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Rheumatoid arthritis [keywords]
- Arthroscopic synovial biopsy in definitive diagnosis of joint diseases: An evaluation of efficacy and precision. [Journal Article]
- Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2012 Jul; 2(2):102-6.
Arthritis is an important cause of morbidity, presenting as monoarticular or polyarticular lesion. Arthroscopic synovial aspiration and biopsy can help in arriving specific etiological diagnosis.To evaluate the efficacy of arthroscopic synovial biopsy as a diagnostic aid and study the characteristics of synovial fluid in various joint diseases.Arthroscopic synovial biopsy along with synovial fluid analysis was studied in 30 of the 50 enrolled cases arthritis. The fluid was subjected to physical, biochemical, and cytological analysis.Both rheumatoid (n = 14, 28%) and tubercular (n = 13, 26%) arthritis were found to be more common compared to other etiologies. Next common etiology observed was chronic nonspecific synovitis (n = 10, 20%). Clinicopathological correlation was seen in 34 out of 50 cases. As a diagnostic tool, synovial biopsy had a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 62%.Arthroscopic synovial biopsy is a simple and easy to perform technique and is an important useful investigative adjunct that may give conclusive diagnosis where clinical diagnosis is equivocal.
- Human Parvovirus B19 Induced Apoptotic Bodies Contain Altered Self-Antigens that are Phagocytosed by Antigen Presenting Cells. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(6):e67179.
Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) from the erythrovirus genus is known to be a pathogenic virus in humans. Prevalence of B19V infection has been reported worldwide in all seasons, with a high incidence in the spring. B19V is responsible for erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) commonly seen in children. Its other clinical presentations include arthralgia, arthritis, transient aplastic crisis, chronic anemia, congenital anemia, and hydrops fetalis. In addition, B19V infection has been reported to trigger autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the mechanisms of B19V participation in autoimmunity are not fully understood. B19V induced chronic disease and persistent infection suggests B19V can serve as a model for viral host interactions and the role of viruses in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here we investigate the involvement of B19V in the breakdown of immune tolerance. Previously, we demonstrated that the non-structural protein 1 (NS 1) of B19V induces apoptosis in non-permissive cells lines and that this protein can cleave host DNA as well as form NS1-DNA adducts. Here we provide evidence that through programmed cell death, apoptotic bodies (ApoBods) are generated by B19V NS1 expression in a non-permissive cell line. Characterization of purified ApoBods identified potential self-antigens within them. In particular, signature self-antigens such as Smith, ApoH, DNA, histone H4 and phosphatidylserine associated with autoimmunity were present in these ApoBods. In addition, when purified ApoBods were introduced to differentiated macrophages, recognition, engulfment and uptake occurred. This suggests that B19V can produce a source of self-antigens for immune cell processing. The results support our hypothesis that B19V NS1-DNA adducts, and nucleosomal and lysosomal antigens present in ApoBods created in non-permissive cell lines, are a source of self-antigens.
- Acute-phase serum amyloid a in osteoarthritis: regulatory mechanism and proinflammatory properties. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(6):e66769.
To determine if serum amyloid A (A-SAA) could be detected in human osteoarthritic (OA) joints and further clarify if high A-SAA level in joints result from a local production or from a diffusion process from abnormally elevated plasma concentration. Regulatory mechanism of A-SAA expression and its pro-inflammatory properties were also investigated.A-SAA levels in serum and synovial fluid of OA (n = 29) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 27) patients were measured and compared to matched-healthy volunteers (HV) (n = 35). In vitro cell cultures were performed on primary joint cells provided from osteoarthritis patients. Regulatory mechanisms were studied using Western-blotting, ELISA and lentiviral transfections.A-SAA was statistically increased in OA plasma patients compared to HV. Moreover, A-SAA level in OA plasma and synovial fluid increased with the Kellgren & Lauwrence grade. For all OA and RA patients, A-SAA plasma level was higher and highly correlated with its corresponding level in the synovial fluid, therefore supporting that A-SAA was mainly due to the passive diffusion process from blood into the joint cavity. However, A-SAA expression was also observed in vitro under corticosteroid treatment and/or under IL-1beta stimuli. A-SAA expression was down-regulated by PPAR-γ agonists (genistein and rosiglitazone) and up-regulated by TGF-β1 through Alk1 (Smad1/5) pathway. RhSAA induced proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, GRO-α and MCP-1) and metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13) expression in FLS and chondrocytes, which expression was downregulated by TAK242, a specific TLR4 inhibitor.Systemic or local A-SAA expression inside OA joint cavity may play a key role in inflammatory process seen in osteoarthritis, which could be counteracted by TLR4 inhibition.
- Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and the risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in systemic lupus erythematosus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Orthop 2013 Jun 18.
PURPOSE:Nitric oxide (NO), a short-lived gaseous free radical, is a potent mediator of biological responses involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune rheumatic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Nitric oxide also serves as an important signal in physiological processes, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, and bone turnover, which are known to be related to the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis. We investigated whether NOS3 gene polymorphisms are associated with risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH).
METHODS:Five polymorphisms in the NOS3 gene were genotyped using TaqMan assays in 306 controls, 150 SLE patients, and 50 SLE patients with ONFH (SLE_ONFH).
RESULTS:We found that Asp258Asp and Glu298Asp (G894T) polymorphisms in the NOS3 gene were significantly associated with risk of ONFH. Additionally, we calculated haplotype frequencies of a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block in NOS3 (rs1799983 - rs1800780) and tested for haplotype associations. The haplotypes G-A and T-A showed significant protective (P = 1.6 × 10(-3); OR 0.39, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.22-0.7) and increased risk (P = 2.0 x 10(-5)-6.0 x 10(-4); OR 3.17-3.73) effects for ONFH, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that exonic NOS3 polymorphisms may increase the risk of ONFH in Korean SLE patients.
- Can bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis be prevented? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Osteoporos Int 2013 Jun 18.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease that can lead to local joint deformations (bone erosions and joint space narrowing) and to extra-articular phenomena, including generalized osteoporosis. In addition, in patients with RA, the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures is doubled. High disease activity (inflammation), immobility, and glucocorticoid use are common factors that substantially increase fracture risk in these patients, on top of the background fracture risk based on classical risk factors such as high age, low body mass, and female gender. New insights on the links between the immune system and the bone system, the field of osteoimmunology, have shown that local and generalized bone loss share common pathways. The receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway (RANKl/OPG) is one of the most important pathways, as it is (strongly) upregulated by inflammation. In modern treatment of RA with biologics, for example, TNFα-blocking agents and combination therapy of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), clinical remission is a realistic treatment goal. As a consequence, in recent studies, it has been documented that both local and generalized bone loss is absent or minimal in those patients who are in clinical remission.
- [Significance of anti-citrullinated human papilloma virus-47 E2(345-362) peptide antibodies in diagnosis of early-stage rheumatoid arthritis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao 2013 Jun 18; 45(3):458-63.
To investigate the prevalence and the diagnostic values of antibodies to the citrullinated HPVP in early-stage rheumatoid arthritis.Antibodies against HPVP and citrullinated HPVP were detected by ELISA in the sera of 101 patients with early-stage RA, 149 patients with other rheumatic diseases and 40 healthy controls. The prevalence and diagnostic values of these antibodies for early-stage RA were analyzed by statistical software.(1)The prevalence of IgG, IgM antibodies to citrullinated HPVP in early-stage RA were significantly higher than that in the patients with other rheumatic diseases as well as in the healthy individuals.(2)The diagnostic sensitivity of IgG and IgM citrullinated HPVP antibodies in early-stage RA were 62.4% and 66.3% respectively and the specificity value of the two antibody isotypes were 88.7% and 89.6%,similar to that of the anti-CCP antibody. (3)The positivity rates of IgG and IgM antibodies against citrullinated HPVP were 59.4% and 71.9% in IgM-RF negative early-stage RA patients, and 39.4% and 51.5% in anti-CCP antibody negative early-stage RA patients. (4) The DAS28 score [ IgG (6.3±1.0) vs. (5.6±0.9), P=0.002; IgM (6.2±1.1) vs. (5.6±0.8), P=0.008] , X-ray stages (IgG 56.1% vs. 21.2%, P=0.001;IgM 50.9% vs. 29.4%, P=0.036),anti-CCP antibodies(IgG 96.8% vs. 55.3%, P=0.001; IgM 89.6% vs. 64.7%, P=0.023) in citrullinated HPVPP positive patients were higher than those of citrullinated HPVP negative patients. Additionally, the levels of ESR[IgG(70.3±32.4)vs.(51.9±27.8), P=0.004; IgM (67.4±31.5)vs.(53.8±27.7), P=0.035] in citrullinated HPVP positive patients were higher than those of negative patients (P<0.05).IgG and IgM antibodies to citrullinated HPVP are highly sensitive and specific novel biomarkers for early-stage RA diagnosis, and are related to disease activity and joint damage.
