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Renal AND Renal tubular acidosis [keywords]
- Kidney involvement in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy in a Finnish cohort. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014 Apr 7.
Autoimmune tubulo-interstitial nephritis (TIN) is a rare complication of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). Previous data on TIN and other renal or urologic manifestations of APECED are sparse.We performed a retrospective study on the urinary and renal tract diseases in a cohort of 30 Finnish patients with APECED (mean age 40 years), with special emphasis on the clinical presentation and the immunologic characteristics of TIN. Clinical and laboratory findings, specific anticytokine and kidney-specific antibodies were analysed.Five of the 30 (17%) patients had moderate-to-severe renal failure, including 3 (10%) with TIN, leading to either transplantation, haemodialysis or immunosuppressive treatment. No other cause other than APECED was found for the TIN. All three patients with TIN had circulating antibodies against the distal part of the nephron, as did 30% of all cohort cases. Two had nephrocalcinosis, and two had renal tubular acidosis type 1. Immunosuppressive therapy with mycophenolate mofetil or rituximab in one pediatric case did not revert the TIN, however.Renal failure should raise concern for TIN in APECED. It discloses some specific features: no uveitis, no glycosuria and inconstant urinalysis anomalies. Regular renal monitoring for any APECED patient should be performed. Circulating antibodies against the distal part of the nephron are frequent and present in all TIN patients, but their pathologic significance is not yet known. Future studies will be needed to understand the triggers leading to overt clinical disease in these patients.
- Plasma exchange successfully treats central pontine myelinolysis after acute hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy. [Journal Article]
- BMC Nephrol 2014; 15(1):56.
Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) primarily occurs after rapid correction of severe hyponatremia. There are no proven effective therapies for ODS, but we describe the first case showing the successful treatment of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) by plasma exchange, which occurred after rapid development of hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy.A 40-year-old woman presented with general weakness, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis. The patient was treated with oral and intravenous potassium chloride, along with intravenous sodium bicarbonate. Although her bicarbonate deficit was 365 mEq, we treated her with an overdose of intravenous sodium bicarbonate, 480 mEq for 24 hours, due to the severity of her acidemia and her altered mental status. The next day, she developed hypernatremia with serum sodium levels rising from 142.8 mEq/L to 172.8 mEq/L. Six days after developing hypernatremia, she exhibited tetraparesis, drooling, difficulty swallowing, and dysarthria, and a brain MRI revealed high signal intensity in the central pons with sparing of the peripheral portion, suggesting CPM. We diagnosed her with CPM associated with the rapid development of hypernatremia after intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy and treated her with plasma exchange. After two consecutive plasma exchange sessions, her neurologic symptoms were markedly improved except for mild diplopia. After the plasma exchange sessions, we examined the patient to determine the reason for her symptoms upon presentation to the hospital. She had normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, low blood bicarbonate levels, a urine pH of 6.5, and a calyceal stone in her left kidney. We performed a sodium bicarbonate loading test and diagnosed distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA). We also found that she had Sjögren's syndrome after a positive screen for anti-Lo, anti-Ra, and after the results of Schirmer's test and a lower lip biopsy. She was discharged and treated as an outpatient with oral sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride.This case indicates that serum sodium concentrations should be carefully monitored in patients with distal RTA receiving intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy. We should keep in mind that acute hypernatremia and CPM can be associated with intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy, and that CPM due to acute hypernatremia may be effectively treated with plasma exchange.
- Role of adaptor proteins and clathrin in the trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the cell surface. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Traffic 2014 Apr 3.
Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) plays an important role in acid-base homeostasis by mediating chloride/bicarbornate (Cl(-) /HCO3 (-) ) exchange at basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells in distal nephron. Impaired intracellular trafficking of kAE1 caused by mutations of SLC4A1 encoding kAE1 results in kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). However, it is not known how the intracellular sorting and trafficking of kAE1 from trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the basolateral membrane occur. Here, we studied the role of basolateral-related sorting proteins, including mu1 subunit of adaptor protein (AP) complexes, clathrin, and protein kinase D, on kAE1 trafficking in polarized and non-polarized kidney cells. By using RNA interference, co-immunoprecipitation, yellow fluorescent protein-based protein fragment complementation assay, and immunofluorescence staining, we demonstrated that AP-1 mu1A, AP-3 mu1, AP-4 mu1 and clathrin (but not AP-1 mu1B, PKD1 or PKD2) play crucial roles in intracellular sorting and trafficking of kAE1. We also demonstrated co-localization of kAE1 and basolateral-related sorting proteins in human kidney tissues by double immunofluorescence staining. These findings indicate that AP-1 mu1A, AP-3 mu1, AP-4 mu1, and clathrin are required for kAE1 sorting and trafficking from TGN to the basolateral membrane of acid-secreting α-intercalated cells.
- Everything you need to know about distal renal tubular acidosis in autoimmune disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rheumatol Int 2014 Mar 29.
Renal acid-base homeostasis is a complex process, effectuated by bicarbonate reabsorption and acid secretion. Impairment of urinary acidification is called renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is the most common form of the RTA syndromes. Multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms, each associated with various etiologies, can lead to dRTA. The most important consequence of dRTA is (recurrent) nephrolithiasis. The diagnosis is based on a urinary acidification test. Potassium citrate is the treatment of choice.
- Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis: Response to acetazolamide and postulated mechanisms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Med Genet A 2014 Mar 25.
