Rheumatology AND Dermatomyositis [keywords]
- HMGB1 May Be a Biomarker for Predicting the Outcome in Patients with Polymyositis /Dermatomyositis with Interstitial Lung Disease. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(8):e0161436.
To investigate the significance of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels in polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) patients with interstitial lung disease and whether HMGB1 levels could predict disease outcome.HMGB1 levels were measured in sera from 34 patients with PM/DM and from 34 healthy controls by ELISA.Significantly higher serum levels of HMGB1 were found in patients with PM [12.75 ng/ml (4.34-25.07 ng/ml), p < 0.001] and DM [20.75 ng/ml (3.80-124.88 ng/ml), p < 0.001] than in healthy controls [5.64 ng/ml (2.71-8.71 ng/ml)]. Importantly, the average HMGB1 level in PM/DM patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) was 25.84 ng/ml, which is significantly higher than that in PM/DM patients without ILD [12.68 ng/ml] (p < 0.05). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the serum HMGB1 cutoff value that best discriminated PM/DM patients with ILD from those without ILD was 14.5ng/ml. The area under the curve was 0.87±0.05, and the 95% Confidence interval (CI) was 0.77-0.98. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this serum HMGB1 cutoff level was 84.6% and 89% respectively. Patients with higher levels of HMGB1 expression had lower overall survival rates and disease-free survival rates, whereas patients with lower levels of HMGB1 expression had higher survival rates.Multivariate analysis showed that HMGB1 expression is a prognostic indicator for patient survival. These data support the notion that HMGB1 overexpression is involved in PM/DM progression for patients with ILD and is relative to its poor clinical outcomes.
- The immunoproteasomes are key to regulate myokines and MHC class I expression in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Autoimmun 2016 Aug 10.
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are diseases with muscle weakness, morphologically characterized by inflammatory infiltration and increased expression of MHC class I molecule on myofibers. Immunoproteasome, as a proteolytic complex that shapes the repertoire of antigenic peptides, has been previously demonstrated to be over-expressed in IIMs at mRNA level. In this study, we investigated the expression and the function of the immunoproteasome in IIMs in more detail. As shown by immunofluorescence staining, expression of relevant players of the immunoproteasome was detectable in the inflamed skeletal muscle tissue from IIM patients. In fact, two subunits of the immunoproteasome, β1i or β5i were upregulated in sporadic inclusion body myositis, immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies and dermatomyositis muscle biopsies and co-localized with the MHC class I expressing myofibers. Double immunofluorescence revealed that both myofibers and muscle infiltrating cells, including CD8(+) T-cells and CD68 (+) macrophages in IIMs expressed β1i or β5i. In addition, we have also investigated the role of the immunoproteasome in myoblasts during in vitro inflammatory conditions. Using human primary myoblasts cultures we found that pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α or IFN-γ upregulate β1i or β5i. Selective inhibition or depletion of β5i amplified the TNF-α or IFN-γ mediated expression of cytokines/chemokines (myokines) in myoblasts. Furthermore, we demonstrated that specific inhibitors of β1i or β5i reduced the cell surface expression of MHC class I in myoblasts induced by IFN-γ. Taken together, our data suggest that the immunoproteasome is involved in pathologic MHC class I expression and maintenance of myokine production in IIMs. Thus, induction of the immunoproteasome was identified as a pathomechanism underlying inflammation in IIMs.
- The Use of Cyclosporine A in Rheumatology: a 2016 Comprehensive Review. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2016 Aug 11.
Cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of calcineurin, exerts an immunomodulator action interfering with T cell activation. Even though novel therapeutic tools have emerged, CyA still represents a suitable option in several clinical rheumatology settings. This is the case of refractory nephritis and cytopenias associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Furthermore, CyA is a valued therapeutic tool in the management of uveitis and thrombophlebitis in course of Behçet's disease. Topical CyA has been proven to be beneficial in the dry eye of Sjogren's syndrome, whereas oral treatment with CyA can be considered for the severe complications of adult onset Still's disease. CyA provides a therapeutic option in psoriatic arthritis, being rather effective in skin disease. CyA is currently regarded as a second-line option for patients with inflammatory myopathies refractory to standard regimen. CyA is used even in paediatric rheumatology, in particular in the management of juvenile dermatomyositis and macrophage activation syndrome associated with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Importantly, CyA has been shown to suppress the replication of HCV, and it can thus be safely prescribed to those patients with chronic hepatitis C. Noteworthy, CyA can be administered throughout the gestation course. Surely, caution should be paid to CyA safety profile, in particular to its nephrotoxicity. Even though most evidence comes from small and uncontrolled studies with few randomised controlled trials, CyA should be still regarded as a valid therapeutic tool in 2016 rheumatology.
- Consensus-based recommendations for the management of juvenile dermatomyositis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2016 Aug 11.
