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Respiratory Syncytial Virus [keywords]
- Architecture of respiratory syncytial virus revealed by electron cryotomography. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Jun 17.
Human respiratory syncytial virus is a human pathogen that causes severe infection of the respiratory tract. Current information about the structure of the virus and its interaction with host cells is limited. We carried out an electron cryotomographic characterization of cell culture-grown human respiratory syncytial virus to determine the architecture of the virion. The particles ranged from 100 nm to 1,000 nm in diameter and were spherical, filamentous, or a combination of the two. The filamentous morphology correlated with the presence of a cylindrical matrix protein layer linked to the inner leaflet of the viral envelope and with local ordering of the glycoprotein spikes. Recombinant viruses with only the fusion protein in their envelope showed that these glycoproteins were predominantly in the postfusion conformation, but some were also in the prefusion form. The ribonucleocapsids were left-handed, randomly oriented, and curved inside the virions. In filamentous particles, they were often adjacent to an intermediate layer of protein assigned to M2-1 (an envelope-associated protein known to mediate association of ribonucleocapsids with the matrix protein). Our results indicate important differences in structure between the Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae subfamilies within the Paramyxoviridae, and provide fresh insights into host cell exit of a serious pathogen.
- Use of palivizumab in infants and young children with severe respiratory disease: A delphi study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Pulmonol 2013 Jun 18.
OBJECTIVE:To achieve a consensus of opinion among an expert group of pediatric pulmonologists regarding the appropriateness of the off-label use of palivizumab for some pediatric patients with severe respiratory diseases.
METHODS:A two-round modified Delphi technique was used. A 43-item self-administered questionnaire grouped into seven clinical scenarios was developed. Level of agreement for each statement was ranked on a 0-9 scale with 0 being total disagreement and 9 total agreement. Consensus was sought through the feedback of information and iteration. The final responses were evaluated for median and interquartile range to determine which questions the group had reached consensus about, either affirmatively or negatively.
RESULTS:Consensus was obtained for 24/43 statements (55.81%), including use of palivizumab for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children with severe respiratory involvement due to neuromuscular disease, congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, storage disease, cystic fibrosis, diseases involving impaired ciliary clearance, patients operated on esophageal atresia and/or tracheoesophageal fistula, diaphragmatic hernia, bronchopulmonary malformations, severe tracheomalacia, lung transplant recipients and patients in the waiting list for lung transplant, patients oxygen-dependent for severe interstitial pulmonary disease and patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. Consensus against the use of palivizumab as prevention of RSV infection was also achieved in almost all the recurrent wheezing/asthma attacks situations.
CONCLUSION:A set of indication for off-label uses of palivizumab in pediatric pulmonology was developed in accordance with the degree of professional consensus on which they were based. The applicability of the present results to clinical practice should be evaluated individually and reviewed periodically in the light of new emerging evidence. Further studies are needed to add evidence to the most frequent and clinically oriented scenarios that have shown higher levels of uncertainty. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Genetic analysis and antigenic characterization of human respiratory syncytial virus group A viruses isolated in Germany 1996-2008. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Virus Genes 2013 Jun 18.
The genetic and antigenic variability of 18 human respiratory syncytial virus group A viruses isolated in Germany from 1996 to 2008 was evaluated by nucleotide sequencing of the complete G and F genes and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis with anti-G and anti-F monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the G-proteins clustered into the two genotypes GA2 and GA5. The antigenic analysis of G-gene was carried out with a panel of anti-G and anti-F monoclonal antibodies that recognized strain-specific or variable epitopes which were originally derived against long strain (subtype GA1) and MON-3-88 strain (GA2). An amino acid substitution was found in a potential O-glycosylation site leading to a loss of reactivity with a strain-specific MAb. A score was calculated for quantifying the overall reactivity of the antibodies. If reactivity of all MAbs was totalized, a net sum loss of reactivity was seen over the time suggesting that antigenic drift due to immune selection may be occurring.
- Viral infections acquired indoors through airborne, droplet or contact transmission. [Journal Article]
- Ann Ist Super Sanita 2013; 49(2):124-32.
