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Respiratory failure, acute [keywords]
- Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediates Acute Lung Injury Induced by High Mobility Group Box-1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e64375.
Acute lung injury (ALI) is considered to be the major cause of respiratory failure in critically ill patients. Clinical studies have found that in patients with sepsis and after hemorrhage, the elevated level of high mobility group box-1(HMGB-1) in their circulation is highly associated with ALI, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Extracellular HMGB-1 has cytokine-like properties and can bind to Toll-like Receptor-4 (TLR4), which was reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of ALI. The aim of this study was to determine whether HMGB-1 directly contributes to ALI and whether TLR4 signaling pathway is involved in this process.Recombinant human HMGB-1 (rhHMGB-1) was used to induce ALI in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Lung specimens were collected 2 h after HMGB-1 treatment. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, TLR4 protein, and TLR4 mRNA in lungs as well as pathological changes of lung tissue were assessed. In cell studies, the alveolar macrophage cell line, NR8383, was collected 24 h after rhHMGB-1 treatment and the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in cultured medium as well as TLR4 protein and mRNA levels in the cell were examined. TLR4-shRNA-lentivirus was used to inhibit TLR4 expression, and a neutralizing anti-HMGB1 antibody was used to neutralize rhHMGB-1 both in vitro and in vivo.Features of lung injury and significant elevation of IL-1β and TNF-α levels were found in lungs of rhHMGB-1-treated animals. Cultured NR8383 cells were activated by rhHMGB-1 treatment and resulted in the release of IL-1β and TNF-α. TLR4 expression was greatly up-regulated by rhHMGB-1. Inhibition of TLR4 or neutralization of HMGB1 with a specific antibody also attenuated the inflammatory response induced by HMGB-1 both in vivo and in vitro.HMGB-1 can activate alveolar macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines and induce ALI through a mechanism that relies on TLR-4.
- Effects of Patient-Directed Music Intervention on Anxiety and Sedative Exposure in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilatory Support: A Randomized Clinical Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2013 May 20.:1-10.
IMPORTANCE Alternatives to sedative medications, such as music, may alleviate the anxiety associated with ventilatory support.
OBJECTIVETo test whether listening to self-initiated patient-directed music (PDM) can reduce anxiety and sedative exposure during ventilatory support in critically ill patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Randomized clinical trial that enrolled 373 patients from 12 intensive care units (ICUs) at 5 hospitals in the Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota, area receiving acute mechanical ventilatory support for respiratory failure between September 2006 and March 2011. Of the patients included in the study, 86% were white, 52% were female, and the mean (SD) age was 59 (14) years. The patients had a mean (SD) Acute Physiology, Age and Chronic Health Evaluation III score of 63 (21.6) and a mean (SD) of 5.7 (6.4) study days. INTERVENTIONS Self-initiated PDM (n = 126) with preferred selections tailored by a music therapist whenever desired while receiving ventilatory support, self-initiated use of noise-canceling headphones (NCH; n = 122), or usual care (n = 125). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Daily assessments of anxiety (on 100-mm visual analog scale) and 2 aggregate measures of sedative exposure (intensity and frequency).
RESULTSPatients in the PDM group listened to music for a mean (SD) of 79.8 (126) (median [range], 12 [0-796]) minutes/day. Patients in the NCH group wore the noise-abating headphones for a mean (SD) of 34.0 (89.6) (median [range], 0 [0-916]) minutes/day. The mixed-models analysis showed that at any time point, patients in the PDM group had an anxiety score that was 19.5 points lower (95% CI, -32.2 to -6.8) than patients in the usual care group (P = .003). By the fifth study day, anxiety was reduced by 36.5% in PDM patients. The treatment × time interaction showed that PDM significantly reduced both measures of sedative exposure. Compared with usual care, the PDM group had reduced sedation intensity by -0.18 (95% CI, -0.36 to -0.004) points/day (P = .05) and had reduced frequency by -0.21 (95% CI, -0.37 to -0.05) points/day (P = .01). The PDM group had reduced sedation frequency by -0.18 (95% CI, -0.36 to -0.004) points/day vs the NCH group (P = .04). By the fifth study day, the PDM patients received 2 fewer sedative doses (reduction of 38%) and had a reduction of 36% in sedation intensity.
CONCLUSIONSAND RELEVANCE Among ICU patients receiving acute ventilatory support for respiratory failure, PDM resulted in greater reduction in anxiety compared with usual care, but not compared with NCH. Concurrently, PDM resulted in greater reduction in sedation frequency compared with usual care or NCH, and greater reduction in sedation intensity compared with usual care, but not compared with NCH. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00440700.
- The lung microvascular endothelium as a therapeutic target in severe influenza. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Antiviral Res 2013 May 15.
Severe infections with influenza virus are characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a life-threatening disorder in which the alveolocapillary membrane in the lung becomes leaky. This leads to alveolar flooding, hypoxemia and respiratory failure. Recent data suggest that influenza virus can exert both direct and indirect effects on the lung endothelium, activating it and inducing microvascular leak. These findings raise the possibility that enhancing lung endothelial barrier integrity or modulating lung endothelial activation may prove therapeutically useful for severe influenza. In this paper, we review evidence that lung endothelial activation and vascular leak are a "final common pathway" in severe influenza, as has been reported in bacterial sepsis, and that enhancing endothelial barrier function may improve the outcome of illness. We describe a number of experimental therapies that have shown promise in preventing or reversing increased vascular leak in animal models of sepsis or influenza.
- [Acute respiratory insufficiency as debut of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis in an infant.] [LETTER]
- An Pediatr (Barc) 2013 May 15.
