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Rheumatology AND Dermatomyositis [keywords]
- Recent advances in juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Opin Rheumatol 2014 Aug 23.
Ongoing research continues to advance our understanding of the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIMs). We review the recent contributions from the published literature about the classification, pathogenesis, assessment, and treatment of JIIMs in basic and translational science and clinical research in 2013 through early 2014.Large registries, such as the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance registry, are conducting trials to enhance our understanding of JIIMs. Ultraviolet radiation exposure 1 month prior to juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) may trigger the onset of disease. Myositis-specific autoantibodies define clinical phenotypes in JIIMs. MRI is useful in diagnosing JDM and may be used as a disease assessment tool. Type 1 interferon genes and proteins are increasing in use as disease assessment tools, but larger, prospective, validation studies are needed. Moderate-to-intense physical activity is effective in increasing the aerobic capacity of JDM patients in remission. New criteria developed by the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization for classifying inactive disease in JDM have practical applicability to the current clinical practice and clinical trials as even after 16.8 years of symptom onset, over half of JDM patients still have active disease.There has been significant progress in understanding the clinical characteristics, diagnostic workup, treatment, disease assessment, and prognosis of JIIM patients, but more prospective treatment trials are needed, especially in light of the paucity of the current biologic treatment agents available.
- Increased Presence of FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells in Inflamed Muscle of Patients with Active Juvenile Dermatomyositis Compared to Peripheral Blood. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(8):e105353.
Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease affecting the microvasculature of skin and muscle. CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key regulators of immune homeostasis. A role for Tregs in JDM pathogenesis has not yet been established. Here, we explored Treg presence and function in peripheral blood and muscle of JDM patients. We analyzed number, phenotype and function of Tregs in blood from JDM patients by flow cytometry and in vitro suppression assays, in comparison to healthy controls and disease controls (Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy). Presence of Tregs in muscle was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Overall, Treg percentages in peripheral blood of JDM patients were similar compared to both control groups. Muscle biopsies of new onset JDM patients showed increased infiltration of numbers of T cells compared to Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. Both in JDM and Duchenne's muscular dystrophy the proportion of FOXP3+ T cells in muscles were increased compared to JDM peripheral blood. Interestingly, JDM is not a self-remitting disease, suggesting that the high proportion of Tregs in inflamed muscle do not suppress inflammation. In line with this, peripheral blood Tregs of active JDM patients were less capable of suppressing effector T cell activation in vitro, compared to Tregs of JDM in clinical remission. These data show a functional impairment of Tregs in a proportion of patients with active disease, and suggest a regulatory role for Tregs in JDM inflammation.
- PET scan image of chronic panniculitis mimicking extranodal lymphoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arthritis Rheumatol 2014 Aug 22.
A 26-year-old female patient was referred to the clinic with an erythematous, indurated plaque on the right temple. The skin lesion developed at the injection site of a therapeutic intervention for alopecia performed 2 years previously. She complained of symptoms that waxed and waned for several months. Visual inspection suggested an extranodal lymphoma primarily involving the skin. There were no other manifestations indicative of infection or malignancy. She underwent meticulous evaluation, including a positron emission tomography (PET) scan. The PET scan showed multifocal hot spots in the right temporal lesion as well as in bilateral cervical, supraclavicular, and axillary areas, which corresponded to fat tissue density in computed tomography images (Figure, red arrows). The biopsy specimen revealed lymphohistiocytic infiltration along the septa within subcutaneous adipose tissue, indicating panniculitis. Atypical lymphoid cells (CD8+ and CD56-) were rarely found and the Ki-67 index was low. There was no evidence of sarcoidosis, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic infection, or systemic autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma, dermatomyositis, or rheumatoid arthritis. Based on the histopathological findings and the indolent course, low-dose systemic corticosteroid and immunosuppressive agents were prescribed to control inflammation in the adipose tissue. After 3 months of treatment, the fatty tissue had contracted, suggesting the resolution of inflammation. Panniculitis is an inflammatory condition affecting adipose tissue; however, differential diagnoses include subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma. Thus, PET scans should be interpreted cautiously and in association with clinical and histopathological findings. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
- Prevalence and clinical significance of anti-MDA5 antibodies in European patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Rheumatol 2014 Aug 15.
Polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) is an autoimmune disease characterised by skin and muscle inflammation, internal organ involvement and serum disease-specific autoantibodies. The recently identified anti-MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5) antibodies are associated with clinically amyopathic DM (CADM), rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease, severe skin manifestations, and poor prognosis. Our objective was to examine the clinical significance of anti-MDA5 antibodies in a cohort of European Caucasian patients with PM/DM, considering that data on anti-MDA5 serology are limited to Asian and US cohorts.Sera from 76 consecutive adult Italian patients with PM/DM were analysed by immunoprecipitation (IP) of 35S-methionine radiolabelled HeLa and K562 cell extracts, ELISA using recombinant MDA5 protein and IP-Western Blot using rabbit anti-MDA5 antibodies. Clinical associations of anti-MDA5 antibody positive patients were analysed.Anti-MDA5 antibodies were identified in 5/76 (7%) PM/DM cases and all 5 cases were CADM; anti-MDA5 was the second most common autoantibody in DM after anti-MJ/NXP-2, found in 24% of cases. Compared to 29 anti-MDA5 (-) DM, anti-MDA5 (+) patients have more typical DM skin disease (digit pulp/periungual lesions, Gottron's papules, heliotrope rash) (p=ns). Interstitial lung disease was observed in 3/5 anti-MDA5 (+) patients but only 14% of anti-MDA5 (-) cases (p=0.048).Our study on European patients with PM/DM confirms that anti-MDA5 antibodies are not uncommon. All anti-MDA5 (+) cases are affected by CADM with typical skin disease, while rapidly progressive pulmonary involvement was diagnosed only in one case. Further studies in larger cohorts are necessary to define the clinical significance of anti-MDA5 antibodies in European PM/DM.
- Associations between TNF-α-308A/G Polymorphism and Susceptibility with Dermatomyositis: A Meta-Analysis. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(8):e102841.
Some surveys had inspected the effects of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-308A/G polymorphism on susceptibility to dermatomyositis (DM), and showed mixed results. To briefly review these consequences, a comprehensive meta-analysis was carried out to estimate the relationship between them much more accurately.Relevant documents dated to February 2014 were acquired from the PUBMED, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases. The number of the genotypes and/or alleles for the TNF-α-308A/G in the DM and control subjects was extracted and statistical analysis was conducted using STATA 11.2 software. Summary odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to calculate the risk of DM with TNF-α-308A/G. Stratified analysis based on ethnicity and control population source was also performed.555 patients with DM and 1005 controls from eight published investigations were finally involved in this meta-analysis. Combined analysis revealed that the overall ORs for the TNF-α-308A allele were 2.041 (95% CIs 1.528-2.725, P<0.0001) in DM. Stratification by ethnicity indicated the TNF-α-308A allele polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with DM in Europeans (OR = 1.977, 95% CI 1.413-2.765, P<0.0001). The only study conducted on TNF-α-308A/G polymorphism in Asians could not be used in ethnicity-stratified meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of the AA+AG vs. GG (dominant model) and AA vs. GG (additive model) of this polymorphism revealed a significant association with DM in overall populations and Europeans.Our meta-analysis demonstrated that the TNF-α-308A/G polymorphism in the TNF gene might contribute to DM susceptibility, especially in European population. However, further studies with large sample sizes and among different ethnicity populations should be required to verify the association.
- Unusual sequelae of adult-onset dermatomyositis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMJ Case Rep 2014.
A 44-year-old woman diagnosed with dermatomyositis 5 years ago based on progressive proximal muscle weakness, elevated creatine kinase, typical findings on electromyography and muscle biopsy. Despite the treatment, in contrast to improvement in her muscle symptoms, the heliotrope rash of her eyelids persisted. After several years, the patient developed multiple limited skin retraction lesions with hyperpigmentation on both lower limbs. Palpation of these lesions revealed dry, cold and very firm skin on both thighs and calves, particularly in the distal areas. X-ray and ultrasound imaging of the calves showed multiple subcutaneous calcifications in the distal muscles.
- Developing a provisional, international Minimal Dataset for Juvenile Dermatomyositis: for use in clinical practice to inform research. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2014.:31.
Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare but severe autoimmune inflammatory myositis of childhood. International collaboration is essential in order to undertake clinical trials, understand the disease and improve long-term outcome. The aim of this study was to propose from existing collaborative initiatives a preliminary minimal dataset for JDM. This will form the basis of the future development of an international consensus-approved minimum core dataset to be used both in clinical care and inform research, allowing integration of data between centres.A working group of internationally-representative JDM experts was formed to develop a provisional minimal dataset. Clinical and laboratory variables contained within current national and international collaborative databases of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies were scrutinised. Judgements were informed by published literature and a more detailed analysis of the Juvenile Dermatomyositis Cohort Biomarker Study and Repository, UK and Ireland.A provisional minimal JDM dataset has been produced, with an associated glossary of definitions. The provisional minimal dataset will request information at time of patient diagnosis and during on-going prospective follow up. At time of patient diagnosis, information will be requested on patient demographics, diagnostic criteria and treatments given prior to diagnosis. During on-going prospective follow-up, variables will include the presence of active muscle or skin disease, major organ involvement or constitutional symptoms, investigations, treatment, physician global assessments and patient reported outcome measures.An internationally agreed minimal dataset has the potential to significantly enhance collaboration, allow effective communication between groups, provide a minimal standard of care and enable analysis of the largest possible number of JDM patients to provide a greater understanding of this disease. This preliminary dataset can now be developed into a consensus-approved minimum core dataset and tested in a wider setting with the aim of achieving international agreement.
