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Rheumatology AND Neurogenic arthropathy Charcot's joint [keywords]
- Role of neuropathy on fracture healing in Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2010 Mar; 10(1):84-91.
Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy (CNO) is a devastating condition affecting most commonly the foot/ankle joint in diabetic patients and may lead to severe deformities and amputation. Peripheral sensory neuropathy seems to be a pre-requisite to the development of CNO. The aim of this review article is to summarise the skeletal effects of the nervous system on bone remodelling and fracture healing of normal and damaged joints and to describe how neuropathy, in the context of modern concept of neuro-osteopathology, is crucial in the predisposition of the patient to develop acute CNO.
- Unilateral developments of osteoarthritis and Charcot's joint in a patient with neurofibromatosis. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Med Sci Monit 2009 Jul; 15(7):CS113-6.
Precise mechanism of developing neuropathic arthropathy known as Charcot's joint is not fully understood.A 55-year-old Japanese woman with neurofibromatosis-1 complained of right gonalgia in December 2001. Physical examination revealed a huge tumor in the right lower leg without signs of inflammation. Laboratory findings were unremarkable. Radiographic examination disclosed the presence of osteoarthropathy in the right knee joint. In contrast, radiologic findings of the right foot and ankle were compatible with neuropathic arthropathy. Further investigations could not reveal abnormal findings in the nervous system. To improve patient's quality of life, partial resection of the tumor was performed. The resected tissues were compatible with neurofibromatosis without malignant transformation. The patient newly noticed pains in the right ankle and tarsal joints one year after the operation. Restricted mobility and insufficient blood supply in the right knee arising from the huge tumor might accelerate development of osteoarthropathy through malnutrition of the chondrocytes. Because the patient did not experience the arthralgia before the operation, the tumor might damage the peripheral nerves unabling to receive afferent signals from such joints resulting in neuropathic arthropathy.The damaged peripheral nerves might be contributory to developing or accelerating neuropathic arthropathy.
- Charcot's arthropathy secondary to herpetic encephalitis sequelae: an unusual presentation. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Rheumatol Int 2010 May; 30(7):973-5.
Neuropathic arthropathy (Charcot's arthropathy) is a progressive articular disease associated with a reduced sensorial and protector proprioceptive reflex. Its etiology includes many different conditions such as syringomyelia, traumatic lesion causing medullary deformity, spina bifida, diabetic neuropathy, leprosy neuropathy, neurofibromatosis, amyloid neuropathy, alcohol, and repetitive injection of hydrocortisone into joints, among others. However, the relationship between Charcot's arthropathy and herpetic encephalitis has not yet been described. Herpes encephalitis causes acute and chronic diseases of the peripheral or central nervous system. It can manifest as subacute encephalitis, recurrent meningitis, or myelitis. It can also resemble psychiatric syndromes, diplopia, sensory changes in the face and limbs, personality changes, frontal dysexecutive syndrome, stiff neck, subclinical alterations of the vestibular function, intracranial hypertension, convulsion, hemiparesis, and generally includes motor components, among others. On the other hand, pure peripheral sensory disturbance has not been described. In this article, we report the clinical case of a patient with Charcot's arthropathy secondary to pure peripheral sensory polyneuropathy as a consequence of progressive herpetic encephalitis sequelae. In this article, the authors report the first case of Charcot's arthropathy secondary to herpetic encephalitis.
- Acute Charcot arthropathy successfully treated with pamidronate: long-term follow-up. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Am J Med Sci 2008 Feb; 335(2):145-8.
Charcot arthropathy is a relatively rare complication of diabetic neuropathy that may lead to significant discomfort, deformity, and disability, including severe function loss and limb amputation. Initial diagnosis of Charcot arthropathy is often delayed for several weeks, and it is compounded by the lack of specific clinical and laboratory diagnostic parameters. Increasing understanding of the underlying pathogenic events provide strong support for an important role for osteoclastic activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has led to the successful use of bisphosphonates in patients with acute presentation. Herein we report 3 patients with active (acute) Charcot arthropathy secondary to diabetic neuropathy that exhibited an excellent long-term clinical response to intravenous pamidronate therapy.
- Erosive arthropathy in systemic sclerosis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMC Public Health 2007.:260.
To determine radiological features of arthropathy in systemic sclerosis patients with polyarthritis.Forty one women and 5 men were included in this study. The mean age was 41 + 14,2 years, the mean duration of disease was 10,5+ 6,5 years. Thirty seven patients (80%) had radiological abnormalities including joint space narrowing (37%) and erosions (43%). At presentation, the prevalence of radiological foot abnormalities was lower than that of hands (26% vs 79%, p < 0,001). There was no significant difference between patients with (n = 24) and without erosive arthropathy (Joint space narrowing and/or erosion) (n = 22) in terms of cutaneous subtype, organ involvement, calcinosis presence of rheumatoid factor, ANA, Anti-topoisomerase antibodies.This study showed an high frequency of erosive arthropathy in our Morroccan SSc patients with clinical synovitis.
- Nonoperative treatment of neuro-osteoarthropathy of the foot: do we need new criteria? [Journal Article, Review]
- Clin Podiatr Med Surg 2007 Jul; 24(3):483-503, ix.