In 2012, a European initiative called Single Hub and Access point for pediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) was launched to optimise and disseminate diagnostic and management regimens in Europe for children and young adults with rheumatic diseases. Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare disease within the group of paediatric rheumatic diseases (PRDs) and can lead to significant morbidity. Evidence-based guidelines are sparse and management is mostly based on physicians' experience. Consequently, treatment regimens differ throughout Europe.To provide recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of JDM.Recommendations were developed by an evidence-informed consensus process using the European League Against Rheumatism standard operating procedures. A committee was constituted, consisting of 19 experienced paediatric rheumatologists and 2 experts in paediatric exercise physiology and physical therapy, mainly from Europe. Recommendations derived from a validated systematic literature review were evaluated by an online survey and subsequently discussed at two consensus meetings using nominal group technique. Recommendations were accepted if >80% agreement was reached.In total, 7 overarching principles, 33 recommendations on diagnosis and 19 recommendations on therapy were accepted with >80% agreement among experts. Topics covered include assessment of skin, muscle and major organ involvement and suggested treatment pathways.The SHARE initiative aims to identify best practices for treatment of patients suffering from PRD. Within this remit, recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of JDM have been formulated by an evidence-informed consensus process to produce a standard of care for patients with JDM throughout Europe.
- Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art - part one. [Journal Article, Review]
- Reumatologia 2016; 54(3):122-7.
The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of previously diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors.
- The clinical utility of serum IL-35 in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Rheumatol 2016 Aug 8.
The objectives of this study are to assess the levels of serum Interleukin-35 (IL-35) in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) and to evaluate the association between IL-35 levels and IIM-related features. Serum IL-35 was detected in 76 patients with dermatomyositis (DM), 28 patients with polymyositis (PM), 98 disease controls (40 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 34 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 12 systemic sclerosis (SSc), and 12 sjogren syndrome (SS)), and 43 healthy controls by ELISA. Follow-up was conducted on 34 patients. Serum IL-35 was higher in myositis (PM/DM) patients than in healthy controls (median 76.6 pg/ml [interquartile range (IQR) 57.9-136.2] vs. 29.9 pg/ml (IQR 21.9-65.5), P < 0.001) and disease controls. Serum IL-35 in IIM patients negatively correlated with disease duration moderately (r = -0.35, P < 0.01). Patients with dysphagia had higher IL-35 than those without (median149.35 pg/ml (IQR 87.97-267.32) vs. 70.72 pg/ml (IQR 54.49-123.42), P = 0.001). Cross-sectional correlation analysis showed a weak positive correlation between serum IL-35 and CK (r = 0.293, P = 0.003), moderate positive correlation with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r = 0.304, P = 0.002), serum ferritin (SF) (r = 0.467, P = 0.001) and LDH levels (r = 0.401, P < 0.001). Additionally, serum IL-35 was higher in patients who were positive for anti-HMGCR (median 292.04 pg/ml (IQR 67.9-442.86) vs. 74.66 pg/ml (IQR 57.24-131.32), P = 0.038) and anti-SRP antibody (median 130.33 pg/ml (IQR 88.04-481.28) vs. 73.06 pg/ml (IQR 56.78-134.28), P = 0.009) than in negative patients, respectively. Follow-up study showed that changes in IL-35 levels after treatment correlated with changes in MYOACT scores moderately (r = 0.375, P = 0.029). These data indicate that increased serum IL-35 could act as a disease activity marker and as a risk factor for esophageal involvement in IIM. IL-35 may participate in the pathophysiological processes of IIM, but it still needs further study to confirm.
- Dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells is associated with the type I IFN pathway in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rheumatology (Oxford) 2016 Aug 7.
Alterations in phenotype and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been associated with poor vascular outcomes and impaired vascular repair in various conditions. Our hypothesis was that patients with PM and DM have dysregulation of EPCs driven by type I IFN and IL-18 similar to other autoimmune diseases.Quantification of circulating EPCs was performed by flow cytometry in patients with PM/DM and matched healthy controls. The ability of EPCs to differentiate into mature endothelial cells was investigated by light and fluorescence microscopy quantification in the presence or absence of PM/DM or control serum, neutralizing antibodies to type I IFN receptor or IL-18. Serum type I IFN activity was quantified by induction of type I IFN-inducible genes in HeLa cells. Circulating IL-18 concentrations were assessed by ELISA.Circulating EPCs were significantly lower in PM/DM patients compared with controls. PM/DM EPCs displayed a decreased capacity to differentiate into mature endothelial cells and PM/DM serum significantly inhibited differentiation of control EPCs. This effect was reversed in the majority of samples with neutralizing antibodies to IL-18 or to type I IFN receptor or by a combination of these antibodies. Patients with associated impairments in EPC function had higher type I IFN serum activity.PM/DM is associated with dysregulation of EPC phenotype and function that may be attributed, at least in part, to aberrant IL-18 and type I IFN pathways. The implication of these vasculopathic findings for disease prognosis and complications remains to be determined.
