Renal AND Proteinuria [keywords]
- Validation of an electrophoretic method to detect albuminuria in cats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Feline Med Surg 2016 Aug 23.
The aims of this study were to validate a semi-automated high-resolution electrophoretic technique to quantify urinary albumin in healthy and diseased cats, and to evaluate its diagnostic performance in cases of proteinuria and renal diseases.Urine samples were collected from 88 cats (healthy; chronic kidney disease [CKD]; lower urinary tract disease [LUTD]; non-urinary tract diseases [OTHER]). Urine samples were routinely analysed and high-resolution electrophoresis (HRE) was performed. Within-assay and between-assay variability, linearity, accuracy, recovery and the lowest detectable and quantifiable bands were calculated. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was also performed.All coefficients of variation were <10%, percentage recovery was between 97% and 109% with a high linearity (r = 0.99). HRE allowed the visualisation of a faint band of albumin and a diffused band between alpha and beta zones in healthy cats, while profiles from diseased cats were variable. Albumin (mg/dl) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UAC) were significantly (P <0.05) different between healthy and diseased cats. After ROC analysis, UAC values of 0.035 and 0.074 had a high sensitivity and high specificity, respectively, to classify proteinuria and identify borderline proteinuric cats. Moreover, an UAC of 0.017 had a high sensitivity in distinguishing between healthy and diseased cats. However, UAC was not able to distinguish between renal (CKD) and non-renal diseases (LUTD/OTHER), probably owing to the pathophysiology of CKD in cats, which is characterised by low-grade proteinuria and less glomerular involvement than in dogs.HRE is an accurate and precise method that could be used to measure albuminuria in cats. UAC was useful to correctly classify proteinuria and to discriminate between healthy and diseased cats. HRE might also provide additional information on urine proteins with a profile of all proteins (albumin and globulins) to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of diseases characterised by proteinuria.
- Detection and Clinical Significance of Glomerular M-type Phospholipase A2 Receptor in Patients with Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Intern Med J 2016 Aug 24.
Glomerular M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2 R) is important for diagnosing idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). The relation between glomerular PLA2 R expression and response to treatment remained to explore.We conducted the study to explore the positive rate and clinical significance of glomerular M-type PLA2 R in IMN patients.122 IMN patients receiving neither glucocorticoid nor immunosuppressant therapy prior to renal biopsies were included and followed for more than 1 year. Control group comprised 30 patients with secondary membranous nephropathy and 100 patients with non-membranous forms of nephropathy. PLA2 R level and IgG subclasses in glomeruli were detected. Primary endpoint was reduction of proteinuria to less than 50% of baseline value.82.0% patients with IMN had positive glomerular PLA2 R deposits, compared with 16.7% in secondary membranous nephropathy group (P < 0.001). Additionally, PLA2 R-positive expression combined with IgG4 ≥ 2+ was found in 94.3% IMN patients compared with 40.0% in secondary membranous nephropathy patients (P < 0.01). Among IMN patients , the remission rate of proteinuria after either glucocorticoid or glucocorticoid combined immunosuppressant therapy at least 6 month was 83.9% in PLA2 R positive group compared with 54.5% in negative group (P < 0.05).Positive rate of glomerular PLA2 R was more prevalent in IMN patients. Both PLA2 R and IgG4 glomerular deposits may help in discriminating between idiopathic and secondary membranous nephropathy. IMN patients with positive PLA2 R expression probably have a more beneficial response to glucocorticoid and/or immunosuppressant therapy.
- Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease After Acute Kidney Injury: Role of Self-Perpetuating Versus Hemodynamic-Induced Fibrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hypertension 2016 Aug 22.
The relative contribution of self-perpetuating versus hemodynamic-induced fibrosis to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) after acute kidney injury (AKI) is unclear. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent right uninephrectomy and were instrumented with a blood pressure radiotelemeter. Two weeks later, separate groups of rats were subjected to 40 minutes renal ischemia-reperfusion or sham surgery and followed up for 4 or 16 weeks to determine the extent to which glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis as a result of the AKI-CKD transition (ie, at 4 weeks post AKI) change over time during the progression of CKD (ie, at 16 weeks post AKI). On average, tubulointerstitial fibrosis was ≈3-fold lower (P<0.05), whereas glomerulosclerosis was ≈6-fold higher (P<0.05) at 16 versus 4 weeks post AKI. At 16 weeks post AKI, marked tubulointerstitial fibrosis was only observed in rats exhibiting marked glomerulosclerosis, proteinuria, and kidney hypertrophy consistent with a hemodynamic pathogenesis of renal injury. Moreover, quantitative analysis between blood pressure and renal injury revealed a clear and modest blood pressure threshold (average 16-week systolic blood pressure of ≈127 mm Hg) for the development of glomerulosclerosis. In summary, modest levels of blood pressure may be playing a substantial role in the progression of renal disease after AKI in settings of preexisting CKD associated with 50% loss of renal mass. In contrast, these data do not support a major role of self-perpetuating tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the progression CKD after AKI in such settings.
