renal failure combined with thrombotic microangiopathy present in nephropathy of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.