Background.Indoor human environments, including homes, offices, schools, workplaces, transport systems and other settings, often harbor potentially unsafe microorganisms. Most previous studies of bioaerosols in indoor environments have addressed contamination with bacteria or fungi. Reports on the presence of viral aerosols in indoor air are scarce, however, despite the fact that viruses are probably the most common cause of infection acquired indoor.
Objective.This review discusses the most common respiratory (influenza viruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, and enteroviruses) and gastrointestinal (noroviruses) viral pathogens which can be easily transmitted in indoor environments.
Results.The vast majority of studies reviewed here concern hospital and other health facilities where viruses are a well-known cause of occupational and nosocomial infections. Studies on other indoor environments, on the other hand, including homes, nonindustrial workplaces and public buildings, are scarce.
Conclusions.The lack of regulations, threshold values and standardized detection methods for viruses in indoor environments, make both research and interpretation of results difficult in this field, hampering infection control efforts. Further research will be needed to achieve a better understanding of virus survival in aerosols and on surfaces, and to elucidate the relationship between viruses and indoor environmental characteristics.
- A neutralization assay for respiratory syncytial virus using a quantitative PCR-based endpoint assessment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Virol J 2013 Jun 15; 10(1):195.
BACKGROUND:Few studies have used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as an approach to measure virus neutralization assay endpoints. Its lack of use may not be surprising considering that sample nucleic acid extraction and purification can be expensive, labor-intensive, and rate-limiting.
METHODS:Virus/antibody mixtures were incubated for one hour at 37[degree sign]C and then transferred to Vero cell monolayers in a 96-well plate format. At 24 (or 48) hours post-infection, we used a commercially available reagent to prepare cell lysates amenable to direct analysis by one-step SYBR Green quantitative reverse transcription PCR using primers specific for the RSV-N gene, thereby obviating the need for cumbersome RNA extraction and purification. The neutralization titer was defined as the reciprocal of the highest dilution needed to inhibit the PCR signal by 90% when compared with the mean value observed in virus control wells in the absence of neutralizing antibodies.
RESULTS:We have developed a qPCR-based neutralization assay for human respiratory syncytial virus. Due to the sensitivity of qPCR in detecting virus replication, endpoints may be assessed as early as 24 hours post-infection. In addition, the dynamic range of qPCR provides a basis for the assay to be relatively robust to perturbations in input virus dose (i.e., the assay is in compliance with the Percentage Law).
CONCLUSIONS:This qPCR-based neutralization assay is suitable for automated high-throughput applications. In addition, our experimental approach may be generalizable for the rapid development of neutralization assays for other virus families.
- Spectrum of respiratory viruses circulating in eastern India: Prospective surveillance among patients with influenza-like illness during 2010-2011. [Journal Article]
- J Med Virol 2013 Aug; 85(8):1459-65.
In developing countries, viruses causing respiratory disease are a major concern of public health. During January 2010-December 2011, 2,737 patients with acute respiratory infection from the outpatient departments as well as patients admitted to hospitals were screened for different respiratory viruses. Nasal and or throat swabs were collected and transported to the laboratory where initial screening of influenza A and influenza B viruses was performed. The samples were tested further for influenza C virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, human rhinovirus, metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus by conventional RT- PCR. The study revealed that the majority of the patients were under 5 years of age; both due to their higher susceptibility to respiratory infections and presentation to hospitals. Out of 2,737 patients enrolled in this study, 59% were found positive for one or more respiratory viruses. Influenza B infection was detected in 12% of patients followed by influenza A (11.7%), respiratory syncytial virus (7.1%), parainfluenza virus-2 (6%), metapneumovirus (3%), parainfluenza virus-3 (1%), parainfluenza virus-4 (0.6%), parainfluenza virus-1 (0.3%), influenza C (0.2%) and human rhinovirus (0.2%). Distinct seasonal infection was observed only for influenza A and influenza B viruses. J. Med. Virol. 85:1459-1465, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Influence of pneumococcal vaccines and respiratory syncytial virus on alveolar pneumonia, Israel. [Journal Article]
- Emerg Infect Dis 2013 Jul; 19(7):1084-91.