- Why do patients with myositis die? A retrospective analysis of a single-centre cohort. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Rheumatol 2016 Aug 2.
Causes of death in inflammatory myopathies have rarely been studied. We have assessed a cohort of myositis patients followed in a single centre over a 37-year period, reviewing the mortality rate, causes of death and predictors of poor prognosis.We performed a single-centre, retrospective study on patients aged ≥16 years fulfilling 3 or 4 of the Bohan and Peter criteria, noting their demographic data, clinical features, serology, treatment and outcome.Of 97 patients identified, 74.2% were female. The mean age at diagnosis was 40.5 years (SD 13.2). 38.1% had adult-onset dermatomyositis, 36.1% adult-onset polymyositis and 25.8% overlap myositis. 96.9% had upper and lower limb involvement (UL+/LL+) and 62.9% had a highest CK≥10 times the upper limit of normal. 33% had significant infection(s). The disease course was chronic persistent in 29.9%, relapsing and remitting in 34% and monophasic in 36.1%. All received steroids and 92.8% other immunosuppressant(s). The median follow-up was 9 years (IQR 11.5). The estimated cumulative proportion survival at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years were 94.6%, 82.2%, 72,1% and 66.1%, respectively. 24.7% of patients died, mostly due to infection (29.2%). In univariate analysis, lung involvement (HR 1.78, p=0.013), infection (HR 4.18, p=0.003) and UL+/LL+ (HR 0.13, p=0.010) were statistically significantly associated with the risk of death. In the multivariate analysis infection (HR 3.68, p=0.009) and UL+/LL+ (HR 0.16, p=0.027) were statistically significantly associated with survival.A good long-term survival is reported. Nevertheless, careful follow-up of myositis patients is important.
- Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia preceding diagnosis of collagen vascular disease. [Journal Article]
- Respir Med 2016 Aug.:40-7.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical features of patients who developed collagen vascular disease (CVD) after an initial diagnosis of idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP).We conducted a retrospective review of 72 consecutive patients with NSIP who were diagnosed by surgical lung biopsy in our institution (idiopathic NSIP, n = 35; CVD-NSIP, n = 37 at initial diagnosis). No patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for a diagnosis with CVD within six months after the diagnosis of idiopathic NSIP.Of 35 patients initially diagnosed with idiopathic NSIP, six patients (17.1%) developed CVD during the follow-up period (5.5 ± 5.0 years); three patients were diagnosed with dermatomyositis (DM), two patients with overlap syndrome (DM and Sjogren's syndrome), and one patient with rheumatoid arthritis. The mean time until CVD diagnosis was 2.0 years (six months - 3.5 years), and the one-, two- and three-year incidences of CVD development were 3.6%, 15.2% and 20.0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in clinical characteristics and survival among patients with NSIP preceding CVD diagnosis, those with idiopathic NSIP, or those with CVD-NSIP. In addition, at the time of initial diagnosis, there was no significant difference for the fulfillment of previous criteria such as interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune feature (IPAF) between patients with NSIP preceding CVD diagnosis and those with idiopathic NSIP.It is difficult to predict CVD occurrence and careful attention is needed to detect the development of CVD in patients with idiopathic NSIP.
- High Prevalence of Acute Exacerbation of Interstitial Lung Disease in Japanese Patients with Systemic Sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- Tohoku J Exp Med 2016; 239(4):297-305.
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by extensive fibrosis and autoantibodies. Its clinical manifestations are diverse and include Raynaud's phenomenon, gastrointestinal dysmotility, interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary hypertension, and renal crisis. Among these, ILD is the primary cause of SSc-related death. It has been considered that acute exacerbation of ILD (AE-ILD) is not common in patients with SSc; however, little is known about the prevalence of AE-ILD in Japanese patients with SSc. In this study, we aimed to clarify the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of patients with SSc who developed AE-ILD and to identify predictive factors for AE-ILD in our Japanese cohorts. Clinical data of patients who visited our department from 1990 to 2014 and fulfilled the 2013 classification criteria for SSc were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 139 patients were enrolled. The mean age of onset was 49.1 years, and 113 (81.3%) patients were female; 116 (83.5%) had limited cutaneous involvement, and the overall 10-year survival rate was 92.0%. Among 66 (47.5%) patients with ILD, 13 (9.4%) developed AE-ILD. Patients with AE-ILD had a significantly higher incidence of overlap with polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM) and lower prevalence of anticentromere antibodies with higher mortality rate compared with those without AE-ILD. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified that an overlap with PM or DM was the most significant predictive factor for AE-ILD. Our study results suggest that Japanese patients with SSc, particularly patients overlapped with PM or DM, have a high risk of AE-ILD.