The worst manifestation of neuro-osteoarthropathy of the pain-insensitive foot is the Charcot foot with its devastating osteoarticular destructions and irreversible deformities. New diagnostic tools such as MRI have revealed that mechanical injury and overuse is the origin of the condition. Traditionally, only feet with bone and joint damage apparent on plain radiographs (fracture and dislocation injuries) have undergone nonoperative treatment with off-loading and immobilization; however, treating painless, seemingly asymptomatic nonfracture injuries (bone bruise or bone marrow edema) with off-loading and immobilization has proven highly effective in preventing the Charcot foot. Whether pharmaceutical treatment has a role in terms of prevention or healing of osteoarticular destructions remains to be demonstrated.
- Neurogenic osteoarthropathy in leprosy. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Clin Rheumatol 2007 Dec; 26(12):2153-5.
According to World Health Organization (WHO), the global registered prevalence of leprosy at the beginning of 2006 stood at 219,826 cases. Pockets of high endemicity still remain in some areas of Africa, India, and Brazil. One of the joint manifestations of leprosy are the signs of Charcot's disease. Charcot's disease of leprosy advanced in spite of the treatment. The different clinical types are sometimes a problem in diagnosis. We report herein two cases.
- Charcot foot in diabetes: farewell to the neurotrophic theory. [Journal Article, Review]
- Horm Metab Res 2006 Jun; 38(6):361-7.
Neuropathic osteoarthropathy is characterised by relatively painless swelling together with extensive damage in bones and joints, predominantly in the feet and ankles. The uncontrolled natural course of the condition leads to gross foot deformity, skin pressure ulceration, spreading infections, and sometimes amputation. Jean-Martin Charcot in 1883 described "Charcot foot" named after him in patients with tabes dorsalis insensitivity. Charcot believed that intrinsic bone weakness was the underlying condition, and was caused by neurogenic deficiencies in bone nutrition. His followers believed such dystrophy to be mediated by sympathetic denervation of the bone vasculature (neurotrophic, or neurovascular theory). Attempts to prove this theory were futile. A neurogenic circulatory disorder potentially relevant to bone nutrition could not be identified. Nowadays, Charcot foot is mostly seen in diabetic neuropathy, which has replaced syphilis as a frequent cause of peripheral nerve dysfunction. Recent studies in the diabetic Charcot foot and bone turnover indicate that the neurotrophic theory is a myth. The assumption of bone resorption due to sympathetic denervation proved to be false--sympathetic activity increases osteoclastic activity and thereby bone loss (sympathomimetic bone resorption). Except for the transient, inflammatory stage of the diabetic Charcot foot, there is no evidence of relevant osteoporosis or demineralisation of the foot skeleton in diabetes.
- Charcot-like arthropathy: A newly-recognized subset of psoriatic arthritis. [Journal Article]
- Clin Exp Rheumatol 2006 Mar-Apr; 24(2):172-5.
The aim of the study is to describe a group of patients with a highly destructive and asymptomatic form of psoriatic arthritis, mimicking a Charcot-like joint disease.We studied 180 patients with psoriatic arthritis and identified 4 patients with arthritis mutilans mimicking a Charcot-like joint disease. Clinical history, physical exam, and immunological testing were performed as well as X-ray of affected joints. Synovial membrane and sural nerve biopsies were performed and diagnosis of psoriasis was confirmed by skin biopsy.Four patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans according to Moll and Wright classification criteria (1) and Charcot-like joint disease were identified and evaluated. There were 2 males and 2 females, all Caucasians. The mean age +/- SD was 57.8 +/- 14.2 years. Mean arthritis duration +/- SD was 6 +/- 4.6 years and mean cutaneous duration +/- SD was 13 +/- 10.4 years. All patients had polyarthritis and a sudden onset of bilateral, painless, and highly destructive arthropathy involving large, non-weight bearing (elbows) and weight bearing (knees), and also small joint of hands and feet. Synovial membrane biopsy showed findings similar to those found in Charcot joint disease, including ischemic neuropathy.A newly-recognized subset of patients with psoriatic arthritis and Charcot-like joint disease according to clinical, radiographic and histological features is described. The proposed neurovascular theory may explain the pathogenesis of this presentation.
- Tabetic arthropathy. A report of 43 cases. [Journal Article]
- Clin Rheumatol 2006 Nov; 25(6):858-60.
Destructive tabetic arthropathy (TA) has become rare in the course of syphilis because of early diagnosis and treatment. TA is difficult to manage because of the severity of the handicap and the absence of a specific treatment. We describe the clinical, biological, and radiological characteristics of TA. In this paper, we performed a retrospective study of 24 patients with TA from 1983 to 2003. Inclusion criteria were typical radiological findings and positive syphilitic serology in blood and/or synovial fluid and/or cerebrospinal fluid. Included in the study were 15 men and 9 women, their mean age was 53.71+/-12.25 years, and the delay of diagnosis was 36.83+/-53.03 months. Thirteen patients (54.2%) had a known primary syphilitis. In the studied cases, 43 of the patients' joints were involved, which concerned knees, hips, the spine, and ankles in 91.66, 8.33, 8.33, and 4.16% of cases, respectively. TA was bilateral in 62.5% and multifocal in 8.3%. The neurological exam found signs suggesting tabes dorsalis in seven cases. The osteoarticular exam showed an abnormal range of mobility (n=25), hydarthrosis, and articular deformation (n=17). Syphilitic serology tests were positive in synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood in 12 (50%), 8 (33.33%), and 24 (100%) cases, respectively. Radiological exam showed atrophic and hypertrophic forms. The frequency and severity of TA in our study may be explained by the frequency of atypical forms of syphilitis and the absence of penicillin in Morocco in the 1950s.