Postlicensure surveillance of pneumonia incidence can be used to estimate whether pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) affect incidence. We used Poisson regression models that control for baseline seasonality to determine the impact of PCVs and the possible effects of variations in virus activity in Israel on these surveillance estimates. PCV was associated with significant declines in radiologically confirmed alveolar pneumonia (RCAP) among patients <6 months, 6-17 months, and 18-35 months of age (-31% [95% CI -51% to -15%], -41% [95% CI -52 to -32%], and -34% [95% CI -42% to -25%], respectively). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) activity was associated with strong increases in RCAP incidence, with up to 44% of cases attributable to RSV among infants <6 months of age and lower but significant impacts in older children. Seasonal variations, particularly in RSV activity, masked the impact of 7-valent PCVs, especially for young children in the first 2 years after vaccine introduction.
- Does a therapeutic conversation intervention in an acute paediatric setting make a difference for families of children with bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Nurs 2013 Jun 14.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To measure the benefit of a short-family therapeutic conversation (STC) intervention in an acute paediatric unit.
BACKGROUND:Studies of children with bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have shown that this virus may have an impact on their respiratory system in the form of a wheezing disorder, asthma and even allergy during their childhood. Studies of the parents of these children indicate that they experience distress, vulnerability and anxiety through the illness period and therefore need support from healthcare professionals. However, little is known about what intervention is of most benefit for these parents.
METHOD:Data were collected from a convenience sample from February throughout April 2009 at an acute unit at a children's hospital in Iceland. Parents of infants diagnosed with bronchiolitis caused by RSV were invited to attend. In total, there are 41 participants: 21 in the intervention group (n = 21) and 20 in the control group (n = 20). Parents in both groups answered questionnaires about perceived support and family expressive functioning both before the intervention and on an average of 11 days after the intervention.
RESULTS:The main findings showed that mothers in the intervention group perceive significantly higher support after the intervention compared with the control group. The findings also showed a significant difference between the genders (mothers and fathers) in the intervention group. The mothers perceived higher cognitive support than the fathers.
CONCLUSIONS:Despite the often chaotic environment in an acute care setting, the research findings give paediatric nurses reason to conclude that a STC intervention benefits mothers of infants with bronchiolitis caused by RSV. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: A STC intervention offered by a nurse within an acute paediatric unit can support families in handling the illness experience.
- Development and validation of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for palivizumab serum determination. [Journal Article]
- Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2013 Apr-Jun; 26(2):503-10.
Palivizumab (Synagis) is a humanized monoclonal antibody (IgG1K) composed of 95 percent human and 5 percent murine sequences. It is directed to an epitope in the A antigenic site of the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Palivizumab is used for prevention of serious lower respiratory tract disease caused by RSV in pediatric patients who are at increased risk of severe disease and is administered intramuscularly (IM) for a total of 5 monthly doses. Herein, we report on the development and validation of a very sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure serum concentrations of palivizumab by a rabbit polyclonal antibody specifically produced against the murine sequence. The method was developed and validated according to the guidelines Guidance for Industry (1998) and has proved suitable for the determination of palivizumab serum levels in the target infant population. The ELISA assay was successfully applied to test the serum samples in an infant population who received palivizumab intramuscularly; thus, the assay could be used to determine serum levels in palivizumab-treated infants to optimize dosing and scheduling and to study the relationship between dose and clinical response.
- Genetic Vaccine for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Provides Protection without Disease Potentiation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Ther 2013 Jun 10.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of infectious lower respiratory disease in infants and the elderly. As there is no vaccine for RSV, we developed a genetic vaccine approach that induced protection of the entire respiratory tract from a single parenteral administration. The approach was based on adenovirus vectors derived from newly isolated non-human primate viruses with low seroprevalence. We show for the first time that a single intramuscular injection of the replication-deficient adenovirus vectors expressing the RSV fusion (F0) glycoprotein induced immune responses that protected both the lungs and noses of cotton rats and mice even at low doses and for several months post-immunization. The immune response included high titers of neutralizing antibody that were maintained ≥24 weeks and RSV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. The vectors were as potently immunogenic as a human adenovirus 5 vector in these two key respiratory pathogen animal models. Importantly, there was minimal alveolitis and granulocytic infiltrates in the lung and type 2 cytokines were not produced after RSV challenge even under conditions of partial protection. Overall, this genetic vaccine is highly effective without potentiating immunopathology, and the results support development of the vaccine candidate for human testing.Molecular Therapy (2013); doi:10.1038/mt.2013.142.