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is characterized by enhanced renal phosphate absorption, hyperphosphatemia, and tumor-like extraosseous calcifications due to inactivating mutations in FGF23 or associated proteins. Surgical excision is needed when low phosphate diet and phosphate binders are ineffective. Sporadic reports have supported acetazolamide use. We report on a 7-year-old African American boy who presented with severe HFTC requiring numerous surgical excisions. Tumors continued to appear and others reoccurred despite phosphate restriction and sevelamer carbonate. At the age of 9.5 years, acetazolamide (40 mg/kg/day) was added and resulted in mild metabolic acidosis (bicarbonate 25.3 mEq/L vs. 21.4 mEq/L, P < 0.001; serum pH 7.38 vs. 7.31, P = 0.013, pre- and post-acetazolamide, respectively) but no change in tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP) (96.9% vs. 95.9%, P = 0.34) or serum phosphate (6.6 mg/dl vs. 6.9 mg/dl, P = 0.52 pre- and post-acetazolamide, respectively). Following the initiation of acetazolamide therapy, the patient experienced significant improvement in disease course as indicated by resolution of localized bone pain, cessation of tumor formation, and no tumor recurrence. Despite mild metabolic acidosis, our patient had improved linear growth and did not develop any other side effects related to therapy. Intact FGF23 remained abnormally low throughout disease course, while C-terminal FGF23 increased with acetazolamide. We conclude that acetazolamide can control severe HFTC by inducing mild metabolic acidosis despite no change in serum phosphate or TRP. This effect may be exerted though improved calcium-phosphate complex solubility and increased FGF23 locally. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Vacuolar ATPases and their role in vision. [Journal Article]
- Adv Exp Med Biol 2014.:97-103.
Vacuolar ATPases (v-ATPases) hydrolyze adenosine triphospate (ATP) to pump protons across cell membranes. Mutations in v-ATPase subunits are implicated in three human disorders: distal renal tubular acidosis, osteopetrosis, and cutis laxa type II. In the eye, the role of v-ATPases is only emerging. Mutations in v-ATPase subunits are not linked to human blindness, but altered proton pump function may underlie ocular pathologies. For example, inhibition of v-ATPase by A2E may accentuate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In animal models, v-ATPase mutations perturb the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor outer segment (OS) phagocytosis, an event linked to retinal degeneration. As the RPE plays essential roles in eye development and vision, the study of v-ATPase-induced RPE dysfunction may improve our understanding of RPE diseases.
- Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis Associated with Concurrent Leptospirosis in a Dog. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2014 Mar 21.
A 9 yr old spayed female boxer was presented for evaluation of vomiting, lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. Initial laboratory evaluation revealed a hyperchloremic normal anion gap metabolic acidosis with alkaline urine that was consistent with a diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Targeted therapy was initiated with Na bicarbonate (HCO3) and potassium (K) gluconate. Leptospirosis was subsequently diagnosed with paired microagglutination testing (MAT), and doxycycline was added to the other treatments. Clinical signs resolved, and 6 mo after diagnosis, although the dog remained on alkali therapy (i.e., NaHCO3 and K gluconate) and a mild metabolic acidosis persisted, the dog remained otherwise healthy with a good quality of life. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report to describe the concomitant association of those two disorders. Leptospirosis should be considered for any case of RTA in dogs.
- Ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome with diabetes insipidus. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Intern Med 2014 Mar; 29(2):246-9.
Ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome is a rare complication that typically occurs in young patients due to a cumulative dose of ifosfamide > 40-60 g/m(2), a reduction in kidney mass, or concurrent cisplatin treatment. It is usually characterized by severe and fatal progression accompanied by type II proximal renal tubular dysfunction, as evidenced by glycosuria, proteinuria, electrolyte loss, and metabolic acidosis. Diabetes insipidus is also a rare complication of ifosfamide-induced renal disease. We herein describe a case involving a 61-year-old man who developed ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome accompanied by diabetes insipidus only a few days after the first round of chemotherapy. He had no known risk factors. In addition, we briefly review the mechanisms and possible therapeutic options for this condition based on other cases in the literature. Patients who receive ifosfamide must be closely monitored for renal impairment to avoid this rare but fatal complication.
- Congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption: A descriptive study of clinical characteristics and outcome from Western Saudi Arabia. [Journal Article]
- Arab J Gastroenterol 2014 Mar; 15(1):21-3.
Congenital glucose galactose malabsorption (CGGM) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the sodium-coupled transport of glucose and galactose across the intestinal brush border presenting with neonatal diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to report the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with CGGM from the Western Saudi Arabia.This is a retrospective review of CGGM patients in three major hospitals in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, namely King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, and Maternity Children Hospital in the period between November 2001 and October 2011.Twenty-four patients with CGGM have been described. The median age at diagnosis was 4.5months. Twelve (50%) were males. Sixteen (66.7%) were Saudi and 8 (33.3%) were non Saudi (5 Arabs and 3 Asians). Parents of 21 patients were consanguineous. Nine (37.5%) had affected siblings with CGGM. All presented with diarrhoea resulted in dehydration. Hypernatremia was seen in 7 (29.2%) patients, renal tubular acidosis in 4 patients. Renal stones and nephrocalcinosis were detected in 3 (12.5%) patients at 8months, 12months and 7years, respectively. The median follow up was 41.6months. All but three demonstrated normal weight gain. Five patients reported one or more symptoms of bloating (n=3), diarrhoea (n=3) and abdominal pain (n=1) during follow up. All had normal development and none had neurological complications secondary to dehydration.Early recognition and management of this condition are crucial to prevent consequences of dehydration and death.