- Significance of triphasic waves in patients with acute encephalopathy: A nine-year cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Neurophysiol 2013 May 15.
OBJECTIVE:Triphasic waves (TWs) are a frequent electroencephalography (EEG) finding in encephalopathy, yet their origin and prognostic significance are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and EEG characteristics in encephalopathic patients with TWs. We hypothesized that specific EEG characteristics are predictive of outcome.
METHODS:Consecutive adult encephalopathic patients with TWs on EEG and neuroimaging were included. EEG analysis included semiquantitative evaluation of TWs, background activity, and EEG reactivity. The study endpoint was death.
RESULTS:Over a nine-year period, 105 patients with TWs were included. Common abnormalities on neuroimaging were white matter lesions (60%) and cerebral atrophy (59%). Pathologic conditions included infections (56%), renal (50%) and liver insufficiency (12%), and respiratory failure (20%). Mortality was 20%. Absent EEG background reactivity and respiratory failure were independently associated with death (OR 3.73, 95%CI 1.08-12.80, p=0.037 and OR 6.47, 95%CI 1.98-21.12, p=0.02).
CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that TWs are a marker of structural brain disease coupled with toxic-metabolic perturbations, and that etiologies or underlying pathologies were not predictive for outcome while non-reactive EEG was independently associated with death.
SIGNIFICANCE:In contrast to clinical, EEG and neuroimaging findings, non-reactive EEG patterns predicted death in encephalopathic patients with TWs.
- Inhaled epoprostenol vs inhaled nitric oxide for refractory hypoxemia in critically ill patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Crit Care 2013 May 14.
PURPOSE:The purpose of this is to compare efficacy, safety, and cost outcomes in patients who have received either inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO) or inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) for hypoxic respiratory failure.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:This is a retrospective, single-center analysis of adult, mechanically ventilated patients receiving iNO or iEPO for improvement in oxygenation.
RESULTS:We evaluated 105 mechanically ventilated patients who received iEPO (52 patients) or iNO (53 patients) between January 2009 and October 2010. Most patients received therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (iNO 58.5% vs iEPO 61.5%; P = .84). There was no difference in the change in the partial pressure of arterial O2/fraction of inspired O2 ratio after 1 hour of therapy (20.58 ± 91.54 vs 33.04 ± 36.19 [P = .36]) in the iNO and iEPO groups, respectively. No difference was observed in duration of therapy (P = .63), mechanical ventilation (P = .07), intensive care unit (P = .67), and hospital lengths of stay (P = .26) comparing the iNO and iEPO groups. No adverse events were attributed to either therapy. Inhaled nitric oxide was 4.5 to 17 times more expensive than iEPO depending on contract pricing.
CONCLUSIONS:We found no difference in efficacy and safety outcomes when comparing iNO and iEPO in hypoxic, critically ill patients. Inhaled epoprostenol is associated with less drug expenditure than iNO.
- Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia associated with influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia after lung transplantation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Pulm Med 2013 May 19; 13(1):30.
BACKGROUND:Immunocompromised patients, particularly after lung transplantation, are at high risk to develop atypical forms of pulmonary infections including influenza A/H1N1. Acute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia (AFOP) is a special histological pattern in acute respiratory failure with high mortality.
CASE PRESENTATION:We describe a 66-year-old woman with double lung transplantation in August 2009 due to end stage pulmonary fibrosis. After prolonged weaning and subsequent promising course, she developed atypical pneumonia with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in both lungs in January 2010. Infection with influenza A/H1N1 virus was verified. The patient rapidly suffered from respiratory insufficiency and died eight days after this diagnosis. The post-mortem revealed especially in the lower parts of the lungs the classical histological pattern of pure AFOP. Molecular analyses of lung tissue were positive for influenza A/H1N1.
CONCLUSION:To our knowledge we present the first case of AFOP triggered by viral infection, here proven to be influenza virus A/H1N1. Thus, also in the setting of viral infection the highly deadly differential diagnosis of AFOP must be considered.
- Should critically ill children with acute respiratory failure be treated with surfactant? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Dis Child 2013 May 16.
- Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Crit Care 2013 Apr 25; 17(2):223.
Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has proved to be an excellent technique in selected critically ill patients with different forms of acute respiratory failure. However, NIV can fail on account of the severity of the disease and technical problems, particularly at the interface. The helmet could be an alternative interface compared to face mask to improve NIV success. We performed a clinical review to investigate the main physiological and clinical studies assessing the efficacy and related issues of NIV delivered with a helmet. A computerized search strategy of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 2000 to May 2012) and EMBASE (January 2000 to May 2012) was conducted limiting the search to retrospective, prospective, nonrandomized and randomized trials. We analyzed 152 studies from which 33 were selected, 12 physiological and 21 clinical (879 patients). The physiological studies showed that NIV with helmet could predispose to CO2 rebreathing and increase the patients' ventilator asynchrony. The main indications for NIV were acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (community-acquired pneumonia, postoperative and immunocompromised patients) and hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. In 9 of the 21 studies the helmet was compared to a face mask during either continous positive airway pressure or pressure support ventilation. In eight studies oxygenation was similar in the two groups, while the intubation rate was similar in four and lower in three studies for the helmet group compared to face mask group. The outcome was similar in six studies. The tolerance was better with the helmet in six of the studies. Although these data are limited, NIV delivered by helmet could be a safe alternative to the face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure.
- Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV); Announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Virol 2013 May 15.
During the summer of 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia a hitherto unknown coronavirus was isolated from the sputum of a patient with acute pneumonia and renal failure (1, 2).…