- Osteoporosis and rheumatic diseases. [Journal Article]
- Reumatismo 2014; 66(2):125-35.
Numerous rheumatic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis and vasculitis are characterized by osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Inflammatory cytokines, glucocorticoid treatment, immobilization and reduced physical activity due to painful joints and muscle weakness are considered the main risk factors that cause low body mass density values in these diseases. Emerging evidence highlights the role of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-7 and IL-17, in the regulation of the bone homeostasis. In fact, chronic inflammation is often characterized by an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption with a net prevalence of osteoclastogenesis, which is an important determinant of bone loss in rheumatic diseases.
- Incidence and predictive factors for malignancies with dermatomyositis: a cohort from southern China. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Rheumatol 2014 Jul 28.
We aimed to explore the incidence of malignancy in dermatomyositis and assess the potential risk factors of occurrence of malignancy in DM from southern China.A retrospective cohort study of patients admitted in the 1st affiliated university hospital between 2003 and 2012 was performed. Demographic information, clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, medications were documented. The endpoint of the study was defined as occurrence of malignancy or death.For this approximately 10-year retrospective study, 60 out of 246 dermatomyositis patients developed malignancies with the overall incidence of 24.4%. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and ovarian carcinoma were the most common malignant disease, accounting for 35% (21/60) and 15% (9/60) of malignancies, respectively. Lung and colon were followed as the third most common carcinoma (5 out of 60, 8.3%). Among these 60 patients with malignancies, 39 (65.0%, 39/60) cases occurred within 1 year after DM diagnosis. Subsequently, malignancies were detected in 13 (21.7%, 13/60) patients during the second year and 8 (13.3%, 8/60) during the third year. One patient developed cancer at the 35th month after DM as the latest. The logistic regression multivariate analysis indicated that male gender [odds ratio (OR) = 3.76, 95% confidence interval (CI ) 1.86~7.61, p<0.01], dysphagia (OR= 2.21, 95%CI 1.10~4.48, p=0.03) and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (OR= 2.37, 95% CI 1.18~4.75, p=0.02) were risk factors for the occurrence of malignancies, while interstitial lung disease (ILD) acted as a protective factor (OR=0.13, 95%CI 0.06~0.28, p<0.01).It was necessary to carry out routine malignancy screening for Chinese DM patients due to its high incidence. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma and ovarian cancer were the most common malignant disease. The risk of malignancy was highest in the first year after DM diagnosis and reduced thereafter. Extensive work-ups for malignancy screening should be carried out at the first year. Male gender, dysphagia and elevated ESR were risk factors for occurrence of malignancy. The presence of ILD could diminish the risk of coexisting of malignancy.
- Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory myopathies: a systematic review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rheumatology (Oxford) 2014 Jul 26.
. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and prevalence of inflammatory myopathies (IMs), their epidemiological tendencies over time and their possible key determinants.. All original articles in English or French regarding the prevalence and/or incidence of IMs were searched. The methods of case ascertainment, epidemiological analysis and diagnostic criteria were systematically analysed.. Forty-six articles published between 1966 and 2013 were found in which the incidence of IMs as a whole ranged from 1.16 to 19/million/year and their prevalence ranged from 2.4 to 33.8 per 100 000 inhabitants. Methodological heterogeneities limited comparisons, although certain epidemiological tendencies were highlighted. The relative incidence of DM may follow a latitudinal gradient in the northern hemisphere that may be explained by the immunomodulatory action of ultraviolet radiation. The prevalence of sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) was correlated with the frequency of HLA-DR3. Juvenile myositis onset was non-random over seasons and/or time, consistent with a role of infectious diseases, although other environmental factors may be involved. Disparities according to sex, age and geographical origin were also found. The frequency of IM increased over time, which may reflect progress in diagnostic performance, although there is still a need to increase the level of awareness with regard to these diseases, especially sIBM, as attested by its considerably delayed diagnosis.. This first systematic literature review confirms the rarity of IM and may highlight certain genetic and environmental determinants of IM. There is a need for uniformity in diagnostic and classification criteria as well as more exhaustive case ascertainment to refine IM epidemiology.