- Comparison of oral steroids with tonsillectomy plus steroid pulse therapy in patients with IgA nephropathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Nephrol 2016 Aug 22.
Treatment of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in Japan has recently changed, from oral prednisolone (oPSL) to tonsillectomy plus steroid pulse (TSP) therapy. However, a few studies have compared their efficacy and safety.IgAN patients diagnosed in our institution between 1991 and 2013, treated with TSP or oPSL, aged ≥16 years, with ≥1 g/day proteinuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and no other renal disease were selected. Baseline clinical and histological findings, clinical outcomes, and adverse events were compared. Clinical remission (CR) was defined as <0.3 g/day proteinuria and <5 urinary red blood cells per high-powered field.Sixty-six patients were identified; after propensity score adjustment, 26 patients were selected in each group. CR rates were significantly higher at 12 (30.8 % vs. 3.9 %), 36 (47.3 % vs. 7.9 %), and 72 (57.8 % vs. 20.1 %) months (p < 0.01), and the renal survival rate, defined as the development of a 25 % reduction from baseline eGFR, was significantly higher at 12 (96.2 % vs. 69.2 %), 36 (96.2 % vs. 61.5 %), and 72 (96.2 % vs. 41.0 %) months in the TSP than the oPSL group (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that TSP was the only independent factor associated with CR (hazard ratio, 3.58; 95 % confidence interval, 1.32-10.91, p = 0.01). The number of patients with adverse events was significant lower in TSP group than in oPSL group (11.5 % vs. 34.6 %, p = 0.04).CR rates are higher; protection of renal function and prevention from adverse events were superior with TSP than with oPSL in patients with IgAN and moderate-to-severe proteinuria.
- Evaluation of Proteinuria in β-Thalassemia Major Patients With and Without Diabetes Mellitus Taking Deferasirox. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2016 Aug 19.
β-thalassemia is the most common heredity disease in Iran. Regular blood transfusion is critical to sustain life and normal growth. Deferasirox is an oral chelator. One of the side effects of the deferasirox is proteinuria.This study aimed to investigate the safety of deferasirox on kidney function in diabetic and nondiabetic β-thalassemia major patients.In this cross-sectional study, 34 diabetic and 36 nondiabetic patients who take deferasirox (Exjade) 20 to 40 mg/kg/d were studied. Exclusion criteria included patient with renal failure, proteinuria, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and the patients who refused to continue the study to the end. Subjects were divided into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Spot urine protein/creatinine ratio, urinary analysis, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, creatinine, fasting blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen, and serum ferritin were checked every 3 months. Patients were followed for a period of 1 year.In the ninth month after therapy there was a significant relationship in mean change of spot urine protein/creatinine ratio between diabetic and nondiabetic (P=0.011). Spot urine protein/creatinine ratio in diabetic and nondiabetic group was 0.19±0.18 and 0.1±0.05, respectively, which showed no significant relationship between the 2 groups at the end of study (P=0.162).The results of our study showed that consumption of deferasirox is safe, as there was no significant relationship between spot urine protein/creatinine ratio in diabetic and nondiabetic group. Deferasirox consumption is not associated with increased proteinuria in diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic group having only a transient proteinuria.
- Amyloidosis: an unusual cause of portal hypertension. [Journal Article]
- Autops Case Rep 2016 Apr-Jun; 6(2):9-18.
Amyloidosis comprises a group of diseases that occurs in five to nine cases per million patients per year worldwide irrespective of its classification. Although the hepatic involvement in primary amyloidosis is frequent, the clinical manifestations of liver amyloidosis are mild or even absent. The authors report the case of an aged man who complained of diffuse abdominal pain and marked weight loss and presented clinical signs of hepatopathy. Clinical workup revealed portal hypertension with ascites, hemorrhoids, and esophageal varices. The laboratory tests showed the cholestatic pattern of liver enzymes, hyperbilirubinemia, renal insufficiency and massive proteinuria accompanied by the presence of serum pike of monoclonal lambda light chain protein. The outcome was unfavorable, and the patient died. The autopsy findings revealed the diagnosis of amyloidosis predominantly involving the liver and kidneys. The bone marrow examination demonstrated the deposition of amyloid material associated with clonal plasma cells infiltration. The authors call attention to portal hypertension as a rare manifestation of primary amyloidosis. Meanwhile, this diagnosis should be taken into account whenever the hepatopathy is accompanied by laboratory abnormalities consistent with hepatic space-occupying lesions concomitantly with other organs involvement. In the case reported herein, kidney involvement was also present with renal failure, massive proteinuria with monoclonal serum gammopathy, what reinforced the diagnostic possibility of primary amyloidosis.