- Changes in lipid levels with inflammation and therapy in RA: a maturing paradigm. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Rev Rheumatol 2013 Jun 18.
Dyslipidaemia is commonly observed in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with lower total cholesterol levels as well as lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reported in these patients than in individuals without RA. This pattern is mirrored in sepsis and other inflammatory states, suggesting systemic inflammation has the general effect of lowering circulating lipid levels. In line with such observations, suppressing inflammation with DMARDs, biologic therapies and small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitors seems to elevate levels of lipid fractions in RA, albeit in a variable manner dependent presumably upon the mechanism of action of the different agents. In addition, limited epidemiological data in patients with RA suggest increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk at relatively low cholesterol levels, a pattern contrasting with that observed in the population without RA. Our understanding of the potential mechanisms behind these inflammation-associated lipid changes remains suboptimal and requires further study. In clinical terms, however, use of the total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio as the lipid component of CVD risk scoring in patients with RA would seem appropriate given that these lipid parameters generally change in parallel with inflammation and suppression of inflammation. Whether alternative lipid or lipoprotein measures (or simple markers of inflammation) could improve stratification of CVD risk in RA beyond the established risk factors requires future investigation.
- Rheumatoid arthritis: PAD-ing out the ACPA response in RA. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Rev Rheumatol 2013 Jun 18.
- The influence of ageing on the development and management of rheumatoid arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Rev Rheumatol 2013 Jun 18.
The population of elderly individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is expanding, due mainly to increasing life expectancy. A variety of theories have been proposed to explain the ageing process, including accumulation of DNA damage and resultant changes in biological processes. Such changes can influence the development and/or course of disease. Furthermore, alterations in biological function determine the biological age-as opposed to chronological age-of an individual, which strongly influences their ability to cope with disease. Moreover, comorbidities are more frequent in elderly individuals. Together, these factors complicate treatment of disease and necessitate careful patient management. Indeed, although evidence from clinical trials suggests that DMARDs and biologic agents have good efficacy and are well tolerated in elderly patients with RA, such individuals are often undertreated and inadequately managed. Unfortunately, insufficient data are available for the development of evidence-based guidelines for this population, as elderly patients are often excluded from clinical trials owing to age restrictions or comorbidities. Thus, additional clinical studies in elderly patients are warranted, with treatment regimens tailored according to vitality or frailty parameters. This Review focuses on the pathophysiological aspects of ageing and their implications for the management of RA in elderly patients.
- Inter- relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. [Journal Article]
- Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2013 Jan-Mar; 11(41):22-6.
Background Periodontal medicine defines a rapidly emerging branch of Periodontology focusing on establishing a strong relationship between periodontal health and systemic health. It is speculated that the major common dysregulation which links Periodontitis with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is being played by the mediators of immune inflammatory response. Objectives To determine whether there is any relationship between periodontal disease and Rheumatoid arthritis. Methods A total of 100 patients were included for the present study which was divided into two groups: one group (cases) included 50 patients attending the Department of Orthopedics, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal who were diagnosed of Rheumatoid arthritis. Another subject population included 50 patients as controls attending the Department of Oral Medicine, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal with age and gender matched with those of rheumatoid arthritis group. Specific measures for periodontitis included plaque index, gingival index, number of missing teeth, and radiographic alveolar bone loss scores. Measures of rheumatoid arthritis included health assessment questionaires, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Various periodontal parameters were compared between the cases and controls. Results The average alveolar bone loss was statistically more severe in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) group than in the controls although there were similar plaque index in both the groups. The gingival index was statistically higher in the RA group. The Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and C- Reactive Protein (CRP) levels of RA patients were also significantly associated with the severity of periodontal disease. Conclusion There was a significant association between Rheumatoid arthritis and Periodontitis which may be due to a common underlying deregulation of the inflammatory response in these individuals.