- [Efficacy of eculizumab in a case of pregnancy-associated aHUS]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- G Ital Nefrol 2016 Jul-Aug; 33(4)
Pregnancy-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a rare condition, but it is burdened by a significant perinatal and maternal morbidity as well as mortality. We describe the case of a 33-year-old woman, who developed a TMA at the 36th week of gestation characterized by increased LDH, haptoglobin consumption, schistocytes, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure requiring dialysis. There were not gestational hypertension nor proteinuria until the day of hospitalization. ADAMTS 13 deficiency was ruled out and the patient did not have diarrhea. She was initially treated with caesarean section, plasma infusion and plasmapheresis with no benefit. Five days after the onset of TMA, a temptative diagnosis of atypical uremic syndrome (aHUS) was made and the patient was switched to eculizumab. Antibiotic prophylaxis and anti-meningococcal A,B, C, W135 and Y vaccination was performed. TMA rapidly resolved and renal function completely recovered. The newborn had a normal perinatal course. A complement dysregulation was ruled out by testing for mutations on CFH, CFHR3-R1, CFI, MCP, CFB, C3 and for anti CFH antibodies. In conclusion the differential diagnosis of aHUS with HELLP syndrome is often not straightforward. The severity and persistence of TMA, the high mortality associated to peripartum TMA and the risk for irreversible kidney failure require an early therapeutic decision as to the use of eculizumab.
- An unusual case of IgA-dominant postinfectious glomerulonephritis: a case report and review of the literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pol J Pathol 2016; 67(2):179-182.
We report a case of IgA-dominant postinfectious glomerulonephritis in a 49-year-old man presenting with acute kidney injury, nephrotic range proteinuria and hematuria. He suffered from ischemic heart disease, cardiac insufficiency, mitral regurgitation, tricuspid insufficiency, septal aneurysm and hypertension. Renal biopsy revealed segmental and focal endocapillary and mesangial hypercellularity, and thickening of the glomerular capillary wall. Immunofluorescence showed co-dominant strong coarse granular immunostaining of IgA, IgG and C3 mainly along the glomerular capillary wall. On electron microscopy some large subepithelial hump-shaped deposits were present. In summary, this case demonstrates the presence of a broad spectrum of glomerular histological findings in postinfectious glomerulonephritis.
- Value of Foxp3 expressing T-regulatory cells in renal tissue in lupus nephritis; an immunohistochemical study. [Journal Article]
- J Nephropathol 2016 Jul; 5(3):105-10.
Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) functions as a master regulator in the development and function of T-regulatory (Treg) cells. Recent studies have shown that autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are associated with an imbalance with the Treg cells and T helper (Th) subtypes.To evaluate immunohistochemical expression of Foxp3 positive Treg cells in lupus nephritis (LN) and analyze its association with clinicopathologic parameters.Renal biopsy specimens of 50 patients with LN were studied. Specimens were divided into; group A; 25 LN cases without proliferative activity (Class II and V) and group B: 25 cases with proliferative activity (Class III and IV). Immunohistochemical staining for anti-human Foxp3 antibody and grading from grade 0 to grade 3 was done.Foxp3 expression in group A was (grade 0 in 14 [56.0%], grade +1 in 11 [44.0 %]) in comparison to group B (grade +1 in 6 [24.0%], grade +2 in 11 [44.0%] and grade +3 in 8 [32.0%]) (P < 0.001). Foxp3 expression was significantly correlated to National Institutes of Health (NIH) activity and chronicity indices (P < 0.05), as well as serum creatinine (P < 0.01) in both groups A and B and there was a highly significant correlation with proteinuria (P < 0.01) in group B with proliferative LN.Immunohistochemical Foxp3 expression in renal tissue was higher in proliferative versus non-proliferative LN and is associated with activity and severity of LN. Further studies are needed to determine its prognostic value in LN.
- The effect of renal diet in association with enalapril or benazepril on proteinuria in dogs with proteinuric chronic kidney disease. [Journal Article]
- Open Vet J 2016; 6(2):121-7.
Treating proteinuria in dogs reduces the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD); renal diets and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors are cornerstones of treatment. Whether different ACE-inhibitors have distinct kidney protective effects is unknown; it is therefore hypothesized that renal diets and enalapril or benazepril have different beneficial effects in proteinuric CKD dogs. Forty-four dogs with proteinuric CKD (IRIS stages 1-4) were enrolled in the study and were fed renal diet for 30 days. Thereafter, they were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Dogs in group A (n=22) received enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, q12h) and in group B (n=22) benazepril (0.5 mg/kg, q24h); in both groups, dogs were fed the same renal diet. After randomization, dogs were monitored for 120 days. Body weight and body condition score (BCS), serum concentrations of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin and total proteins, and urine protein-to-creatinine (UPC) ratio were compared at different time-points. After 30 days of renal diet, creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio decreased significantly (p<0.0001). Compared to randomization, body weight, BCS, albumin, total proteins, creatinine and BUN did not vary during follow-up in the 44 dogs and differences between group A and B were not observed. However, the UPC ratio of group A at day 60, 90 and 150 was significantly lower than in group B and compared to randomization (p<0.05). In group B it did not vary overtime. It is concluded that the renal diet is beneficial to decrease creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio in proteinuric CKD dogs. Enalapril further ameliorates proteinuria if administered along with renal diet.